The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

learn more… | top users | synonyms (1)

1
vote
2answers
80 views

Metabolic activity postmortem

I read some papers about studies on metabolism in post-mortem tissues in human, but I do not exactly the reason about why our brain continues to have activity after death.
4
votes
1answer
72 views

Do repetitive movements on EEGs show up as discernible patterns?

Here is a typical EEG reading: If I am connected to an EEG, and am sitting perfectly still, and then begin doing some repetitive motion, say, 10,000 times, will we see discernible patterns emerge ...
4
votes
1answer
151 views

What are dreams, biologically?

Falling asleep or states of subconsciousness does not stop the mind from making its own fictional images. These seem like sensations just like those received from human eyes. But, how do we define ...
7
votes
1answer
232 views

How is color information transmitted from the eye to the brain?

Is color information sent from the eye to the brain frequency-modulated, or are different colors transmitted by different axons? I know that each ganglion cell is connected to multiple photoreceptors....
5
votes
1answer
113 views

Criteria for compound action potential thresholds

As opposed to action potential thresholds (which are binary yes/no events), electrophysiological thresholds of compound action potentials are arbitrary. Mostly a certain noise level is picked and when ...
4
votes
2answers
180 views

What will happen if we expose the brain to intermittent light?

If a brain is exposed to an intermittent light source, are specific areas going to fire? If yes, which of them? Is there a experimental data about this effect?
7
votes
0answers
86 views

What causes the range of severity of neurological deficits in Down's syndrome?

It's known that the severity of symptoms caused by a trisomy 21 varies from individual to individual. Part of the explanation for this range of severity is the finding that 94% of Down's syndrome ...
4
votes
2answers
166 views

Brain wave and motor movement correlation

I am trying to better understand which brain waves are generated when the motor system (arms, legs, muscles of any kind) are activated. According to Wikipedia, several types (Beta, Gamma, Mu) appear ...
3
votes
2answers
355 views

Confusion about resting membrane potential and the Na/K pump [duplicate]

To this day, very few people and sources have been able to clear up my confusion about resting membrane potential and how it is maintained. It seems like this is one of those topics that few people ...
3
votes
3answers
95 views

Resting membrane potential: K+ concentrations and charges on inside and outside of the neuron

According to this site, there is a greater concentration of K+ ions inside the cell than outside. The following screenshot, taken from this website, supports this statement. However, I don't ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

Why is the autonomic nervous system divided into parts? [closed]

Why would it be advantageous from an evolutionary perspective to develop parasympathetic and sympathetic systems?
5
votes
0answers
59 views

What is the reason for fear induced defecation?

I started to handle mice for my job and noticed that they tend to defecate and/or urinate when they are scared. The fear is induced by me, because I need a long time (due to inexperience) to grab the ...
22
votes
7answers
6k views

Why can't we see in low light if staring long enough?

For me it seems reasonable that if I kept my gaze on a fixed point in a room with low light, a progressively brighter and better picture would appear before my eyes, just like a camera can see in the ...
1
vote
2answers
83 views

How does the mechanism which controls blood pressure in the brain work? [closed]

I've heard that the blood pressure in the brain is organised by a special mechanism. What is that and how does it work?
1
vote
1answer
108 views

Synaptic pruning and selective elimination during adolescence

How does Synaptic pruning occur during pre-adolescence, adolescence and post-adolescence, after there is blooming overproduction of synaptic connections until the years of late childhood, and how does ...
3
votes
1answer
96 views

What is the role of the tissue surrounding neurons in decision making and taking control of impulses?

How does the fatty tissue surrounding neurons supports and enhances the speed of electrical impulses? How does it stabilize connections that take control of impulses and decision-making? The cells ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

What kind of changes “stays” in the neuron after the nervous impulse happened?

I often see in neuroscience textbooks about how the brain controls everything in the body with different tracts and etc, and it seems that information is always being transmitted, like there's no ...
3
votes
2answers
57 views

Is there a way to know how many sodium channels are active (conducting) at a given time in the brain?

I was doing some reading about anti-epileptic sodium channel blockers, then wondered how many sodium channels are actually conducting (actively passing ions) at any given time, that is, in an "average,...
1
vote
1answer
111 views

How does the brain manifest and realize the intention to resist sleep?

The question title says it all. What happens in my brain when I resist sleep? I would appreciate explanations on neurotransmitter changes, what areas of the brain activate to resist sleep, what can an ...
4
votes
1answer
75 views

What determines the shape of the center-surround receptive fields of retinal ganglion cells?

The wikipedia article about receptive fields of visual system tells us the following: The receptive field is often identified as the region of the retina where the action of light alters the ...
4
votes
1answer
127 views

All-or-nothing-law: law or general principle?

The all-or-nothing principle indicates that a nerve cell fires at maximum potential or not at all, based on a threshold on the stimulus. Is this a statement which is always true, or only mostly-...
8
votes
1answer
278 views

Are 2 eyes necessary for 3D vision?

To start off: I'm not a biology student, but a computer science major It has always been my understanding that humans have 2 eyes so that we can have 3D vision: the left eye see more of the left side ...
1
vote
1answer
62 views

How difficult is it to make a shRNA/miRNA/siRNA to silence/knockdown NaV1.7 voltage gated sodium channels in humans?

There have been various research projects that experimented with shRNA/miRNA/siRNA to specifically silence/knockdown NaV1.7 voltage gated sodium channels in small animals like rats & guinea pigs. (...
0
votes
1answer
62 views

Nernst equation?

I keep seeing the Nernst equation in two different forms, one using the natural log and the other using log base 10. Could someone explain why there are two different versions, and which should be ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

What is 'noise'?

In both my psychology, biology and neuroscience classes, professors are constantly talking about 'noise'. For instance, our perception is limited due to 'sensory noise' in our neurons. I am utterly ...
2
votes
0answers
48 views

How do Binaural Beats Work?

We have a project on different ways of relaxation. One way I found out was binaural beats. Could anyone please tell me how they work. You guys are masters when it comes to simplifying things! All I ...
4
votes
1answer
84 views

Relationship between toxicity of drugs and negative effects on brain

Are psychoactive drugs with lower lethal doses more neurotoxic (more damaging to the brain)? For example, tetrahydrocannabinol (one of the active components of cannabis) has a much higher lethal dose ...
4
votes
1answer
52 views

Is HSV-vector-mediated miRNA expression in dorsal root ganglia stable?

My question is on the following article: "Reduction of voltage gated sodium channel protein in DRG by vector mediated miRNA reduces pain in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy" My question is, do ...
2
votes
1answer
61 views

Why is stimulation of nerve tissue with a negative pulse called “cathodic” stimulation?

By definition, the cathode is defined as the terminal through which current exits a polarized device. But in the context of neuromodulation, such as spinal cord stimulation, deep brain stimulation, ...
3
votes
2answers
484 views

Is the Hypothalamus part of the Central Nervous System or Endocrine System

Sorry for a certainly naive question. Some references (for example https://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/nsdivide.html) seem to to indicate that the hypothalamus is part of the Central Nervous ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Is there any evidence to suggest that exercise reduces the side effects of caffeine?

I heard a friend say: I'm not drinking coffee this week. My body can only process the caffeine if I run at least 15km a week. I found this claim fascinating - that exercise temporarily ...
3
votes
1answer
43 views

How are individual neuron firing rates characterized?

I'm reading this paper that the Human Brain Project published in Cell and I'm confused how they recorded the firing rates shown in the firing below: In the publication, they mention that they use ...
8
votes
1answer
131 views

Soma-soma paired neurons

I'm reading this paper about how neurons can connect. Wikipedia says, typically neurons connect via axon (transmitter) and dendrites (receiver) but there are also special cases where dendrites connect ...
9
votes
2answers
7k views

Why is saltatory conduction faster than continuous conduction?

How does spacing apart sodium and potassium channels allow the action potential to travel faster down the axon? This is the reason always cited for saltatory conduction and myelination, but my mental ...
1
vote
0answers
57 views

How does a real brain actually learn? [closed]

In biology class we've learned that neurons are connected. If two or more neurons interact with each other often, then the connection gets stronger and stronger, and new connections may form. But if a ...
3
votes
0answers
21 views

How are targets formed for axon growth cones (CNS)?

Axons have growth cones which find a route to their target using multiple methods (guidepost cells, attraction to target, etc...). My question is, what is the process that actually forms the target? ...
10
votes
2answers
326 views

Why do we like music?

Music is, of course, just a sequence of sounds. Sounds are vibrations in the air, which our ears detect. So why do we find certain sequences of sounds to be appealing? What makes us want to hear these ...
5
votes
1answer
130 views

Are CN3, CN7, CN9 and CN10 the only Parasympathetic Cranial Nerves?

It has been my thought for a long time that this is the case, but I am unsure currently, since the parasympathetic tract of colon sigmoideum does not seem to have connection with CN 10. It connects ...
7
votes
1answer
668 views

Why do humans alone have the capability to have religious/spiritual experiences?

What is it in our brain that makes having such experiences possible? I assume other species don't have these. Sure there are instances in the natural world where you can see individuals of the species ...
3
votes
2answers
88 views

How can neuronal signals faithfully be reproduced by scalp electrodes?

There is a skull barrier (and possibly other layers too) between the brain and the scalp. I have seen people trying to extract EEG signals from the scalp by connecting electrodes and interface it to ...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

Synapse formation [closed]

I am trying to learn about neuronal synapse formation, but the literature is intimidating to someone with little background knowledge. I am interested in synapse formation in both human adults as ...
35
votes
2answers
2k views

Can brain cells move?

I was discussing this with my brother. I'm pretty sure I read somewhere that they can move. Thanks EDIT: By movement I mean long distance migration (preferably within the brain only).
3
votes
1answer
31 views

Does the number of nodes determines the rate at which a neural signal is transmitted?

I know that the the bigger the neuron's diameter is, the faster the neuron signal is transmitted. This makes sense according to the proportionality of resistance to the inverse of area and thus, in ...
5
votes
1answer
260 views

How are reflexes suppressed?

What neurophysiological process keeps reflex arcs in check? For example, the withdrawal reflex causes the hand to jerk back when the fingers touch something painfully hot incidentally. However, that ...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

Reseach on feeling pain of other people

I'm more of a tech than bio kind of guy, but I have read and learned a lot alongside of my girlfriend's education. Which is very interesting!! Currently I want to investigate : people claiming to ...
1
vote
1answer
59 views

Is this “Sympathetic fight response” axis accurate?

Peripheral sensory cell > Preganglionic cell > Dorsal root ganglia cell in the ''Sympathetic chain'' > Ventral root ganglia cell in the ''sympathetic chain'' > Post-ganglionic cell that activates an ...
5
votes
1answer
67 views

Does neural network in brain form cycles?

In other words is it possible for dendrite of neuron A to be connected with axon of neuron B and at the same time dendrite of neuron B to be connections with axon of neuron A (or similarly for any ...
7
votes
1answer
115 views

What were the first neural systems like?

I'm curious about the origin of the neural network. I'm thinking perhaps once life evolved beyond the single cell organism, it needed a simple neural network to coordinate those cells, and cell ...
7
votes
1answer
7k views

What are the advantages and disadvantages of being ambidextrous?

Most of us have one dominant hand. We find it nigh on impossible to do very delicate or dextrous activities with our other-hand. This seems like an apparent weakness, and a rather odd one when you ...
2
votes
1answer
169 views

What is the speed of neurotransmitter release and receptor binding in a neuronal synapse?

Obviously neural signals travel at extremely high speeds, but I'm wondering how much that speed is affected by the release and binding time of neurotransmitters. If my sources are correct, a well ...