The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

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Is there a particular state of performing a specific activity? [on hold]

This question is based on some of my own human activity, but lack of neurological and psychological knowledge, I am not able to deeply answer it. We rise by lifting others - Robert Ingersoll ...
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1answer
47 views

How does the brain know what to remember and what not?

People remember some information for example when learning for an exam, or remember to go to a shop after work etc., but we don't remember usually much other stuff like people passing us, what was the ...
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42 views

Why do electrophoresis gel boxes only have 1d wire electrodes and not a 2d 'mesh' as used in clarity?

Since the DNA and protein are electrophoresed in a 2D plane (along one dimension, the length of the gel), I am surprised that a 1D wire electrode is used for anode and cathode, and not a 2D mesh-like ...
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41 views

What happens to the human brain when unconscious?

What part of the brain gets affected and does it harm the brain? Thank you I just needed some extra info for a video I'm making.
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30 views

What information do bipolar cells encode?

Short version: I don't see what information on-centre bipolar cells are actually capturing. Longer: Actually, the question could be extended to on-centre retinal cells as well, but I'll focus on ...
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1answer
18 views

Voltage sensitive dyes technique: What is the underlying measure?

I just discovered voltage sensitive dyes technique: first of all what imaging techniques do we use? And I have seen that figures are labeled with ΔF/F0, what does it stands for?
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5 views

If I think of a checkerboard, is there a similar structure to see in my visual cortex? [migrated]

When I´m imagining a checkerboard in my mind, can one find, with all kinds of fancy equipment, a corresponding figure in the area of my visual cortex? For example, the neurons firing in such a way as ...
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4answers
1k views

Is it possible to feel pain in some part of a body, but the pain “feeling” is introduced somewhere else?

Is it possible to feel pain in some part of a body, but that the cause of the pain is situated elsewhere in the body? For example, somebody feels pain in his toe, but it turns out that this pain is ...
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27 views

Where to go next with clustered C elegans neuronal time series

I'm doing some independent research with the C Elegans nervous system (with the OpenWorm project) and was looking for some guidance as to where I should go next. Right now, I'm dealing with calcium ...
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28 views

Do ion channels block at these temperatures?

I found this paper and it says nerve axons cold block at temperatures near 0C. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1113/jphysiol.1968.sp008656/pdf Does this mean ion channels also block (due to ...
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2answers
56 views

Does the creation of memory involve mRNAs crossing the synaptic gap?

There is a diagram from a book titled "Teaching with the brain in mind". The diagram shows The diagram appears to show that the "creation of memory" involves "messages coded by RNA" moving through ...
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1answer
55 views

How can neurons divide without centrioles?

I have read in my studies that neurons lack centrioles. If that is so, then how is it possible that new neurons are added to our brain? Does this have anything to do with memory loss?
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19 views

How much yogurt would one have to consume to have a noticeable effect on neurotransmitters [closed]

I read several recent articles that proposed a link between bacteria in our gut and neurotransmitters in our brain. For instance http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24997036/ I am curious how much ...
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0answers
16 views

Why do fishes have both a gustatory and an olfactory system?

I would like to know if there is a know reason for which fishes (and many aquatic species) have both an olfactory and a gustatory system. As far as I know, in all fish species the chemoreceptors, ...
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1answer
22 views

Analysing the ERP (Event-Related Potential from EEG recordings) in terms of the P-300 wave

I am trying to understand how to analyze ERP (Event-Related Potentials) from EEG recordings in focus on P-300 waves. I have come up with a few questions which I hope you might be able to help with: ...
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1answer
32 views

Why is active transport needed in repolarization?

During the repolarization phase of an action potential, the potassium ions diffuse out of the cell, and active transport begins. What I do not understand is why active transport is needed when the ...
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1answer
89 views

How does the synaptic cleft exist?

I'm not asking why the synaptic cleft exists, i.e. what function it holds, rather how. So I know that the neurotransmitter diffuses across it, it is 20-40 nm wide and contains basal lamina (in NMJs at ...
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1answer
86 views

Has the human body the greatest total length of nerves of all animals?

I've read that a human body contains about 150,000-180,000 km (Pakkenberg et al., 1997; 2003) of nerve wiring in the whole body. But does this length increase with the size of the animal? For example, ...
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13 views

Real unipolar neurons do indeed exist in human?

I studied that the unipolar neuron in human body are not really unipolar but they're pseoudounipolar neurons. On the other hand according to what I understood from wikipedia (neuron) there are real ...
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2answers
41 views

At what age does the mouse skull stop growing?

Unless otherwise mandated, neuroscientific research on mice is done with ~7-week old animals. There is a sort-of mantra that at this age their skulls stop growing. However, recently, I noticed a ...
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3answers
101 views

what is meta-sympathetic nervous system?

I always knew about the sympathetic and para-sympathetic nervous systems, and today I was told about the meta-sympathetic nervous system, but I didn't understand well the man who told me about it and ...
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2answers
101 views

Does caffeine actually enhance cognition?

I have heard, respectively: Caffeine measurably enhances cognitive function. Caffeine does not measurably enhance cognitive function in any significant way. Caffeine enhances cognitive function, but ...
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1answer
91 views

Can multiple overt/covert intentions produce identical EEG readings?

With sophisticated techniques likes ERP, it is possible to correlate certain EEG activity with certain overt/covert actions. What I'm wondering is: is there a risk for 2+ overt/covert actions ...
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69 views

Original paper about the all or none law for neurons

I am looking for the original paper about the all or none law for neural activity. I know that there is a very old article about the all or none law for mammalian heart muscle fibers, but I'm ...
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1answer
87 views

What determines whether a substance can diffuse across the blood-brain-barrier?

What determines whether a chemical substance is able to cross the blood-brain-barrier via passive, transmembrane diffusion? What structurally differentiates these chemicals?
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30 views

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on science fair [closed]

My friends and I would love to make a TMS machine and apply it to make famous "god helmet". We know that magnetic stimulation may cause visions of angels, gods etc. My question is: what are the ...
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17 views

Pearson correlation of neural responses with it's linear estimation

I am trying to anderstand the following fact from this article (page 13): How can single neurons predict behavior Suppose I have a linear estimation of a stimulus: $ \hat{s} = \mathbf{w}^T(\mathbf{r} ...
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1answer
44 views

How long does a spiking signal last?

It is surprisingly hard to find information about the timing of neurons, in particular how long an action potential can contribute to the summation of a neuron. Is it on the order of milliseconds or ...
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35 views

Why are oral cells (or tissues) more heat resistant? [closed]

When we are having meals, such as enjoying hot pot and drinking hot water, we only have a sense of "warm" in our mouth, or even along the organs in alimentary canal. But when we put our fingers into ...
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2answers
51 views

What is synaptic clearance?

Please explain what the term synaptic clearance means. For example, what would dopamine synaptic clearance be? It is important to me in context of dopamine signaling variation due to difference in ...
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1answer
84 views

What is the direction of current flow in myelinated nerve cells?

Is it correct to say electric current flows through the extracellular space, or cytosol of a nerve fiber during impulse conduction? I know that an impulse is actually a change of membrane potential ...
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2answers
82 views

How does valerian make you calmer?

Why do Valerian pills make us calmer? What is the mechanism behind it? I understand how artificial tranquilizers work. Do valerian pill have similar chemical components?
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1answer
123 views

Can the dendrites of sensory neurons be a meter long?

The typical textbook structure of neurons is a cell with a short dendritic tree and a long axon. The dendrites receive information and send it to the axon via the cell body (soma). The axon is a long ...
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39 views

How are physiological reversal potentials (or ion concentrations) of neurons measured?

Patch clamp electrophysiology experiments typically use an intracellular solution that mimics the ionic concentrations of neuronal cytosol. At the same time, the extracellular solution is meant to ...
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1answer
40 views

Why do typical acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (like carbamates) have a greater parasympathetic effect than a sympathetic effect?

I understand that the post-ganglionic neurones of the sympathetic system are adrenergic, but surely these neurones will be excited to the same extent as the parasympathetic post-ganglionic neurones ...
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32 views

What is an extinction test?

In Stolerman & Olufsen (2001) I read the sentence: After drug-appropriate responding with the training mixtures reached 85%, generalisation to ethanol was examined in extinction tests. ...
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14 views

How do the connections from V1 to V2 form during early development of the human brain?

I am wondering how corticocortical efferents from layer I and II in V1 develop to forward visual information to layer IV in V2. Is there topology preservation in these connections from the beginning ...
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1answer
56 views

What's the explanation for those shivers/shudders that happen at random times? [closed]

They happen at any time, presenting as a sudden urge to shiver/shudder all at once. It originates in the neck and shoulders, feels like instant gooosebumps then out of total reflex shoulders roll back ...
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1answer
16 views

Is the thecal sac ectoderm?

The thecal sac, or dural sac, is the membranous sheath of dura mater that surrounds the spinal cord and the cauda equina. The thecal sac contains the cerebrospinal fluid in which the spinal cord ...
3
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1answer
23 views

How can dopamine modulate synaptic strength?

Does dopamine act on G protein coupled receptor, leading to more Ca2+ channels on the postsynaptic knob? Also, how is the specificity of the location (of the brain) that dopamine acts on controlled? ...
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2answers
108 views

Why we shiver/tremble/shake while performing some work which requires high accuracy?

Shivering when nervous or anxious is a common thing. But, shivering or trembling sometimes also occurs when we are performing a work which requires high accuracy. In such case, our whole body doesn't ...
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58 views

I get regularly get déjà vu - but I know it's not a memory recall - I always think it's from a dream [closed]

My apologies if this is not the right forum for a neuroscientific/psychological question, especially not one coming from personal experience. Please close/move as appropriate :) Doubtless we're all ...
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1answer
55 views

Definition of general anesthesia

To quote Goodman & Gilman : An alternative way of defining the anesthetic state is to consider it as a collection of “component” changes in behavior or perception. The components of the ...
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2answers
71 views

Metabolic activity postmortem

I read some papers about studies on metabolism in post-mortem tissues in human, but I do not exactly the reason about why our brain continues to have activity after death.
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61 views

Do repetitive movements on EEGs show up as discernible patterns?

Here is a typical EEG reading: If I am connected to an EEG, and am sitting perfectly still, and then begin doing some repetitive motion, say, 10,000 times, will we see discernible patterns emerge ...
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78 views

What causes the range of severity of neurological deficits in Down's syndrome?

It's known that the severity of symptoms caused by a trisomy 21 varies from individual to individual. Part of the explanation for this range of severity is the finding that 94% of Down's syndrome ...
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0answers
23 views

Why is the autonomic nervous system divided into parts? [closed]

Why would it be advantageous from an evolutionary perspective to develop parasympathetic and sympathetic systems?
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3answers
71 views

Resting membrane potential: K+ concentrations and charges on inside and outside of the neuron

According to this site, there is a greater concentration of K+ ions inside the cell than outside. The following screenshot, taken from this website, supports this statement. However, I don't ...
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271 views

Confusion about resting membrane potential and the Na/K pump [duplicate]

To this day, very few people and sources have been able to clear up my confusion about resting membrane potential and how it is maintained. It seems like this is one of those topics that few people ...