Tagged Questions

The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

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8
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2answers
2k views

Why is saltatory conduction faster than continuous conduction?

How does spacing apart sodium and potassium channels allow the action potential to travel faster down the axon? This is the reason always cited for saltatory conduction and myelination, but my mental ...
2
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1answer
159 views

Why do I see an inverted image of an object when I close my eyes?

If I stare at an object for a long time and close my eyes, at first I can still see the object with my eyes closed. But the image I see with my eyes closed is inverted: dark colors appear as light and ...
1
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0answers
181 views

Does sexual arousal inhibit functions of prefrontal cortex in human females as well as males?

I've read somewhere, that when a human male experiences sexual arousal, his prefrontal cortex and, hence, his ability to reason and make rational decisions, is being heavily inhibited. Sounds pretty ...
4
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2answers
2k views

What is the function of nodes of Ranvier in axons?

In a neuroscience class I'm taking, it was explained that myelin covers axons in sections, the uncovered sections are called nodes of Ranvier, and signals propagate much faster in the covered ...
1
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0answers
63 views

Carrying or packaging capacity of SAD B19 dG rabies virus

I'm wondering about the carrying capacity also referred to packaging capacity or loading capacity (how many base pairs can be packed efficiently into virions) of the pseudotyped rabies virus SAD-dG as ...
2
votes
0answers
90 views

How long does Lentivirus take to express in vivo mouse neurons?

Does anyone know how long it takes for a standard Lentivirus vector to express its genes (under a strong promoter such as CAG, CB7, etc.), after injection into the brain of a mouse? By hearsay I ...
2
votes
1answer
309 views

How exactly does marijuana damage brain cells?

I've heard that THC can cause permanent damage to brain cells. I've also heard this reffered to anti drug propaganda. Another theory i've read is that temporary effects reduce intelligence but long ...
1
vote
1answer
136 views

How do axon terminals report to the soma?

It is important to bear in mind that the distance between a neuron's axon terminal and its soma can be extensive, up to about 1m in the human body. The fastest transport along the axon is 400mm/day ...
4
votes
1answer
646 views

Why Do Nerve Signals Get Crossed?

First off, I don't know if this is a normal healthy thing to occur. There have been many times where I have an itch on say my arm and I scratch it, only to feel the scratching elsewhere on my body. I ...
4
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3answers
169 views

Is it technically possible to make someone see something when their eyes are closed?

I'm writing a little article and need any information about how human vision works and latest technologies and discoveries around. Actually its not a professional article. Its for a group of my ...
0
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1answer
267 views

Least painful way to die

There is a lot of talk about inhumane treatment of animals and how we don't kill them in the proper way. I wonder how much research is done on this subject. What is the overall least painful way for ...
6
votes
3answers
2k views

Why do neurons die so fast without oxygen and nutrients?

Some human tissue can survive without oxygen a couple of minutes, even hours. Why are the neurons are so "weak" and depends so much on oxygen and other nutrients and cannot live without them for ...
4
votes
1answer
177 views

Zombie Ant Fungus?

Ophiocordyceps unilateralis is a parasitoidal fungus that alters the behavior of the infected. Source: Wiki page. How is the fungus able to alter the behavior of the infected to such specfic ...
1
vote
1answer
53 views

Are there any neurotransmitters that trigger all neurons?

I'm reading into the basics of the nervous system, and am intrigued by neurotransmitters. I understand that certain neurotransmitters can trigger more than one neuron type, and may be used as ...
0
votes
1answer
347 views

Does one neurotransmitter travel all the way through the nervous system?

Nerve impulses of course go really fast, but the neurotransmitters have to travel through millions of nerves, so how can it go that fast? Is it a sort of relay with lots of neurotransmitters taking ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Serotonin - Does being aroused make you sleepy?

My Psychology text book says Serotonin causes "Sleep, arousal levels and emotion" Does this really mean that when you are being aroused, Serotonin is released, which in turn makes you sleepy? If so, ...
0
votes
1answer
235 views

A good textbook on Neuroscience [closed]

I want to start learning Neuroscience. Can someone give me an advice about a nice textbook for beginners? I'm particularly interested in the application of Neuroscience in programming and AI ...
4
votes
1answer
246 views

Does frequency of eye blinking reveal anything about human biology/nervous system?

I'm looking at an output of a single dry sensor EEG headband with the sensor positioned above left eye. As a side effect of it's placement, the device picks up eye blinks, and some eye motion as ...
9
votes
2answers
77 views

Can we disambiguate competing molecular mechanisms of learning and plasticity by measuring electrical activity of neurons?

I have been reading with fascination about the several molecular- and cellular-scale mechanisms and structural changes that underlie what we refer to as long-term plasticity. For instance, [1], [2], ...
1
vote
1answer
152 views

What is the biochemical reason for mental fatigue?

Is it known exactly why the brain needs sleep? What's dropping low / going high when we experience mental fatigue? I can see why low glucose could result in mental fatigue, are other reasons known?
9
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1answer
158 views

Systems identification in small neural network

When analyzing data from cortex, we often try to understand what each neuron does in terms of its inputs from other neurons - a specific kind of a systems identification strategy. Most current ...
4
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1answer
107 views

Why do we yawn?

I've read a new study which suggests that yawning may help you keep a cool head. Also, the findings might hold some hope for sufferers of insomnia, migraines, and even epilepsy. Is there any ...
4
votes
1answer
241 views

Why do antidepressants have a delayed onset of action?

Why do antidepressants take so long to reach efficacy? I've read of theories about it perhaps being due to the strength of negative feedback via serotonergic and adrenergic autoreceptors during the ...
3
votes
1answer
149 views

Which Receptors are Involved in the antidepressant effects of SSRIs?

From what I've read the major receptor subtypes involved in the antidepressant effects of SSRIs are: 5-HT1A 5-HT2C 5-HT3 5-HT6 Please cite journal articles to back up your claims, I don't want any ...
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0answers
19 views

Which Receptors are involved in Psychedelia/Psychosis?

Which receptors are involved in Psychedelia/Psychosis? I know that the 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, D2, κ-opioid and NMDA receptors are likely involved in psychosis.
3
votes
1answer
46 views

How does Serotonergic (5-HT2A mediated) Psychedelia work?

How does serotonergic (5-HT2A specific) psychedelia work? I've read that there are some theories that it might involve the induction of a glutamate release in certain regions of the brain involved in ...
4
votes
1answer
269 views

How does the eugeroic modafinil work?

How does the drug, modafinil (Provigil), exert its eugeroic (wakefulness-promoting) effects? I've read that it works by increasing dopamine and histamine concentrations in the CNS and by serving as a ...
4
votes
1answer
272 views

Why do humans alone have the capability to have religious/spiritual experiences?

What is it in our brain that makes having such experiences possible? I assume other species don't have these. Sure there are instances in the natural world where you can see individuals of the species ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

Do neurons secrete multiple neurotransmitters, or just one type?

I know that neurons communicate between each other by filling the junction between dendrites with neurotransmitters. What interests me is if a single neuron only works with one type of ...
11
votes
1answer
520 views

Why do we feel tired if we sleep excessively?

When we eat, finally we feel full. I know which mechanism causes the sensation of being full. But when we sleep excessively we often still want more sleep. Why does this happen? Is there a mechanism ...
6
votes
1answer
112 views

Do adjacent axons in a nerve influence each other?

Suppose I have a nerve fiber consisting of several axons all running in parallel to each other. When an action potential is generated in a certain axon, this will alter the concentration of sodium ...
4
votes
1answer
112 views

What kinds of arousal can a human brain experience?

I've been reading about the new phenomenon called "arousal addiction". The context in which this term is used is Internet, Porn and/or video game addiction(cummulatively Internet Addiction Disorder - ...
4
votes
2answers
263 views

Effects of exercise on the brain

I am well aware of the phenomenon of neurogenesis induced by exercise, as well as the dopamine release that results from exercise. I am really interested in neuropsychology and the effects of exercise ...
3
votes
1answer
141 views

Neuroscience of temperature regulation and perception

The hypothalamus is known to be important in the regulation of body temperature, but I'm curious whether anyone knows about the neurocircuitry of perceived temperature. It seems like there could be a ...
2
votes
1answer
118 views

In scuba diving, are nitrogen narcosis and high pressure nervous syndrome the same thing?

In training for scuba diving, they tell you that when you're bellow 100 ft or so you have to watch out for changes in mental state that resemble drunkenness. The cause of these mental disturbances is ...
3
votes
2answers
700 views

Physiological indicators of happiness and well being

If I understand it correctly, levels of serotonin in the brain can indicate if a person is happy. What other physiological measures indicate happiness or well being for a humans? I am looking for ...
6
votes
2answers
143 views

Is warmth/temperature sensed linearly or on a different scale?

I understand that the atmospheric temperature is sensed relative to external body temperature. However, is the sensation of warmth registered linearly, or is it on a logarithmic scale, similar to ...
6
votes
1answer
121 views

Why does getting certain chemicals in cuts hurt?

More specifically, shampoo. What are the mechanics of detecting a noxious chemical stimulus in terms of which receptors recognise what, how do they do it, and how is this information relayed to the ...
8
votes
2answers
454 views

Do memories have mass?

If it were possible to live forever, would our brains grow infinitely with the number of memories that we store? Or would we remove old memories as we create new ones?
1
vote
3answers
196 views

Action Potential Distribution On Synapses

This is a biology+physics question. Since there is no biology section, I am asking here. In brain, when a neuron reaches to threshold value, it fires an action potential. In most graphics, that is ...
5
votes
1answer
791 views

How do neurons form new connections in brain plasticity?

I've been reading about brain plasticity and how the brain can "rewire" itself. One of the things that is not clear to me - how neurons can establish new connections. Does this rewiring mean that ...
4
votes
2answers
638 views

Why is Botulinum toxin the most potent poison known?

Botulinum toxin (trade name Botox) inhibits acetylcholine release in neurons and causes botulism, an acute paralytic disease which leads to nerve degeneration and takes a long time to recover. I've ...
2
votes
3answers
481 views

Is there such thing as “half-life” of dopamine?

If a dopamine is released at T=0 and binds to receptor D2, what determines the time when the concentration of this neurotransmitter bound to the receptor reaches half of the original concentration? In ...
4
votes
1answer
323 views

Do effects of caffeine on human body change with habitual use?

I've been reading about homeostatic nature of a lot of neurobiological processes - the brain is trying to maintain a balance by desensitizing receptors, re-uptaking and breaking down ...
2
votes
1answer
157 views

Are inflammation and anxiety connected?

I've been reading a curious paper about the use of cannabis, and one of the passages piqued my interest: There’s also been a lot of work done on another constituent of marijuana, cannabinoid, ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Is “tonic activity” common for neurons firing in the brain?

I've been reading about Dorsal Raphe Nucleus, a serotonin- rich part of the brain. I noticed mentioning of "tonic activity" - regular pulsing that releases neurotransmitters. On top of this "tone" the ...
3
votes
3answers
271 views

How is propagation of action potentials terminated once the “message” has been sent/received?

I'm thinking about neurons in the brain that are used for "thinking". As I read about action potentials, I see that an Axon is connected to a Dendrite of a neighboring cell and that there are ...
8
votes
1answer
183 views

What are the “stars” we see after a bump on the head?

Sorry if this might appear funny. When I close my eyes for a longer time, and suddenly open it, I see some twinkling white small circles, and when i concentrate on anyone of them it disappears, as ...
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0answers
52 views

The relationship between the currents of intracellular and extracellular ions of a cell

In a cell, assume that only sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium ions can cross the membrane and their currents are: $I_{Na}$, $I_{K}$, $I_{Cl}$ and $I_{Ca}$, across the whole membrane. There is ...
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0answers
56 views

Does Dorsal Raphe Nuclei firing pattern change in response to voluntary breathing?

I'm reading this paper, which discusses how Serotonin may be involved in motor functions of mammals: 5-HT and motor control: a hypothesis . The paper includes the following diagram of the Dorsal ...