The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

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What are tail currents?

This is a voltage clamp on an ion channel. When the voltage is stopped there is a still a current at the end (the tail current). I understand that the gates aren't completely closed because of which ...
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16 views

Neuron activity on body parts measurable?

Is it possible to measure the neuron activity on body parts like the back or the arm? Or is this done already? Of course neuron activity can be measured on the scalp using an EEG. I wonder if similar ...
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111 views

How does the brain manifest and realize the intention to resist sleep?

The question title says it all. What happens in my brain when I resist sleep? I would appreciate explanations on neurotransmitter changes, what areas of the brain activate to resist sleep, what can an ...
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86 views

What causes the range of severity of neurological deficits in Down's syndrome?

It's known that the severity of symptoms caused by a trisomy 21 varies from individual to individual. Part of the explanation for this range of severity is the finding that 94% of Down's syndrome ...
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59 views

What is the reason for fear induced defecation?

I started to handle mice for my job and noticed that they tend to defecate and/or urinate when they are scared. The fear is induced by me, because I need a long time (due to inexperience) to grab the ...
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109 views

Nocioception (pain perception) in subcutaneous tissue

There seem to be no nocioceptors (pain and temperature sensitive nerve endings) in subcutaneous fat. there are nocioceptors and other receptors in veins running through fat, but these can be avoided. ...
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127 views

If D1 receptors stimulate adenylate cyclase (through GPCRs) and D2 receptors inhibit it, then why do mutations in both have similar effects?

D1 and D2 both refer to specific types of dopamine receptors. I'm sure it has something to do with the fact that the D1 receptors are in regions different from D2 receptors. I know that adenylate ...
3
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32 views

What is an extinction test?

In Stolerman & Olufsen (2001) I read the sentence: After drug-appropriate responding with the training mixtures reached 85%, generalisation to ethanol was examined in extinction tests. ...
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0answers
21 views

How are targets formed for axon growth cones (CNS)?

Axons have growth cones which find a route to their target using multiple methods (guidepost cells, attraction to target, etc...). My question is, what is the process that actually forms the target? ...
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87 views

Neural coupling between Pinsky-Rinzel (reduced Traub) neuron with a Wang-Buzsaki neuron?

I have read two papers related to modeling neurons. The first one is the paper by Pinsky and Rinzel and the second one by Wang and Buzsaki. The first mentioned neuron model is a excitatory neuron ...
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80 views

How we share pain?

When somebody else tells me about his or her itching or pain in some specific body part I sometimes begin to feel similar feelings. I can think of about three explanations: I feel pain all over my ...
3
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0answers
66 views

The Operation of tuning in the S1 layer of ventral model

According to my previous question in ventral Stream pathway and architecture, I want now to get a brief example about how the S1 layer is constructed. In other words, how all the simple units are ...
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29 views

Nerve endings on the skin

We can perceive sensation of pain if we are poked on any part of the skin. Does this mean there is a nerve ending at every point on the skin? Does this also mean that each of these nerves go all ...
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0answers
16 views

Why do fishes have both a gustatory and an olfactory system?

I would like to know if there is a know reason for which fishes (and many aquatic species) have both an olfactory and a gustatory system. As far as I know, in all fish species the chemoreceptors, ...
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0answers
18 views

Pearson correlation of neural responses with it's linear estimation

I am trying to anderstand the following fact from this article (page 13): How can single neurons predict behavior Suppose I have a linear estimation of a stimulus: $ \hat{s} = \mathbf{w}^T(\mathbf{r} ...
2
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0answers
14 views

How do the connections from V1 to V2 form during early development of the human brain?

I am wondering how corticocortical efferents from layer I and II in V1 develop to forward visual information to layer IV in V2. Is there topology preservation in these connections from the beginning ...
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0answers
48 views

How do Binaural Beats Work?

We have a project on different ways of relaxation. One way I found out was binaural beats. Could anyone please tell me how they work. You guys are masters when it comes to simplifying things! All I ...
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0answers
31 views

Textbook on molecular basis of memory

Looking at the rules in the meta, it seems book-recs are a little on the iffy side for on-topic so I hope this is okay. I am looking for a (graduate-level) textbook that has a thorough treatment of ...
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0answers
19 views

Limits of brain neuronal spatial mapping

It is being claimed that brain maps the world space in (roughly) 1-to-1 correspondance of a place to a neuron (link1, link2). My question is: as the mapping happens in 1-to-1 manner, then is it ...
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90 views

How does an increased amplitude affect nerve conduction velocity?

My professor said that increasing the amplitude (the amount of depolarization e.g. depolarizing from -80 mV instead of -50 mV) leads to a greater conduction velocity.
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28 views

Hypoglossal nerve location

I kind of know where the hypoglossal nerve is located when I look at the diagram but I'd like to know how far is the nerve from the skin and where is the closest area to the skin before and right ...
2
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0answers
131 views

Does the Jungian notion of collective unconsciousness have any legitimacy in the light of modern neurobiology and epigenetics?

Carl Jung has long ago proposed a rather controversial notion of collective unconsciousness [1, 2, 3], a form of the unconscious (that part of the mind containing memories and impulses of which ...
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0answers
78 views

Biology Experiment Data (Hodgkin-Huxley)

I'm doing research into the Hodgkin-Huxley Model from an electronics/mathematics perspective and I'm looking to find actual numerical results from experiments on squid axons. I want to compare the ...
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70 views

Does pain scale with mammal mass?

Some biological features scale with the animal mass (see previous Q&A). Assuming the same concentration of nociceptors on the skin surface, I'm wondering how painful a 1 cm wound will be ...
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596 views

Does brain activity generate heat gradients in the brain?

I'm reading this article on guiding axon growth using temperature gradient, and it mentions that the trajectory of growth of neuron connections can be influenced by temperature gradients as little as ...
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0answers
163 views

How long does Lentivirus take to express in vivo mouse neurons?

Does anyone know how long it takes for a standard Lentivirus vector to express its genes (under a strong promoter such as CAG, CB7, etc.), after injection into the brain of a mouse? By hearsay I ...
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78 views

Does Dorsal Raphe Nuclei firing pattern change in response to voluntary breathing?

I'm reading this paper, which discusses how Serotonin may be involved in motor functions of mammals: 5-HT and motor control: a hypothesis . The paper includes the following diagram of the Dorsal ...
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9 views

Link between hypoglycemic events in Type 1 diabetics and clinical anxiety?

I recognize that the scientific community is aware that the chemical stress pathway is mediated by glucocorticoids. The pathway response initializes as a result of some sort of stress (potentially ...
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10 views

Membrane resistance of a neuron

I am about to simulate a neuron activity with the "Leaky Integrate and Fire" neuron model. But for that I need the membrane resistance. I was really looking a lot online, but I just cant find a value. ...
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0answers
30 views

Forgot to cool slides before washing

I just finished an immunofluorescence experiment and I'm wondering what went wrong. The tissues seem dimmer than they should be. One mistake I made was: I completed the antigen retrieval step, in a ...
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0answers
47 views

What happens to the human brain when unconscious?

What part of the brain gets affected and does it harm the brain? Thank you I just needed some extra info for a video I'm making.
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13 views

Real unipolar neurons do indeed exist in human?

I studied that the unipolar neuron in human body are not really unipolar but they're pseoudounipolar neurons. On the other hand according to what I understood from wikipedia (neuron) there are real ...
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33 views

Regarding cryonics, why can't you freeze a living body and then thaw it later, fully functional?

Cryonics is very popular in science fiction today, as a method of preserving animals, including humans, for long time storage and thawing the tissue later in the future. What is the difficulties with ...
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30 views

Immediate Early Genes during sleep

In Neuroscience 3rd ed by Bear et al. on page 607, immediate early genes are described as related to changing synaptic strength, yet have decreased expression during sleep. The explanation given is ...
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31 views

Gastroenteritis virus causing mutation of the Enterochromaffin cells

I am working on the solution to a worldwide problem: IBS or chronic diarrhea following a viral gastroenteritis infection. I think I have an answer. The only missing piece to the puzzle I found in a ...
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0answers
33 views

Systematic anticoagulant injection after a CVA

Since most of the cerebrovascular accident are ischemic ones, would it be usefull to have anticoagulant everywhere (we already have AEDs everywhere) so that everytime someone would have symptoms of a ...
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0answers
30 views

Stress regulation in mosquitoes

I was just trying to understand how in insects, specifically mosquitoes does the process of emergency responding, stress regulation take place? Or in simpler words how are flight, fright and fight ...
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5 views

Why does referred visceral pain not have a referred cutanous pain counterpart?

Most textbooks (for example: Neuroscience, by Dale Purves and colleagues) describes referred pain from visceral nociceptors as caused by synapsing of the afferent nociceptive signals on secondary ...
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17 views

Mitochodria's Role For Neuron Regrowth

Recently an interesting study has reported. Zhou et al., 2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10...3/jcb.201605101 According to this study, enhancing anterograde axon transport of mitochondria is ...
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14 views

Is artificial control over neural transmission possible?

We know that neurons transmits electrical signals. At the present we have instruments to observe neural transmissions, but is it possible to interfere in its transmission from outside electrical ...
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22 views

Sensory neurons, interneurons and motor neurons - recognizing the type of neuron at microscopy images

Is there a simple way to distinguish between sensory neurons and interneurons and motor neurons at the microscopic images? I read a little bit about Open Connectome Project. Is there a possibility of ...
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0answers
17 views

How do afferent mechanoreceptors work on the finger pads?

I'm having some difficulty understanding how the afferent signals are sensed in the finger pads. My understanding is that for mechanoreceptors (SA1, SA2, RA1, RA2), as the indenting force increases on ...
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0answers
8 views

Why are high pitched sounds sensed at the base of the cochlea, i.e. what causes the tonotopic organsiation

I'm trying to understand why high tones are registered in the way that they are. I had gathered that the width of the cochlea filtered out higher and higher frequencies as sound traveled up the ...
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0answers
9 views

Feedback mechanisms for the dynorphin-kappa opioid system?

(this is all happening in the brain). Also it's best to go context-first I think (1) Normally if you take an agonist drug that hits a receptor "x", eventually the brain will downregulate the density ...
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0answers
31 views

Where to go next with clustered C elegans neuronal time series

I'm doing some independent research with the C Elegans nervous system (with the OpenWorm project) and was looking for some guidance as to where I should go next. Right now, I'm dealing with calcium ...
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28 views

Do ion channels block at these temperatures?

I found this paper and it says nerve axons cold block at temperatures near 0C. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1113/jphysiol.1968.sp008656/pdf Does this mean ion channels also block (due to ...
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13 views

How do mindfulness meditation and lucid dreaming relate?

It has occurred to me that mindfulness meditation and lucid dreaming are probably closely related. I'd like to know how brain activation patterns and other biological parameters compare between the ...
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27 views

Is there any evidence to suggest that exercise reduces the side effects of caffeine?

I heard a friend say: I'm not drinking coffee this week. My body can only process the caffeine if I run at least 15km a week. I found this claim fascinating - that exercise temporarily ...
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36 views

Distribution of synaptic connections

What is the roughly the distribution of the various synaptic connections in the brain. Consider the following types: axoaxonic synapse between the axon of one neuron and the axon of another neuron....
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69 views

Is there a lower temperature limit, below which we cannot sense a difference in temperature?

At work I have to handle samples stored at -20 and -70 degrees Celsius, and they don't feel that different to me.