The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

learn more… | top users | synonyms (1)

2
votes
1answer
50 views

I know how to solve these equations, but I'm not sure what t' represents?

I am investigating the Wilson Cowan neuron population model, and I can follow most of it, but I'm not sure what is meant by t' in the equation for proportion of neurons in the refractory period. The ...
2
votes
1answer
70 views

Dreaming after passing out

I'll have few questions about passing out and dreaming. English is not my native language, and my biology knowledge is very limited. So bear with me. What exactly is blackout? (in a really simple ...
1
vote
1answer
337 views

Why do nerve cells convert electric signals to chemical signals?

One would assume that a faster response time in the nervous system would be beneficial. However, nerve cells have to convert electrical impulses to chemical signals and cross a synapse. Why didn't ...
1
vote
2answers
170 views

Is there a difference between visual sensation and imagination in the brain?

How substantial is the difference between the neural signal associated with seeing an image and the imagination of that image? Surely, it can not entirely copy the pathway from the sensory organs to ...
6
votes
1answer
167 views

How does the brain recall information?

In computers, finding a single word is realized through serial attempts across all available connections to find a specified target. How does the brain solve this? How does the whole process, from ...
-1
votes
1answer
36 views

What effect is seen when the extracellular concentration of sodium is increased? [closed]

I can't seem to figure out how this would effect the cell since sodium is not very permeable.
0
votes
1answer
130 views

How are neural networks encoded in the DNA? [closed]

The central nervous systems as well as the brain->muscles and sensory cells->brain nervous pathways, need to be precisely wired for life to be possible. Moreover they are wired almost exactly the same ...
7
votes
2answers
289 views

At what point during an action potential are the sodium potassium pumps working?

I'm trying to understand how all of the potentials during an action potential are created. My question specifically is about the sodium potassium pumps, however I would also be grateful if someone ...
6
votes
2answers
219 views

Can axons act as receptors?

In all histology books, it is stated that all sensory nerve endings (receptors) consist of dendrites that translate physical stimuli from the environment into neural signals. However, several sensory ...
2
votes
1answer
4k views

Serotonin - Does being aroused make you sleepy?

My Psychology text book says Serotonin causes "Sleep, arousal levels and emotion" Does this really mean that when you are being aroused, Serotonin is released, which in turn makes you sleepy? If so, ...
6
votes
1answer
135 views

What recovers normal polarisation after hyperpolarisation?

I have been taught that a Na+/K+ pump helps to recover normal polarisation after hyperpolarisation in neurons. I could not find out how it does that, since I've also been taught that such a pump moves ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

How do mindfulness meditation and lucid dreaming relate?

It has occurred to me that mindfulness meditation and lucid dreaming are probably closely related. I'd like to know how brain activation patterns and other biological parameters compare between the ...
2
votes
1answer
83 views

All-trans-retinal being converted back to 11-cis-retinal or vitamin A

There are two pathways all-trans-retinal can take after detaching from the scotopsin: (1) it can convert back to 11-cis-retinal, or (2) it can convert to all-trans-retinol (form of vitamin A), which ...
2
votes
1answer
109 views

Are antihistamines considered to be psychoactive substances?

I have heard many times that the widely used antihistamines are not considered to be psychoactive drugs. Yet their impact on ones cognitive functions can be substantial. According to some sources, ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

What percent of the population has some form of synesthesia?

Data I am trying to get my hands on: What types of synesthesia (e.g. Grapheme-color synesthesia, Chromesthesia, etc.) are most common across the population? What percent of population has that ...
1
vote
1answer
121 views

Dendrodendritic synapse through axodendritic synapse at same dendrite?

Reading Wikipedia's article of dendrodendritic synapse, I find that: Dendrodendritic synapses are activated in a similar fashion to axodendritic synapses in respects to using a chemical synapse. ...
2
votes
0answers
23 views

Does music enhance neural activity/cognitive or cerebral function, or is it just mania? [closed]

I always find myself drew upon curiosity whilst studying, to whether certain types of music are or are not, effecting me in a sense of cognitive ability. Take a fantastic piece such as, Mozart's, ...
2
votes
1answer
104 views

Why doesn't the ambient lighting condition change the perception of colors we see on a monitor?

Suppose that I take a picture of an object illuminated by an incandescent light bulb and I choose the daylight white balance setting. The picture I then get will display a white object as looking ...
2
votes
0answers
31 views

Textbook on molecular basis of memory

Looking at the rules in the meta, it seems book-recs are a little on the iffy side for on-topic so I hope this is okay. I am looking for a (graduate-level) textbook that has a thorough treatment of ...
3
votes
1answer
70 views

How does the flow of ions along voltage-gated channels lead to nerve conduction along axons?

Let's say the axon lies along the x axis, and voltage-gated sodium channels lie parallel to the y axis. When a channel is opened, sodium ions will flow along the y direction into the cellular fluid. ...
3
votes
1answer
38 views

classical conditioning paradigm for hippocampal learning

I wanted to know what a suitable classical conditioning experiment would be to analyze learning and memory capabilities in rodent models with respect to hippocampal long-term potentiation. For ...
2
votes
1answer
24 views

Typical neuronal firing rates across the human cerebral cortex

I would like to find a scientific article (or articles), which would summarize typical neuronal firing rates in different parts of the human cerebral cortex. Any good references on this?
0
votes
0answers
69 views

Is there a lower temperature limit, below which we cannot sense a difference in temperature?

At work I have to handle samples stored at -20 and -70 degrees Celsius, and they don't feel that different to me.
0
votes
1answer
108 views

Do individual neurons communicate with the origin of thoughts?

When mapping the different neural pathways in the brain, often pictures such as these are drawn: Or similar versions. Clearly these sketches draw the neural pathways as being a two-sided connection,...
2
votes
3answers
421 views

Can connections between neurons be weakened?

Connections between neurons are said (by Wikipedia) to be strengthened as part of learning - can they also be weakened (below the original level)? I understand the concept of the connections ...
2
votes
2answers
251 views

Depolarization and hyperpolarization in stereocilia of the inner ear

It’s a well mentioned fact that when the stereocilia of the cochlear hair cells bend in one direction, the hair cell depolarizes, and when the stereocilia bend in the other direction, the cell ...
14
votes
1answer
271 views

Effect of pupil responses on the electroretinogram

The electroretinogram (ERG) is a measure of electrical activity of the retina. It is typically recorded from the cornea with a wire electrode or gold-foil electrode. Generally, the the ERG is ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

What are known methods of non-surgically disabling neural tracts/pathways (esp. Corpus Callosum)?

I think I've read something about usage of TTX and optogenetics, but I cannot find the papers for either anymore. Any reference would be much appreciated, especially those concerning mice and the ...
2
votes
0answers
19 views

Limits of brain neuronal spatial mapping

It is being claimed that brain maps the world space in (roughly) 1-to-1 correspondance of a place to a neuron (link1, link2). My question is: as the mapping happens in 1-to-1 manner, then is it ...
2
votes
1answer
237 views

How do neurons inverse an action potential?

See the following figure (source): The pathway on the right (SN $\rightarrow$ interneuron $\rightarrow$ F Neuron $ \rightarrow $ flexor muscle), is explained as follows: The action potential in ...
3
votes
1answer
175 views

Differences between synaptic connections

Consider the following synaptic connections (from here): axodendritic - A term pertaining to an excitatory or inhibitory synaptic connection between the presynaptic axon of a transmitting neuron ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

How does an inhibitory synapse communicate to the cell body of a neuron?

I picture a neuron as having multiple trees of dendrites attached to the cell body with a single axon leaving the cell body. I believe the cell body near the axon root makes the decision to fire or ...
0
votes
0answers
37 views

Distribution of synaptic connections

What is the roughly the distribution of the various synaptic connections in the brain. Consider the following types: axoaxonic synapse between the axon of one neuron and the axon of another neuron....
2
votes
0answers
37 views

My eyes were accidentally exposed to high infrared radiation and they hurt, why? [closed]

My eyes were exposed to high amounts of infrared radiation. They hurt - why?
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Why to use transgenic mice in ALS models?

In ALS mice model with mutant SOD1 - there are use of transgenic mice, with insert of human mutant SOD1. Why is that? Why not to mutate directly mice SOD1 ? In transgenic mice, after few generations ...
4
votes
2answers
590 views

Does frequency of eye blinking reveal anything about human biology/nervous system?

I'm looking at an output of a single dry sensor EEG headband with the sensor positioned above left eye. As a side effect of it's placement, the device picks up eye blinks, and some eye motion as ...
4
votes
1answer
741 views

Why is the neuronal plasma membrane more permeable to potassium ions than sodium ions?

From what I understand, the greater permeability of the neuronal plasma membrane to K+ ions (which diffuse out) than Na+ ions (which diffuse in) helps to maintain the -60 mV resting membrane potential....
1
vote
1answer
51 views

How the brain is affected by Alzheimer's disease

What exactly happens to the neurones in the brain? why can't they be repaired/restored? Why is it that there are so called 'good days'? What happens to the brain on such days?
3
votes
2answers
60 views

Nerve fiber responses to intense stimuli

Can one instantaneous, high-intensity stimulus performed on a nerve fiber generate a series of action potentials? Or are nerve fibers limited to one response action potential, no matter how intense ...
7
votes
2answers
431 views

Is warmth/temperature sensed linearly or on a different scale?

I understand that the atmospheric temperature is sensed relative to external body temperature. However, is the sensation of warmth registered linearly, or is it on a logarithmic scale, similar to ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

Do we use 100% of our cerebral capacity?

I saw a movie yesterday called Lucy. In this movie, a girl called Lucy absorbs a large amount of CPH4, and her brain capacity slowly increases. So that brings me to my question which is : Do we ...
6
votes
1answer
89 views

Why does ALS start in middle age?

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) often starts at middle age, but I didn't find any suggestion why. Something seems to trigger the symptoms in middle age. If I am not mistaken, the sporadic ALS is ...
5
votes
1answer
109 views

Can a lack of sleep degrade balance?

For years, I've noticed that the day after a night of poor sleep (4 hours or less), my balance noticeably degrades. For instance, while walking 20 feet to the coffee maker, I might stumble into the ...
6
votes
4answers
306 views

Can children restore brain cells?

By "children" I mean young people at the age of 10 or lower. I know that the adult brain cannot restore brain cells, but what about children? I mean, the brain must develop from a few cells to a 90 ...
3
votes
1answer
233 views

Does antidromic conduction occur in the brain under normal conditions?

So I am reading a book on neuroscience and they mentioned in passing that the action potential is capable of travelling in either direction along the axon (orthodromic vs antidromic), The wikipedia ...
4
votes
1answer
411 views

Saltatory conduction of nerve impulses

I am aware about some basics of saltatory conduction of nerve impulses. I know that the nerve impulses (ion flow and the depolarization) are transferred from node to node in myelinated nerve fibers. ...
15
votes
2answers
2k views

How to make a fake auditory signal?

My question is about making fake auditory signals. The ear collects sounds from the environment, which are transformed into a neural signal by the hair cells in the inner ear. This signal is sent ...
8
votes
1answer
134 views

How well does it actually work to surgically reroute the optical nerve?

Two publications, Roe et al, 1992[1] and Metin & Frost, 1989[2], describe results pertaining to the ability of a region of cortex to process information from a different sensory mode than the one ...
6
votes
2answers
256 views

Are there nerves in the umbilical cord?

I have always imagined that cutting the umbilical cord after birth might be painful. But I have always been confused about who would feel the pain and why. It occurred to me that the mother or the ...
7
votes
1answer
366 views

How does a neuron change as you learn?

I am currently taking a course called "Introduction to Machine Learning with ENCOG 3", and I have a question about how well the Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithm for a "neural network" ...