The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

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630 views

What is in the space between neurons in a brain?

When neuron animations are displayed, there are frequently seen neurons, axons arranged in a lattice with a lot of empty space between. I'm interested if there is indeed empty space in the brain, or ...
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0answers
136 views

Does brain activity generate heat gradients in the brain?

I'm reading this article on guiding axon growth using temperature gradient, and it mentions that the trajectory of growth of neuron connections can be influenced by temperature gradients as little as ...
6
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1answer
437 views

Cat purring: What are some possible underlying mechanisms behind purring and bone remodeling and formation?

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=why-do-cats-purr The article above says that cats purr mostly when they're wounded or under duress. They hypothesis that cats purring leads to ...
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0answers
35 views

Hippocampal regulation of hypothalamus

What is the difference between CA1-CA4 hippocampal subfields and dentate gyrus (DG) in negative regulation of hypothalamus? I`ve found only evidence that GR expression is more in CA1-2 and DG, while ...
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2answers
152 views

How does a pinched nerve cause pain (at the molecular level)?

Is this due to pressure differentials in the surrounding tissue? (Is it possible to have a pinched nerve without compression of the surrounding tissues, and does this cause pain?) What are the ...
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1answer
50 views

Are there neuronal firing artifacts produced by head movement?

I'm experimenting with a consumer-grade ElectroEncephaloGram (EEG) sensor and have created the image below using the device. Because the sensor on the device does not use a suction cup, there are a ...
7
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1answer
98 views

Which brain regions are D1 dopamine receptors expressed, and which brain regions are D2 dopamine receptors expressed?

This is a follow-up question to If D1 receptors stimulate adenylate cyclase (through GPCRs) and D2 receptors inhibit it, then why do mutations in both have similar effects?. As a further question - ...
3
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1answer
45 views

How does Serotonergic (5-HT2A mediated) Psychedelia work?

How does serotonergic (5-HT2A specific) psychedelia work? I've read that there are some theories that it might involve the induction of a glutamate release in certain regions of the brain involved in ...
2
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1answer
147 views

Why do I see an inverted image of an object when I close my eyes?

If I stare at an object for a long time and close my eyes, at first I can still see the object with my eyes closed. But the image I see with my eyes closed is inverted: dark colors appear as light and ...
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0answers
174 views

Does sexual arousal inhibit functions of prefrontal cortex in human females as well as males?

I've read somewhere, that when a human male experiences sexual arousal, his prefrontal cortex and, hence, his ability to reason and make rational decisions, is being heavily inhibited. Sounds pretty ...
4
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2answers
1k views

What is the function of nodes of Ranvier in axons?

In a neuroscience class I'm taking, it was explained that myelin covers axons in sections, the uncovered sections are called nodes of Ranvier, and signals propagate much faster in the covered ...
9
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2answers
1k views

What is Peter's rule in neuroscience?

I have heard and read about Peter's rule informally in the past, but never saw a formal definition or description. Informally I have learned to understand Peter's rule as the assumed correlation ...
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0answers
61 views

Carrying or packaging capacity of SAD B19 dG rabies virus

I'm wondering about the carrying capacity also referred to packaging capacity or loading capacity (how many base pairs can be packed efficiently into virions) of the pseudotyped rabies virus SAD-dG as ...
2
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0answers
82 views

How long does Lentivirus take to express in vivo mouse neurons?

Does anyone know how long it takes for a standard Lentivirus vector to express its genes (under a strong promoter such as CAG, CB7, etc.), after injection into the brain of a mouse? By hearsay I ...
2
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1answer
293 views

How exactly does marijuana damage brain cells?

I've heard that THC can cause permanent damage to brain cells. I've also heard this reffered to anti drug propaganda. Another theory i've read is that temporary effects reduce intelligence but long ...
1
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1answer
53 views

Are there any neurotransmitters that trigger all neurons?

I'm reading into the basics of the nervous system, and am intrigued by neurotransmitters. I understand that certain neurotransmitters can trigger more than one neuron type, and may be used as ...
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1answer
127 views

How do axon terminals report to the soma?

It is important to bear in mind that the distance between a neuron's axon terminal and its soma can be extensive, up to about 1m in the human body. The fastest transport along the axon is 400mm/day ...
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3answers
138 views

Is it technically possible to make someone see something when their eyes are closed?

I'm writing a little article and need any information about how human vision works and latest technologies and discoveries around. Actually its not a professional article. Its for a group of my ...
0
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1answer
255 views

Least painful way to die

There is a lot of talk about inhumane treatment of animals and how we don't kill them in the proper way. I wonder how much research is done on this subject. What is the overall least painful way for ...
0
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1answer
278 views

Does one neurotransmitter travel all the way through the nervous system?

Nerve impulses of course go really fast, but the neurotransmitters have to travel through millions of nerves, so how can it go that fast? Is it a sort of relay with lots of neurotransmitters taking ...
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1answer
1k views

Serotonin - Does being aroused make you sleepy?

My Psychology text book says Serotonin causes "Sleep, arousal levels and emotion" Does this really mean that when you are being aroused, Serotonin is released, which in turn makes you sleepy? If so, ...
0
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1answer
229 views

A good textbook on Neuroscience [closed]

I want to start learning Neuroscience. Can someone give me an advice about a nice textbook for beginners? I'm particularly interested in the application of Neuroscience in programming and AI ...
4
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1answer
228 views

Does frequency of eye blinking reveal anything about human biology/nervous system?

I'm looking at an output of a single dry sensor EEG headband with the sensor positioned above left eye. As a side effect of it's placement, the device picks up eye blinks, and some eye motion as ...
12
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1answer
3k views

How does Golgi's neural histological stain work?

What is known about the targets of Golgi staining of neurons? Are larger neurons more likely to be stained? Are specific cell types more susceptible than others? The current wikipedia article says ...
9
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2answers
76 views

Can we disambiguate competing molecular mechanisms of learning and plasticity by measuring electrical activity of neurons?

I have been reading with fascination about the several molecular- and cellular-scale mechanisms and structural changes that underlie what we refer to as long-term plasticity. For instance, [1], [2], ...
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0answers
19 views

Which Receptors are involved in Psychedelia/Psychosis?

Which receptors are involved in Psychedelia/Psychosis? I know that the 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, D2, κ-opioid and NMDA receptors are likely involved in psychosis.
1
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1answer
145 views

What is the biochemical reason for mental fatigue?

Is it known exactly why the brain needs sleep? What's dropping low / going high when we experience mental fatigue? I can see why low glucose could result in mental fatigue, are other reasons known?
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1answer
152 views

Systems identification in small neural network

When analyzing data from cortex, we often try to understand what each neuron does in terms of its inputs from other neurons - a specific kind of a systems identification strategy. Most current ...
4
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1answer
104 views

Why do we yawn?

I've read a new study which suggests that yawning may help you keep a cool head. Also, the findings might hold some hope for sufferers of insomnia, migraines, and even epilepsy. Is there any ...
2
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0answers
209 views

Why do antidepressants have a delayed onset of action?

Why do antidepressants take so long to reach efficacy? I've read of theories about it perhaps being due to the strength of negative feedback via serotonergic and adrenergic autoreceptors during the ...
6
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1answer
102 views

Do adjacent axons in a nerve influence each other?

Suppose I have a nerve fiber consisting of several axons all running in parallel to each other. When an action potential is generated in a certain axon, this will alter the concentration of sodium ...
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0answers
126 views

How reversible is DAT upregulation from long-term ADHD medication use?

A mechanism for ADHD stimulant medication tolerance has now been found. See http://neurosciencenews.com/adhd-medication-patient-brains-adapt-dat/. Here's the thing though: what exactly is the ...
11
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1answer
504 views

Why do we feel tired if we sleep excessively?

When we eat, finally we feel full. I know which mechanism causes the sensation of being full. But when we sleep excessively we often still want more sleep. Why does this happen? Is there a mechanism ...
4
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1answer
252 views

Why do humans alone have the capability to have religious/spiritual experiences?

What is it in our brain that makes having such experiences possible? I assume other species don't have these. Sure there are instances in the natural world where you can see individuals of the species ...
4
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1answer
110 views

What kinds of arousal can a human brain experience?

I've been reading about the new phenomenon called "arousal addiction". The context in which this term is used is Internet, Porn and/or video game addiction(cummulatively Internet Addiction Disorder - ...
4
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2answers
258 views

Effects of exercise on the brain

I am well aware of the phenomenon of neurogenesis induced by exercise, as well as the dopamine release that results from exercise. I am really interested in neuropsychology and the effects of exercise ...
4
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2answers
146 views

What is the purpose of the adrenal medulla?

The adrenal medulla is less of a 'real' endocrine organ like the others in the endocrine system and much more an extension of the sympathetic nervous system. In fact, its chromaffin cells are modified ...
3
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1answer
135 views

Neuroscience of temperature regulation and perception

The hypothalamus is known to be important in the regulation of body temperature, but I'm curious whether anyone knows about the neurocircuitry of perceived temperature. It seems like there could be a ...
6
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2answers
138 views

Is warmth/temperature sensed linearly or on a different scale?

I understand that the atmospheric temperature is sensed relative to external body temperature. However, is the sensation of warmth registered linearly, or is it on a logarithmic scale, similar to ...
8
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2answers
422 views

Do memories have mass?

If it were possible to live forever, would our brains grow infinitely with the number of memories that we store? Or would we remove old memories as we create new ones?
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3answers
193 views

Action Potential Distribution On Synapses

This is a biology+physics question. Since there is no biology section, I am asking here. In brain, when a neuron reaches to threshold value, it fires an action potential. In most graphics, that is ...
3
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2answers
205 views

Does the speed of electrical impulses through neurones decrease with age?

From what I read on the NatGeo app, it stated that the speed of the electrical impulses that are sent by a neurone will be approximately 332 kilometers per hour. Will the speed of this electrical ...
5
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1answer
711 views

How do neurons form new connections in brain plasticity?

I've been reading about brain plasticity and how the brain can "rewire" itself. One of the things that is not clear to me - how neurons can establish new connections. Does this rewiring mean that ...
8
votes
1answer
175 views

What are the “stars” we see after a bump on the head?

Sorry if this might appear funny. When I close my eyes for a longer time, and suddenly open it, I see some twinkling white small circles, and when i concentrate on anyone of them it disappears, as ...
4
votes
2answers
589 views

Why is Botulinum toxin the most potent poison known?

Botulinum toxin (trade name Botox) inhibits acetylcholine release in neurons and causes botulism, an acute paralytic disease which leads to nerve degeneration and takes a long time to recover. I've ...
2
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3answers
440 views

Is there such thing as “half-life” of dopamine?

If a dopamine is released at T=0 and binds to receptor D2, what determines the time when the concentration of this neurotransmitter bound to the receptor reaches half of the original concentration? In ...
4
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1answer
307 views

Do effects of caffeine on human body change with habitual use?

I've been reading about homeostatic nature of a lot of neurobiological processes - the brain is trying to maintain a balance by desensitizing receptors, re-uptaking and breaking down ...
2
votes
1answer
116 views

How stable is in vivo whole cell patch clamping?

For a head fixed animal, how stable is the current state-of-the-art whole cell recording from a cortical neuron? The animal's breathing, and heart beat must move the neuron relative to the recording ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Is “tonic activity” common for neurons firing in the brain?

I've been reading about Dorsal Raphe Nucleus, a serotonin- rich part of the brain. I noticed mentioning of "tonic activity" - regular pulsing that releases neurotransmitters. On top of this "tone" the ...
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0answers
51 views

The relationship between the currents of intracellular and extracellular ions of a cell

In a cell, assume that only sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium ions can cross the membrane and their currents are: $I_{Na}$, $I_{K}$, $I_{Cl}$ and $I_{Ca}$, across the whole membrane. There is ...