The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

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How does Sodium Valproate cause neural plasticity

I have been reading a fascinating paper: Valproate reopens critical-period learning of absolute pitch 18 individuals were given Sodium Valproate (VPA) for a fortnight during which they trained on a ...
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21 views

Neural coupling between Pinsky-Rinzel (reduced Traub) neuron with a Wang-Buzsaki neuron?

I have read two papers related to modeling neurons. The first one is the paper by Pinsky and Rinzel and the second one by Wang and Buzsaki. The first mentioned neuron model is a excitatory neuron ...
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3answers
306 views

Can human brain memory be removed by EMP?

The human brain is the most complicated human organ so it is hard to examine it completely but based on what we know do you think (or do you know from some source) if a human memory can be removed by ...
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1answer
103 views

Neuroscience of mathematicians

I've tried to google this but everything that comes up are things like "mathematical neuroscience" rather than the other way around. Specifically, I'm interested in the workings of a mathematician's ...
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61 views

Oscillatory electrical system using a chain of neurons

Many daily activities that we perform are result of inbuilt oscillatory circuits in our body. For example walking, breathing, heart beat, blinking, etc. The coding and decoding of stored memory also ...
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41 views

Why can we control our breath rate but not our heart rate? [closed]

Even though we cannot survive for more than few minutes if we stop breathing or if our heart stops, why is it so that our heart beat is controlled involuntarily while breathing can be voluntarily ...
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2answers
29 views

Immediate stroke/seizure Therapy

Can an oncoming stroke/seizure, be stopped by a setup consisting of a brain-computer-interface (BCI) that immediately detects the variation in wave-form, and then another machine that neutralizes the ...
4
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1answer
51 views

Neuronal coordinates of C.elegans

Is there a list of neural coordinates for C.elegans? I need it to build a 3D model. Update: What is available at the moment is: full connectome for example, at openconnectome; neuron description ...
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85 views

Why did the Brain develop in the front in most organisms?

I was wondering: why most, well, pretty much all organism with a brain have it right in front of their bodies or at the top.
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1answer
47 views

Does breathing air containing 3% carbon dioxide gives you a headache?

As far as I know, breathing air containing relatively high levels of CO2 may get you a headache. I also know that CO2 level in the fruit bodies of peppers can reach levels as high as 3% at certain ...
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2answers
144 views

Could an action potential produce few or more neurotransmitters based on the stimulus received?

I reckon that if you would be able to widen the AP width, it would produce more neurotransmitters in that larger time interval. Is that correct? Or does the neuron have a standard amount of ...
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21 views

Regarding cryonics, why can't you freeze a living body and then thaw it later, fully functional?

Cryonics is very popular in science fiction today, as a method of preserving animals, including humans, for long time storage and thawing the tissue later in the future. What is the difficulties with ...
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28 views

Case Study and speculations of Edward Mordake

I am very interested in the case of the man named Edward Mordake who lived in the 19th century. In particular, he had two faces. If you have not heard of this man, please, search this up as there are ...
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1answer
35 views

Is the motor cortex identical to the sensorimotor cortex?

As far as I understand, the primary motor cortex (M1) and primary sensorimotor (SM1) are notations for the same cortical area in the brain. Am I right that there is no dedicated motor cortex, and that ...
4
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1answer
41 views

How does a change in the potential across a neuron's membrane get turned into a signal that is sent down the axon?

I understand How a signal is propagated down the axon. How the membrane potential of a neuron changes during the course of it's "firing". But I don't understand how physically the change in ...
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3answers
321 views

Does a neuron ever generate an action potential without stimuli?

Most accounts I read involving action potentials and synapses and the like tend to focus mostly on the action potential as a mere automatic reaction to another similar event happening upstream. From ...
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1answer
27 views

How does a microelectrode work?

On Wikipedia, the entire microelectrode page states only the following: A microelectrode is an electrode of very small size, used in electrophysiology for either recording of neural signals or ...
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2answers
73 views

Are all action potentials the same shape and amplitude when graphed with respect to time?

The most common visualization of an action potential is a graph of the difference in membrane potential (y axis) at a particular time (x axis). According to my textbook Cognitive Psychology by E. ...
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39 views

Further progression with neuroscience education [closed]

Question for you I hope this is in the right area and all if not please advise on where to put it, Having taken biological neuroscience for a year now as a masters program I feel like I want to go ...
4
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1answer
51 views

What happens when someone is stung by a jellyfish?

What happens in the human body when someone is stung by a jellyfish; namely a box jelly. Judging by what I have heard about the stings I'm guessing that they involve a neurotoxin. But what is ...
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2answers
119 views

Is it possible for a human to wake up in a wrong way?

There's an old folk saying that goes like "He got out of bed on a wrong foot" - to indicate that the person's day is going poorly because of the way that person woke up. Is it is possible for a human ...
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0answers
54 views

Criteria for compound action potential thresholds

As opposed to action potential thresholds (which are binary yes/no events), electrophysiological thresholds of compound action potentials are arbitrary. Mostly a certain noise level is picked and when ...
5
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1answer
64 views

How precisely can we sense temperature differences?

We have thermoreceptors, thus we can sense temperature (both warm and cold). I'm interested in the sensitivity of our thermoreceptors - What is the smallest temperature difference that we can sense? ...
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4answers
2k views

How and where, in the human brain, are memories stored?

Background I am a computer programmer who is fascinated by artificial intelligence and artificial neural networks, and I am becoming more curious about how biological neural networks work. Context ...
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1answer
195 views

Effect of pupil responses on the electroretinogram

The electroretinogram (ERG) is generally considered to reflect the retinal processing of a light stimulus, typically a photoreceptor response followed by secondary neuronal activity. I am wondering ...
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2answers
57 views

What features cause mechano sensory adaptation?

In relation to mechanoreceptors (e.g. pacinian corpuscles), what stops a constant stimulus from producing action potentials? I understand that adaption is used to filter out stimuli that aren't ...
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2answers
221 views

What happens in the synapse when cocaine administration occurs in the human brain

As far as i know when you accept cocaine in your blood some cocaine molecules reach some synapses in your brain and fill some Reuptake tunnels preventing the cell to simply "do not know that fired ...
3
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1answer
27 views

Safe parameters for external nerve stimulation using electrical impulses

Introduction I've recently stumbled upon David Eagleman's TED talk on the concept of sensory substitution and addition. Being the most inspiring thing I've seen on the internet for the last few ...
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35 views

Behavioral change in dolphins during different hemispheres activity periods?

It is known that dolphins never sleep in the sense that we do, instead they have one hemisphere of the brain sleeping while the other one is awake. I wonder, do they show observable changes in ...
4
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1answer
63 views

How pain can stimulate the vagus nerve

I'm trying to find out why a prompt, severe, short pain is causing a stimulation of the vagus nerve. What could the physiological explanation be? Is that because the pain is triggering the ...
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2answers
120 views

Is there a biological neuron that spikes in response to hyperpolarizing currents?

As some background I've been building Electrophysiological models of neurons, and in the process stumbled upon a model, that in all respects is biologically plausible, but has a bizarre property I ...
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4answers
871 views

Is there any way a human could whistle and be unable to speak?

Is there any situation anatomically, where a human could understand the speech of others perfectly, without any capabilities of speech themselves, but would retain the ability to whistle with a tune? ...
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1answer
35 views

Why are skin tactile receptors considered to be phasic receptors?

A phasic receptor by definition is one that quickly adapts to change. In terms of neuron firing, this means that it does not trigger another firing because the receptors are used to the stimulus. But ...
6
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1answer
146 views

How is color information transmitted from the eye to the brain?

Is color information sent from the eye to the brain frequency-modulated, or are different colors transmitted by different axons? I know that each ganglion cell is connected to multiple ...
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1answer
53 views

What is the mechanism behind tinnitus?

I seem to have come across two contrasting explanations for tinnitus induced by loud noises- i.e. damage to the hair cells in the cochlea. On the one hand, I have read that damage to the hair cells ...
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1answer
402 views

Are sensory receptors neurons?

Background There are many receptor types in the body, with various functions and various mechanisms of transduction. Receptor cells are considered to be part of the peripheral nervous system, as they ...
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2answers
130 views

Advantage of opponent color?

Opponent process is a color theory that states that the human visual system interprets information about color by processing signals from cones and rods in an antagonistic manner (source). What is ...
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1answer
11k views

What are the functions and differences between axons and dendrites?

My textbook doesn't do a very good job of pointing out what the differences between the two are. It basically mentions axons only in the same breath as the synapse (that synapses are the endings/tips ...
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26 views

Immediate Early Genes during sleep

In Neuroscience 3rd ed by Bear et al. on page 607, immediate early genes are described as related to changing synaptic strength, yet have decreased expression during sleep. The explanation given is ...
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587 views

Is there a correlation between total neurons and intelligence?

Thanks for looking. First off, I am not a biologist, just a curious layman, so I apologize in advance if this isn't a "good" question. Please don't downvote me into oblivion. I read today that the ...
6
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1answer
406 views

Why do antidepressants have a delayed onset of action?

Why do antidepressants take so long to reach efficacy? I've read of theories about it perhaps being due to the strength of negative feedback via serotonergic and adrenergic autoreceptors during the ...
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1answer
62 views

How can TMS induce enough depolarization to cause an action potential?

Creating an action potential needs at least tens of mV potential difference across the membrane to occur. But the membrane is really thin, surely less then 0.01µm (some reference give 25A). Then the ...
4
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1answer
87 views

What are the total number of action potentials in the human brain?

Is there an approximate figure of the total number of action potentials in the human brain? It's my understanding that there are ~ 60 billion neurons in the brain with ~ 100 trillion connections ...
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53 views

How we share pain?

When somebody else tells me about his or her itching or pain in some specific body part I sometimes begin to feel similar feelings. I can think of about three explanations: I feel pain all over my ...
4
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1answer
62 views

What (open) software there are for simulating behaviour of human (cortical) neurons?

Is there any reliable open-source software for simulating the behaviour of human cortical neurons? I am looking for serious software, so let's assume I have access to a computer with more than 10,000 ...
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3answers
211 views

Can the human brain be reduced to a binary system?

Does the brain really function like a computer as in, ultimately every response is related to a binary sequence based on whether particular neurons fire or not?
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1answer
53 views

Is it possible to process electrical signals from the brain and interpret the results as exact thoughts?

If the brain uses extremely low voltage signals to communicate (from what I understand around 100 mV), what sort of breakthroughs would be necessary to intercept these signals and interpret them as ...
4
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0answers
74 views

Is the six-layer cortex model of the mammalian cortex still the most accepted model?

I've been reading a bit about the different layers of the cerebral cortex and its clear that certainly not every region of the cortex has the same number of layers. Thus, the idea that every region ...
3
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1answer
28 views

What is an auditory upward sweep?

I was reading an article in nature communications, when I came across this sentence: "The ‘match’ rule was indicated by either a blue circle or a auditory upward sweep".So I tried googling what was an ...
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2answers
122 views

How can action potentials be generated through thoughts?

I think I understand how a signal is transferred from neuron to neuron (from How do the brain and nerves create electrical pulses?). My question, however, is not about the standard textbook material ...