The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

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What is the creature with the lowest neuron count that demonstrates cognition beyond reflexes?

I'm under the impression that nematode worms just perform the same scripted actions over and over again in response to specific stimuli. They have 302 neurons. Chimpanzees display problem solving ...
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2answers
215 views

Do humans have a “dominant” neurotransmitter system/sensitivity within their brain?

I've recently heard a podcast, in which Dr. Helen Fisher suggests that there are "4 broad personality types", and each one is associated with a particular neurotransmitter: The corresponding ...
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75 views

How good is information transfer between the hemispheres of the brain?

I sometimes listen to lectures on my phone using ear buds, but occasionally with only one ear bud in. Is the other half of my brain losing out on any aspect of the lecture? Just how good is the corpus ...
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76 views

Can cerebrospinal fluid deliver nutrients/drugs to neurons during sleep?

I'm looking at this article on the possible mechanism of detoxifying brain during sleep using cerebrospinal fluid. It states that at night, the space between neurons may allow better (up to 20x) ...
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373 views

Do brain cells shrink during REM sleep or a lucid dream?

In this BBC news article a study shows that during sleep brain cells shrink to open up the gaps between neurons and allow fluid to wash the brain clean. But do the cells shrink and undergo the whole ...
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3answers
149 views

Why are things conscious?

I've been referred to here from http://philosophy.stackexchange.com/questions/8052/why-are-things-conscious. Could you guys help out? Here's the question: What is the reason for animals or more ...
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68 views

What decides the position of the node of Ranvier?

The oligodendrocytes makes the myelin sheath in CNS and schwann cells make it in PNS. What decides where the oligodendrocyte or Schwann cell will attach and start forming myelin sheath? Is it ...
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162 views

Are inflammation and anxiety connected?

I've been reading a curious paper about the use of cannabis, and one of the passages piqued my interest: There’s also been a lot of work done on another constituent of marijuana, cannabinoid, ...
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57 views

What determines the pathway of a neurological signal?

My question is about the neurological signals. In our body when a signal, for example a hearing signal from hair cells, is built, it goes through a lot of neurons and it passes a lot of synapses. I am ...
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54 views

Do both Carbamazepinum and Lamotriginum increase glutamate threshold?

I have in my notes that: Carbamazepinum increases threshold for glutamate Lamotriginum delays release of glutamic acid I would like to simplify these sentences into a single line. I would like to ...
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59 views

Does breathing air containing 3% carbon dioxide gives you a headache?

As far as I know, breathing air containing relatively high levels of CO2 may get you a headache. I also know that CO2 level in the fruit bodies of peppers can reach levels as high as 3% at certain ...
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769 views

What is the mechanism of reflex arcs?

When a reflex arc occurs the signal from the receptor passes straight to the motor neuron instead of being passed onto the brain. This is a rather simplistic explanation, I was hoping to make it more ...
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24 views

How isolated are different areas of the brain?

I'm interested in understanding how isolated different parts of the brain are from each-other. I'm trying to understand the way that different sections of the brain work together. More specifically, ...
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48 views

What is the advantage to neurons being asymmetrical?

Does having a central axon and dendrites result in any advantage compared to if the neuron was symmetrical?
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154 views

Can the sensory neuron network and the motor neuron network be considered separate networks?

I am reading up on the nervous system using wikipedia and trying to interpret one infographic on this page: I've always thought of the human nervous system as a singular network of neurons. This ...
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48 views

Is severe but short-term pain worse than moderate but prolonged pain for the body?

I'm wondering about the effects of different durations and intensities of pain on the body. So the two can be compared, let's say that the cause of pain is the same in both cases, but in one the ...
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97 views

Is an Eidetic Memory (or other unusual forms of memory) less susceptible to anterograde amnesia?

I'm a physicist, so as a fellow scientist I want to apologize because this question will be entirely based on anecdotal inferences and I am well aware how irritating that can be. I have an eidetic ...
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109 views

Inductance in cell

In an animal cell, especially neuron and in particular its axon, while there is electrical resistance and capacitance mechanism in the cell, which play essential roles in the cable theory model of ...
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83 views

Do insomniacs yawn?

According to wikipedia, the jury is still out on the function a yawn serves. The article referenced above however writes to say Yawning most often occurs in adults immediately before and after ...
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60 views

Spinal cord injury bypass

When the spinal cord is damaged, the connection between the brain and some part of the body may be lost. To restore this connection, researches are considering either: Repairing the damaged area so ...
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117 views

Does neuroeconomics study the brain or study economics?

I'm trying to understand what neuroeconomics is. There are two possibilities for what it might mean. (1) The study of cognitive processes in the brain by applying basic principles of economic theory ...
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162 views

What areas of the brain are involved in doing arithmetic operations?

Do neuroscientists already know what areas of the brain are involved in mental calculations? Has any fruitful research been done on that or not yet? Do you think that if we understand what areas of ...
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2answers
12k views

What are the functions and differences between axons and dendrites?

My textbook doesn't do a very good job of pointing out what the differences between the two are. It basically mentions axons only in the same breath as the synapse (that synapses are the endings/tips ...
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227 views

Why do I see an inverted image of an object when I close my eyes?

If I stare at an object for a long time and close my eyes, at first I can still see the object with my eyes closed. But the image I see with my eyes closed is inverted: dark colors appear as light and ...
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78 views

Carrying or packaging capacity of SAD B19 dG rabies virus

I'm wondering about the carrying capacity also referred to packaging capacity or loading capacity (how many base pairs can be packed efficiently into virions) of the pseudotyped rabies virus SAD-dG as ...
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73 views

How can TMS induce enough depolarization to cause an action potential?

Creating an action potential needs at least tens of mV potential difference across the membrane to occur. But the membrane is really thin, surely less then 0.01µm (some reference give 25A). Then the ...
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2answers
81 views

Converting fmri data to association matrix

I am currently working on a new tool for the analysis of (large) weighted networks. Association matrices (correlation matrices) as obtained from fMRI data are perfect examples of the kind of data I am ...
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113 views

A subtle test for color-blindness [closed]

Is there a test method of proving a person being color-blind, without letting the test subject know, that he/she is being tested? E.g. showing the person cards with colored dots like depicted here is ...
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93 views

Does Spinning dancer has anything to do with your eyesight

I came across the spinning dancer as part of the brain test to determine left brain vs right brain dominance. I saw the dancer is turning clockwise. The other people around me saw it turning ...
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1answer
55 views

What can myelination tell you about the evolution of sensory receptors?

I am reading Avi Chaudhuri's Fundamentals of Sensory Perception and wondering if the information given about the somatosensory system could tell us anything about the way it evolved. It seems (at ...
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1answer
42 views

Kinesin-5 / cytoplasmic dynein spatial density distribution in neurons

Is there some way to experimentally determine the density distribution of Kinesin and Dynein in a Neuron? Fluorescence labeling would be impossible(?) as GFP markers would probably alter the motor ...
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34 views

Neuroscience: zapping an axon connected to thermoreceptor

Let’s say an experimenter has an electrode that can give a shock to a single axon. She takes that electrode and zaps an axon connected to thermoreceptors in the hand of her subject. I) What would the ...
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1answer
42 views

What's the best way to measure/calculate the size of a light beam at the sample of a microscope?

I am using a microscope with an LED derived light through the epi-fluorescent port of a microscope. I know that the "field of view" for a given objective is equal to the field number/magnification ...
2
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1answer
147 views

Solubility of Forskolin in ethanol

I am interested in using forskolin in cell culture medium. Does anyone know how to make solution of 10 microM forskolin in 5% ethanol or less. I would like to avoid using DMSO as a solvent. Thank you. ...
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81 views

What happens during a Raynauds episode?

Raynaud's phenomenon can be a serious health issue, as the blood flow to the extremities, mainly the fingers is compromised, causing fingers to blanche, and then turn blue. Severe Raynaud's can cause ...
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133 views

What is the full name of E. G. Gray?

E. G. Gray is Neuro scientist who found and described first the two major morphologically defined synapse types (Gray Type I (asymmetric) and II (symmetric)) in his work E G Gray (Oct. 1959). ...
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115 views

Do people with colorblindness have less cones or no cones of a certain type?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_blindness#Red.E2.80.93green_color_blindness Protanopia (1% of males): Lacking the long-wavelength sensitive retinal cones, Deuteranopia (1% of males): ...
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143 views

In scuba diving, are nitrogen narcosis and high pressure nervous syndrome the same thing?

In training for scuba diving, they tell you that when you're bellow 100 ft or so you have to watch out for changes in mental state that resemble drunkenness. The cause of these mental disturbances is ...
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147 views

How stable is in vivo whole cell patch clamping?

For a head fixed animal, how stable is the current state-of-the-art whole cell recording from a cortical neuron? The animal's breathing, and heart beat must move the neuron relative to the recording ...
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23 views

Hypoglossal nerve location

I kind of know where the hypoglossal nerve is located when I look at the diagram but I'd like to know how far is the nerve from the skin and where is the closest area to the skin before and right ...
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73 views

Does the Jungian notion of collective unconsciousness have any legitimacy in the light of modern neurobiology and epigenetics?

Carl Jung has long ago proposed a rather controversial notion of collective unconsciousness [1, 2, 3], a form of the unconscious (that part of the mind containing memories and impulses of which ...
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44 views

What is the mechanism responsible for the 'delay' in delayed rectifier potassium channels?

I've been trying to find a comprehensive explanation concerning the nature of the 'delay' in neurons' delayed rectifier potassium channels. As it's written in my intro to neuroscience textbook, these ...
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0answers
54 views

Biology Experiment Data (Hodgkin-Huxley)

I'm doing research into the Hodgkin-Huxley Model from an electronics/mathematics perspective and I'm looking to find actual numerical results from experiments on squid axons. I want to compare the ...
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97 views

What keeps resting potential of neurons constant at -70mV?

I know the sodium-potassium pump pumps out 3 Na+ ions and pumps in 2 K+ ions per reaction so the negative charge in the axon increases. However, once the voltage (difference of charge inside and ...
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70 views

What causes headaches (biologically)? What does it mean directly? [closed]

Even though your brain can't feel pain, thingies in your head are installed to compensate for that. Once I thought your head starts to hurt when your brain is tired. I can't believe this any more. ...
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1answer
106 views

Exercise vs stimulants, which is more effective for promoting concentration?

Stimulants are the first choice for treating ADHD. But we also know that exercise helps to improve concentration. We know that both stimulants and exercise increase bloodflow to muscles and to the ...
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1answer
81 views

What is the energy consumption of the brain?

What is the energy consumption of the brain, and is there a difference in consumption when waking and sleeping?
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72 views

Organisms with the most extreme sensory capabilities? (sight, smell, sound) [closed]

Background It is quite mind boggling to imagine what it would be like to be missing sight, sound, touch, smell, taste etc. Question Which organism holds the record for most extreme sensory ...
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67 views

Does pain scale with mammal mass?

Some biological features scale with the animal mass (see previous Q&A). Assuming the same concentration of nociceptors on the skin surface, I'm wondering how painful a 1 cm wound will be ...
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126 views

How long does Lentivirus take to express in vivo mouse neurons?

Does anyone know how long it takes for a standard Lentivirus vector to express its genes (under a strong promoter such as CAG, CB7, etc.), after injection into the brain of a mouse? By hearsay I ...