The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

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How does the mechanism which controls blood pressure in the brain work?

I've heard that the blood pressure in the brain is organised by a special mechanism. What is that and how does it work?
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5k views

Why can't we see in low light if staring long enough?

For me it seems reasonable that if I kept my gaze on a fixed point in a room with low light, a progressively brighter and better picture would appear before my eyes, just like a camera can see in the ...
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17 views

Infants tend to look longer at novel stimuli than at repeated stimuli, is this true in adults? [migrated]

I have recently read an article in which it is stated, that the researchers can discriminate if a baby knows an object, by looking at the length of time the baby looks at the object. Is this feature ...
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38 views

Supporting evidence to research paper

I am writing a research paper about the connection between age and active memory. I have been writing about the changes/development in grey and white matter, and in particular about synaptic pruning ...
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1answer
71 views

Synaptic pruning and selective elimination during adolescence

How does Synaptic pruning occur during pre-adolescence, adolescence and post-adolescence, after there is blooming overproduction of synaptic connections until the years of late childhood, and how does ...
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1answer
70 views

All-or-nothing-law: law or general principle?

The all-or-nothing principle indicates that a nerve cell fires at maximum potential or not at all, based on a threshold on the stimulus. Is this a statement which is always true, or only ...
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1answer
30 views

What determines the shape of the center-surround receptive fields of retinal ganglion cells?

The wikipedia article about receptive fields of visual system tells us the following: The receptive field is often identified as the region of the retina where the action of light alters the ...
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1answer
24 views

What kind of changes “stays” in the neuron after the nervous impulse happened?

I often see in neuroscience textbooks about how the brain controls everything in the body with different tracts and etc, and it seems that information is always being transmitted, like there's no ...
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1answer
42 views

What is 'noise'?

In both my psychology, biology and neuroscience classes, professors are constantly talking about 'noise'. For instance, our perception is limited due to 'sensory noise' in our neurons. I am utterly ...
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0answers
26 views

How do Binaural Beats Work?

We have a project on different ways of relaxation. One way I found out was binaural beats. Could anyone please tell me how they work. You guys are masters when it comes to simplifying things! All I ...
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0answers
22 views

Are axons capable of endocytosis?

There is evidence for the uptake of toxic substances like prions from the cell bodies of neurons via endocytosis (e.g. described here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2892479/). There is ...
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1answer
52 views

How difficult is it to make a shRNA/miRNA/siRNA to silence/knockdown NaV1.7 voltage gated sodium channels in humans?

There have been various research projects that experimented with shRNA/miRNA/siRNA to specifically silence/knockdown NaV1.7 voltage gated sodium channels in small animals like rats & guinea pigs. ...
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1answer
47 views

Is HSV-vector-mediated miRNA expression in dorsal root ganglia stable?

My question is on the following article: "Reduction of voltage gated sodium channel protein in DRG by vector mediated miRNA reduces pain in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy" My question is, do ...
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1answer
135 views

Are 2 eyes necessary for 3D vision?

To start off: I'm not a biology student, but a computer science major It has always been my understanding that humans have 2 eyes so that we can have 3D vision: the left eye see more of the left side ...
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1answer
9 views

Are cortical columns restricted to somatosensory cortical sections?

From this previous question, it seems like evidence for the minicolumn organisation of the neocortex seems to be primarily based off observations around the sensory parts of the cortex, such as the ...
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1answer
34 views

Why is stimulation of nerve tissue with a negative pulse called “cathodic” stimulation?

By definition, the cathode is defined as the terminal through which current exits a polarized device. But in the context of neuromodulation, such as spinal cord stimulation, deep brain stimulation, ...
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1answer
32 views

How are individual neuron firing rates characterized?

I'm reading this paper that the Human Brain Project published in Cell and I'm confused how they recorded the firing rates shown in the firing below: In the publication, they mention that they use ...
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0answers
21 views

How does the brain train its neural network?

One question that came up learning how artificial neural networks are working was how the brain can train its neural network? When we say we have an artificial neural network, the problem behind it ...
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0answers
52 views

How does a real brain actually learn? [closed]

In biology class we've learned that neurons are connected. If two or more neurons interact with each other often, then the connection gets stronger and stronger, and new connections may form. But if a ...
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0answers
19 views

How are targets formed for axon growth cones (CNS)?

Axons have growth cones which find a route to their target using multiple methods (guidepost cells, attraction to target, etc...). My question is, what is the process that actually forms the target? ...
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101 views

Understanding the brain: how are neurotransmitters released in the brain?

I have a basic knowledge of how neural networks work. A potential difference is created that forces sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium ions to flow which carries an electrical signal to the end ...
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2answers
67 views

How can neuronal signals faithfully be reproduced by scalp electrodes?

There is a skull barrier (and possibly other layers too) between the brain and the scalp. I have seen people trying to extract EEG signals from the scalp by connecting electrodes and interface it to ...
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0answers
24 views

Synapse formation [closed]

I am trying to learn about neuronal synapse formation, but the literature is intimidating to someone with little background knowledge. I am interested in synapse formation in both human adults as ...
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1answer
64 views

Reseach on feeling pain of other people

I'm more of a tech than bio kind of guy, but I have read and learned a lot alongside of my girlfriend's education. Which is very interesting!! Currently I want to investigate : people claiming to ...
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1answer
45 views

Does neural network in brain form cycles?

In other words is it possible for dendrite of neuron A to be connected with axon of neuron B and at the same time dendrite of neuron B to be connections with axon of neuron A (or similarly for any ...
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1answer
46 views

I know how to solve these equations, but I'm not sure what t' represents?

I am investigating the Wilson Cowan neuron population model, and I can follow most of it, but I'm not sure what is meant by t' in the equation for proportion of neurons in the refractory period. The ...
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0answers
23 views

Development and function of spindle cells

In his book How to Create a Mind author Ray Kurzweil makes some claims about spindle neurons that he provides no source for. Concretely he states that spindle cells: Involved in handling emotion ...
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1answer
42 views

Dreaming after passing out

I'll have few questions about passing out and dreaming. English is not my native language, and my biology knowledge is very limited. So bear with me. What exactly is blackout? (in a really simple ...
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1answer
31 views

What effect is seen when the extracellular concentration of sodium is increased? [closed]

I can't seem to figure out how this would effect the cell since sodium is not very permeable.
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2answers
119 views

Why do nerve cells convert electric signals to chemical signals?

One would assume that a faster response time in the nervous system would be beneficial. However, nerve cells have to convert electrical impulses to chemical signals and cross a synapse. Why didn't ...
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1answer
139 views

How does the brain recall information?

In computers, finding a single word is realized through serial attempts across all available connections to find a specified target. How does the brain solve this? How does the whole process, from ...
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2answers
125 views

Is there a difference between visual sensation and imagination in the brain?

How substantial is the difference between the neural signal associated with seeing an image and the imagination of that image? Surely, it can not entirely copy the pathway from the sensory organs to ...
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2answers
81 views

At what point during an action potential are the sodium potassium pumps working?

I'm trying to understand how all of the potentials during an action potential are created. My question specifically is about the sodium potassium pumps, however I would also be grateful if someone ...
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1answer
42 views

What stimulates a nociceptor?

For instance, when pressure is applied to the skin, what determines how much pressure results in nociceptor stimulation. And when a sharp object pierces the skin, why is pain, rather than simply ...
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1answer
108 views

How are neural networks encoded in the DNA? [closed]

The central nervous systems as well as the brain->muscles and sensory cells->brain nervous pathways, need to be precisely wired for life to be possible. Moreover they are wired almost exactly the same ...
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8 views

How do mindfulness meditation and lucid dreaming relate?

It has occurred to me that mindfulness meditation and lucid dreaming are probably closely related. I'd like to know how brain activation patterns and other biological parameters compare between the ...
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2answers
33 views

What neurons make up the CNS?

I generally see it written that there are three types of neurons, classified by projection: (1) sensory neurons, (2) interneurons, and (3) motor neurons. Now, in the CNS, I don’t think there would be ...
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1answer
40 views

Is this “Sympathetic fight response” axis accurate?

Peripheral sensory cell > Preganglionic cell > Dorsal root ganglia cell in the ''Sympathetic chain'' > Ventral root ganglia cell in the ''sympathetic chain'' > Post-ganglionic cell that activates an ...
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2answers
239 views

Why do we like music?

Music is, of course, just a sequence of sounds. Sounds are vibrations in the air, which our ears detect. So why do we find certain sequences of sounds to be appealing? What makes us want to hear these ...
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0answers
27 views

Is there any evidence to suggest that exercise reduces the side effects of caffeine?

I heard a friend say: I'm not drinking coffee this week. My body can only process the caffeine if I run at least 15km a week. I found this claim fascinating - that exercise temporarily ...
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0answers
19 views

Does music enhance neural activity/cognitive or cerebral function, or is it just mania? [closed]

I always find myself drew upon curiosity whilst studying, to whether certain types of music are or are not, effecting me in a sense of cognitive ability. Take a fantastic piece such as, Mozart's, ...
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1answer
56 views

What is the speed of neurotransmitter release and receptor binding in a neuronal synapse?

Obviously neural signals travel at extremely high speeds, but I'm wondering how much that speed is affected by the release and binding time of neurotransmitters. If my sources are correct, a well ...
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1answer
65 views

Dendrodendritic synapse through axodendritic synapse at same dendrite?

Reading Wikipedia's article of dendrodendritic synapse, I find that: Dendrodendritic synapses are activated in a similar fashion to axodendritic synapses in respects to using a chemical synapse. ...
2
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1answer
66 views

Are antihistamines considered to be psychoactive substances?

I have heard many times that the widely used antihistamines are not considered to be psychoactive drugs. Yet their impact on ones cognitive functions can be substantial. According to some sources, ...
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0answers
26 views

Textbook on molecular basis of memory

Looking at the rules in the meta, it seems book-recs are a little on the iffy side for on-topic so I hope this is okay. I am looking for a (graduate-level) textbook that has a thorough treatment of ...
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1answer
96 views

How does the brain manifest and realize the intention to resist sleep?

The question title says it all. What happens in my brain when I resist sleep? I would appreciate explanations on neurotransmitter changes, what areas of the brain activate to resist sleep, what can an ...
2
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1answer
38 views

How does the flow of ions along voltage-gated channels lead to nerve conduction along axons?

Let's say the axon lies along the x axis, and voltage-gated sodium channels lie parallel to the y axis. When a channel is opened, sodium ions will flow along the y direction into the cellular fluid. ...
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1answer
49 views

Nernst equation?

I keep seeing the Nernst equation in two different forms, one using the natural log and the other using log base 10. Could someone explain why there are two different versions, and which should be ...
2
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1answer
60 views

Why doesn't the ambient lighting condition change the perception of colors we see on a monitor?

Suppose that I take a picture of an object illuminated by an incandescent light bulb and I choose the daylight white balance setting. The picture I then get will display a white object as looking ...
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1answer
60 views

Do individual neurons communicate with the origin of thoughts?

When mapping the different neural pathways in the brain, often pictures such as these are drawn: Or similar versions. Clearly these sketches draw the neural pathways as being a two-sided ...