The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

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Are there any neurotransmitters that trigger all neurons?

I'm reading into the basics of the nervous system, and am intrigued by neurotransmitters. I understand that certain neurotransmitters can trigger more than one neuron type, and may be used as ...
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899 views

Serotonin - Does being aroused make you sleepy?

My Psychology text book says Serotonin causes "Sleep, arousal levels and emotion" Does this really mean that when you are being aroused, Serotonin is released, which in turn makes you sleepy? If so, ...
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142 views

What is the biochemical reason for mental fatigue?

Is it known exactly why the brain needs sleep? What's dropping low / going high when we experience mental fatigue? I can see why low glucose could result in mental fatigue, are other reasons known?
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915 views

What are the positive and negative effects of insulin on cognitive function?

A UCLA study seems to imply that insulin interferes with cognitive function. The DHA-deprived rats also developed signs of resistance to insulin, a hormone that controls blood sugar and ...
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49 views

Do skull bones have pain nerves (nociceptors)?

I recently attended an awake brain surgery for deep brain stimulation and it seemed to me that only the skin surrounding the drilled hole got local anaesthesia. I know that the brain itself does not ...
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25 views

Kinesin-5 / cytoplasmic dynein spatial density distribution in neurons

is there some way to experimentally determine the density distribution of those two molecular motors in a Neuron? Fluorescence labeling would be impossible(?) as GFP markers would probably alter the ...
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57 views

In-Ear headphones increasing nasal breathing resistance

I figure this is a rather strange question, however, I noticed this quite some time ago and wanted to make sure that this is in fact a permanent condition before posting. The situation is as follows: ...
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23 views

Neuroscience: zapping an axon connected to thermoreceptor

Let’s say an experimenter has an electrode that can give a shock to a single axon. She takes that electrode and zaps an axon connected to thermoreceptors in the hand of her subject. I) What would the ...
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25 views

Systematic anticoagulant injection after a CVA

Since most of the cerebrovascular accident are ischemic ones, would it be usefull to have anticoagulant everywhere (we already have AEDs everywhere) so that everytime someone would have symptoms of a ...
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32 views

Alpha wave frequency variance in EEG of single subject over period of a few hours?

I have an Emotiv EPOC (EEG headset: 128 SPS, notch filter @60 Hz, felt saline contacts) I've been playing around with. Over the course of two or three hours using CCA to plot an SNR contour against ...
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66 views

Why are there different types of neurotransmitters?

Why does the type of neurotransmitter matter? If the neurotransmitter just stimulates a dendrite on a neuron which causes electricity to move through via sodium-pottasium pumps and ion gates to ...
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53 views

What happens during a Raynauds episode?

Raynaud's phenomenon can be a serious health issue, as the blood flow to the extremities, mainly the fingers is compromised, causing fingers to blanche, and then turn blue. Severe Raynaud's can cause ...
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83 views

Learning first-year biology + anatomy via documentary? [on hold]

Probably going to take first-year biology in ~4 months; so was thinking to go through MIT's 7.00x on EdX… However seeing at how popular this topic is, I was thinking there might be a fun documentary ...
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71 views

Unexplained pain in the legs at night, possibly due to peripheral nerves - diagnosis and cure? [closed]

I have seen a few instances where people suffer from tremendous pain the legs, often around the region of ankle, going a bit down and stretching up to knee. This happens most prominently at the night ...
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42 views

Does pain scale with mammal mass?

Some biological features scale with the animal mass (see previous Q&A). Assuming the same concentration of nociceptors on the skin surface, I'm wondering how painful a 1 cm wound will be ...
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122 views

Does brain activity generate heat gradients in the brain?

I'm reading this article on guiding axon growth using temperature gradient, and it mentions that the trajectory of growth of neuron connections can be influenced by temperature gradients as little as ...
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35 views

Hippocampal regulation of hypothalamus

What is the difference between CA1-CA4 hippocampal subfields and dentate gyrus (DG) in negative regulation of hypothalamus? I`ve found only evidence that GR expression is more in CA1-2 and DG, while ...
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161 views

Does sexual arousal inhibit functions of prefrontal cortex in human females as well as males?

I've read somewhere, that when a human male experiences sexual arousal, his prefrontal cortex and, hence, his ability to reason and make rational decisions, is being heavily inhibited. Sounds pretty ...
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59 views

Carrying or packaging capacity of SAD B19 dG rabies virus

I'm wondering about the carrying capacity also referred to packaging capacity or loading capacity (how many base pairs can be packed efficiently into virions) of the pseudotyped rabies virus SAD-dG as ...
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19 views

Which Receptors are involved in Psychedelia/Psychosis?

Which receptors are involved in Psychedelia/Psychosis? I know that the 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, D2, κ-opioid and NMDA receptors are likely involved in psychosis.
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49 views

The relationship between the currents of intracellular and extracellular ions of a cell

In a cell, assume that only sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium ions can cross the membrane and their currents are: $I_{Na}$, $I_{K}$, $I_{Cl}$ and $I_{Ca}$, across the whole membrane. There is ...
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50 views

Does Dorsal Raphe Nuclei firing pattern change in response to voluntary breathing?

I'm reading this paper, which discusses how Serotonin may be involved in motor functions of mammals: 5-HT and motor control: a hypothesis . The paper includes the following diagram of the Dorsal ...
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86 views

Does the Parasympathetic Tract of Colon Sigmoideum Travel with Nervus Vagus and its Nucleus Dorsalis Nervi Vagi?

I have the following tractus now: nucleus parasymphaticus sacrales -> nervus splanchnic -> ganglion terminalis -> colon sigmoideum The tract is parasympathetic. It suggests me that it should ...
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242 views

Does one neurotransmitter travel all the way through the nervous system?

Nerve impulses of course go really fast, but the neurotransmitters have to travel through millions of nerves, so how can it go that fast? Is it a sort of relay with lots of neurotransmitters taking ...
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249 views

Least painful way to die

There is a lot of talk about inhumane treatment of animals and how we don't kill them in the proper way. I wonder how much research is done on this subject. What is the overall least painful way for ...
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103 views

Chills down the spine with certain music?

I am sure many of us know the feeling of that tingling chill down our spines when listening to certain music. I experienced this most when my younger brother played an emotional piano piece for a ...
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35 views

What is accumulation and release centre of neurohormones?

What is accumulation and release centre of neurohormones? Is it hypothalamus?
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52 views

Systemic sensory confusion?

Sometimes when a person gets touched on one part of the body they feel it else where and may think it came from a different part of the body. What causes this? Other examples are similar to why you ...
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72 views

Epinephrine vs. Adrenaline

Both names are widely used, with what appears to me as a slight prevalence of “epinephrine” in scientific literature and an overwhelming prevalence of “adrenaline” in popular media. Are there any ...
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47 views

How do neurons send electric pulses even though they are surrounded by liquid which is mostly water?

I just thought about the fact that people move through electrical pulses traveling through neurons in the brain and muscles through the body. Here is what i know: the body is full of 97 or more, ...
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68 views

Is Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) commercially available?

I'm curious if NGF, or Neurotrophins in general is available commercially. Can I order it online? If not, what are the medical/biological reasons. Does it breakdown quickly after synthesis/capture? Is ...
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79 views

If inhibiting S6 kinase decreases protein translation, then could inhibiting S6 kinase could possibly slow down long-term potentiation in neurons?

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P70S6_kinase... Phosphorylation of S6 induces protein synthesis at the ribosome. P70S6 kinase is in a signaling pathway that includes mTOR (the mammalian ...
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8k views

How reversible is decerebrate posturing caused by brain stem damage?

This is a follow-up question to How likely would Abraham Lincoln be to survive his wounds today? You don't have to see a CT scan or autopsy to know if the brainstem is injured (directly or ...
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34 views

Mechanism of antiperistalsis

What is the mechanism of antiperistalsis that occurs during vomiting? Why the peristaltic waves normally don't propagate in anal to oral direction? Please give logical explanation with authentic ...
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54 views

M-type potassium channels by muscarinic receptors

How does the closure of M-type potassium channels by muscarinic receptors result in increased excitation of the target neuron?
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279 views

How different is an introverts brain different from an extroverts?

How is an introverts brain wired differently than an extroverts? Just to give you an example. On an average, the processing that goes on in an introverts brain is greater than in an extroverts ...
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24 views

Is there a correlation between total neurons and intelligence?

Thanks for looking. First off, I am not a biologist, just a curious layman, so I apologize in advance if this isn't a "good" question. Please don't downvote me into oblivion. I read today that the ...
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24 views

Spinal cord injury bypass

When the spinal cord is damaged, the connection between the brain and some part of the body may be lost. To restore this connection, some research are carried out, with mainly two different goals : ...
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spinal cord lesion and result in somatic sensation

Jimbo suffers a lesion to the entire right half of the spinal cord at the T6 level. A few weeks after his injury, his doctor tests his right and left legs for somatic sensation and tone. fill out her ...
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31 views

What percentage of possible proteins has been tested by human brain evolution?

When the human human brain is discussed, I frequently hear an argument that goes like this "If there was a simple chemical solution for people to be smarter, nature would've already found it". I'm ...
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105 views

The process of how you visually perceive objects?

Use the following terms to describe in detail how you visually perceive an object that you can see right now. Use the terms in order to correctly describe the sequence of events involved in your ...
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21 views

Stress regulation in mosquitoes

I was just trying to understand how in insects, specifically mosquitoes does the process of emergency responding, stress regulation take place? Or in simpler words how are flight, fright and fight ...
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227 views

A good textbook on Neuroscience [closed]

I want to start learning Neuroscience. Can someone give me an advice about a nice textbook for beginners? I'm particularly interested in the application of Neuroscience in programming and AI ...
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3answers
64 views

Are there “multi-frequency” signals within a human brain?

I know that neurons can exhibit tonic and phasic firing, and also that a neuron is sometimes called an integrator. This makes me interested to know if there are activities in the brain that depend on ...