The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

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15 views

Can nociceptors die because of too much mechanical stress?

In martial art people hit their body (e.g., with small bean bags) to become more insensitive to pain. Can the sensory neurons die during this procedure? I think this is just an urban legend. Instead, ...
4
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1answer
57 views

Why can action potentials not be initiated at dendrites?

Why are action potentials not initiated at dendrites, although dendrites are the first to receive input from the presynaptic cell? In fact, excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) at the dendrites ...
16
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1answer
280 views

How does Sodium Valproate cause neural plasticity

I have been reading a fascinating paper: Valproate reopens critical-period learning of absolute pitch 18 individuals were given Sodium Valproate (VPA) for a fortnight during which they trained on a ...
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2answers
41 views

Do both Carbamazepinum and Lamotriginum increase glutamate threshold?

I have in my notes that: Carbamazepinum increases threshold for glutamate Lamotriginum delays release of glutamic acid I would like to simplify these sentences into a single line. I would like to ...
9
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1answer
109 views

Can people with paralyzed eye muscles see?

As far as I am aware, the saccades of the eye are central to visual perception. If the eye is held still, the human stops seeing, even if light is reaching the retina and the visual pathway is intact. ...
2
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1answer
75 views

What would be required to evolve an animal (non-human) brain to obtain human-level cognition? [on hold]

Could any animal subject to the right conditions evolve human-level intelligence? Suppose that an artificial intelligence (AI) decided to artificially evolve a population of octopus (don't ask why, ...
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3answers
355 views

Does a neuron ever generate an action potential without stimuli?

Most accounts I read involving action potentials and synapses and the like tend to focus mostly on the action potential as a mere automatic reaction to another similar event happening upstream. From ...
3
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1answer
79 views

Oscillatory electrical system using a chain of neurons

Many daily activities that we perform are result of inbuilt oscillatory circuits in our body. For example walking, breathing, heart beat, blinking, etc. The coding and decoding of stored memory also ...
5
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1answer
50 views

What recovers normal polarisation after hyperpolarisation?

I have been taught that a Na+/K+ pump helps to recover normal polarisation after hyperpolarisation in neurons. I could not find out how it does that, since I've also been taught that such a pump moves ...
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1answer
46 views

Relationship between toxicity of drugs and negative effects on brain

Are psychoactive drugs with lower lethal doses more neurotoxic (more damaging to the brain)? For example, tetrahydrocannabinol (one of the active components of cannabis) has a much higher lethal dose ...
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0answers
17 views

classical conditioning paradigm for hippocampal learning

I wanted to know what a suitable classical conditioning experiment would be to analyze learning and memory capabilities in rodent models with respect to hippocampal long-term potentiation. For ...
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2answers
50 views

Immediate stroke/seizure Therapy

Can an oncoming stroke/seizure, be stopped by a setup consisting of a brain-computer-interface (BCI) that immediately detects the variation in wave-form, and then another machine that neutralizes the ...
3
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1answer
59 views

Why does a lack of sleep degrade my balance?

For years, I've noticed that the day after a night of poor sleep (4 hours or less), my balance noticeably degrades. For instance, while walking 20 feet to the coffee maker, I might stumble into the ...
8
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1answer
70 views

What processes are responsible for focusing on an image only seen by one of the eyes?

When a person is spying from around a corner with only one eye, it's rather easy to ignore the other eye's image, since it's probably much darker, because one usually spies around a corner standing ...
5
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1answer
77 views

Effect of closed eyes on balance?

Suppose you want to stand on one leg. Doing it eyes open is not that difficult, but doing it eyes closed seems to be difficult. Why?
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1answer
29 views

Can the Hebbian theory apply to Inhibitory Neurons

If I understand the basic Hebbian theory, when a neuron fires a pulse to another neuron and this pulse causes the target neuron to fire then the delta energy sent from the initial neuron to the target ...
5
votes
1answer
60 views

Neuronal coordinates of C.elegans

Is there a list of neural coordinates for C.elegans? I need it to build a 3D model. Update: What is available at the moment is: full connectome for example, at openconnectome; neuron description ...
7
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2answers
111 views

Why did the Brain develop in the front in most organisms?

I was wondering: why most, well, pretty much all organism with a brain have it right in front of their bodies or at the top.
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0answers
34 views

Neuroscience behind the crash

After experiencing things like stress, intense exercise, or using drugs such as caffeine and amphetamine, subjects often assume a depressive and lethargic state afterwards, known as a "crash." What is ...
3
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1answer
47 views

How does a microelectrode work?

On Wikipedia, the entire microelectrode page states only the following: A microelectrode is an electrode of very small size, used in electrophysiology for either recording of neural signals or ...
4
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1answer
46 views

Oxygenated hemoglobin in MRI

I have read the following sentence: Because this oxygenated hemoglobin is unaffected by magnetic fields, the response RF signal returned to the fMRI scanner is stronger when there is more ...
2
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0answers
20 views

Hypoglossal nerve location

I kind of know where the hypoglossal nerve is located when I look at the diagram but I'd like to know how far is the nerve from the skin and where is the closest area to the skin before and right ...
23
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2answers
16k views

How does cerebrospinal fluid circulate in the central nervous system?

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced in the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles and in the 4th ventricle of the brain. CSF then circulates through the ventricles of the brain and the ...
4
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1answer
38 views

Mechanism behind negative conductance of ion-channels

I am struggling to understand negative conductance shown on I-V curves on ion channels. Mechanistically negative conductance means that inward (or outward) current increases when voltage across ...
3
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0answers
44 views

Neural coupling between Pinsky-Rinzel (reduced Traub) neuron with a Wang-Buzsaki neuron?

I have read two papers related to modeling neurons. The first one is the paper by Pinsky and Rinzel and the second one by Wang and Buzsaki. The first mentioned neuron model is a excitatory neuron ...
2
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3answers
329 views

Can human brain memory be removed by EMP?

The human brain is the most complicated human organ so it is hard to examine it completely but based on what we know do you think (or do you know from some source) if a human memory can be removed by ...
5
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1answer
107 views

Neuroscience of mathematicians

I've tried to google this but everything that comes up are things like "mathematical neuroscience" rather than the other way around. Specifically, I'm interested in the workings of a mathematician's ...
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0answers
49 views

Why can we control our breath rate but not our heart rate? [closed]

Even though we cannot survive for more than few minutes if we stop breathing or if our heart stops, why is it so that our heart beat is controlled involuntarily while breathing can be voluntarily ...
2
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1answer
50 views

Does breathing air containing 3% carbon dioxide gives you a headache?

As far as I know, breathing air containing relatively high levels of CO2 may get you a headache. I also know that CO2 level in the fruit bodies of peppers can reach levels as high as 3% at certain ...
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2answers
151 views

Could an action potential produce few or more neurotransmitters based on the stimulus received?

I reckon that if you would be able to widen the AP width, it would produce more neurotransmitters in that larger time interval. Is that correct? Or does the neuron have a standard amount of ...
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0answers
23 views

Regarding cryonics, why can't you freeze a living body and then thaw it later, fully functional?

Cryonics is very popular in science fiction today, as a method of preserving animals, including humans, for long time storage and thawing the tissue later in the future. What is the difficulties with ...
4
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0answers
34 views

Case Study and speculations of Edward Mordake

I am very interested in the case of the man named Edward Mordake who lived in the 19th century. In particular, he had two faces. If you have not heard of this man, please, search this up as there are ...
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1answer
36 views

Is the motor cortex identical to the sensorimotor cortex?

As far as I understand, the primary motor cortex (M1) and primary sensorimotor (SM1) are notations for the same cortical area in the brain. Am I right that there is no dedicated motor cortex, and that ...
5
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1answer
43 views

How does a change in the potential across a neuron's membrane get turned into a signal that is sent down the axon?

I understand How a signal is propagated down the axon. How the membrane potential of a neuron changes during the course of it's "firing". But I don't understand how physically the change in ...
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2answers
92 views

Are all action potentials the same shape and amplitude when graphed with respect to time?

The most common visualization of an action potential is a graph of the difference in membrane potential (y axis) at a particular time (x axis). According to my textbook Cognitive Psychology by E. ...
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0answers
40 views

Further progression with neuroscience education [closed]

Question for you I hope this is in the right area and all if not please advise on where to put it, Having taken biological neuroscience for a year now as a masters program I feel like I want to go ...
4
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1answer
56 views

What happens when someone is stung by a jellyfish?

What happens in the human body when someone is stung by a jellyfish; namely a box jelly. Judging by what I have heard about the stings I'm guessing that they involve a neurotoxin. But what is ...
7
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2answers
121 views

Is it possible for a human to wake up in a wrong way?

There's an old folk saying that goes like "He got out of bed on a wrong foot" - to indicate that the person's day is going poorly because of the way that person woke up. Is it is possible for a human ...
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0answers
56 views

Criteria for compound action potential thresholds

As opposed to action potential thresholds (which are binary yes/no events), electrophysiological thresholds of compound action potentials are arbitrary. Mostly a certain noise level is picked and when ...
5
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1answer
70 views

How precisely can we sense temperature differences?

We have thermoreceptors, thus we can sense temperature (both warm and cold). I'm interested in the sensitivity of our thermoreceptors - What is the smallest temperature difference that we can sense? ...
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4answers
1k views

How and where, in the human brain, are memories stored?

Background I am a computer programmer who is fascinated by artificial intelligence and artificial neural networks, and I am becoming more curious about how biological neural networks work. Context ...
14
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1answer
201 views

Effect of pupil responses on the electroretinogram

The electroretinogram (ERG) is generally considered to reflect the retinal processing of a light stimulus, typically a photoreceptor response followed by secondary neuronal activity. I am wondering ...
6
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2answers
60 views

What features cause mechano sensory adaptation?

In relation to mechanoreceptors (e.g. pacinian corpuscles), what stops a constant stimulus from producing action potentials? I understand that adaption is used to filter out stimuli that aren't ...
3
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2answers
230 views

What happens in the synapse when cocaine administration occurs in the human brain

As far as i know when you accept cocaine in your blood some cocaine molecules reach some synapses in your brain and fill some Reuptake tunnels preventing the cell to simply "do not know that fired ...
3
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1answer
28 views

Safe parameters for external nerve stimulation using electrical impulses

Introduction I've recently stumbled upon David Eagleman's TED talk on the concept of sensory substitution and addition. Being the most inspiring thing I've seen on the internet for the last few ...
7
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1answer
38 views

Behavioral change in dolphins during different hemispheres activity periods?

It is known that dolphins never sleep in the sense that we do, instead they have one hemisphere of the brain sleeping while the other one is awake. I wonder, do they show observable changes in ...
4
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1answer
65 views

How pain can stimulate the vagus nerve

I'm trying to find out why a prompt, severe, short pain is causing a stimulation of the vagus nerve. What could the physiological explanation be? Is that because the pain is triggering the ...
6
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2answers
123 views

Is there a biological neuron that spikes in response to hyperpolarizing currents?

As some background I've been building Electrophysiological models of neurons, and in the process stumbled upon a model, that in all respects is biologically plausible, but has a bizarre property I ...
8
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4answers
878 views

Is there any way a human could whistle and be unable to speak?

Is there any situation anatomically, where a human could understand the speech of others perfectly, without any capabilities of speech themselves, but would retain the ability to whistle with a tune? ...
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1answer
41 views

Why are skin tactile receptors considered to be phasic receptors?

A phasic receptor by definition is one that quickly adapts to change. In terms of neuron firing, this means that it does not trigger another firing because the receptors are used to the stimulus. But ...