The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

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What stimulates a nociceptor?

For instance, when pressure is applied to the skin, what determines how much pressure results in nociceptor stimulation. And when a sharp object pierces the skin, why is pain, rather than simply ...
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97 views

How does the brain manifest and realize the intention to resist sleep?

The question title says it all. What happens in my brain when I resist sleep? I would appreciate explanations on neurotransmitter changes, what areas of the brain activate to resist sleep, what can an ...
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Biological implementation of convolutional neural networks

In computer science, 'convolutional neural networks' are used, that are meant to be inspired by biological network structures like found in the human brain visual cortex. In the computer ...
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Are cortical columns restricted to somatosensory cortical sections?

From this previous question, it seems like evidence for the minicolumn organisation of the neocortex seems to be primarily based off observations around the sensory parts of the cortex, such as the ...
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101 views

Understanding the brain: how are neurotransmitters released in the brain?

I have a basic knowledge of how neural networks work. A potential difference is created that forces sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium ions to flow which carries an electrical signal to the end ...
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Nocioception (pain perception) in subcutaneous tissue

There seem to be no nocioceptors (pain and temperature sensitive nerve endings) in subcutaneous fat. there are nocioceptors and other receptors in veins running through fat, but these can be avoided. ...
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122 views

If D1 receptors stimulate adenylate cyclase (through GPCRs) and D2 receptors inhibit it, then why do mutations in both have similar effects?

D1 and D2 both refer to specific types of dopamine receptors. I'm sure it has something to do with the fact that the D1 receptors are in regions different from D2 receptors. I know that adenylate ...
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20 views

How are targets formed for axon growth cones (CNS)?

Axons have growth cones which find a route to their target using multiple methods (guidepost cells, attraction to target, etc...). My question is, what is the process that actually forms the target? ...
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Neural coupling between Pinsky-Rinzel (reduced Traub) neuron with a Wang-Buzsaki neuron?

I have read two papers related to modeling neurons. The first one is the paper by Pinsky and Rinzel and the second one by Wang and Buzsaki. The first mentioned neuron model is a excitatory neuron ...
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74 views

How we share pain?

When somebody else tells me about his or her itching or pain in some specific body part I sometimes begin to feel similar feelings. I can think of about three explanations: I feel pain all over my ...
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65 views

The Operation of tuning in the S1 layer of ventral model

According to my previous question in ventral Stream pathway and architecture, I want now to get a brief example about how the S1 layer is constructed. In other words, how all the simple units are ...
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26 views

Textbook on molecular basis of memory

Looking at the rules in the meta, it seems book-recs are a little on the iffy side for on-topic so I hope this is okay. I am looking for a (graduate-level) textbook that has a thorough treatment of ...
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69 views

How does an increased amplitude affect nerve conduction velocity?

My professor said that increasing the amplitude (the amount of depolarization e.g. depolarizing from -80 mV instead of -50 mV) leads to a greater conduction velocity.
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Hypoglossal nerve location

I kind of know where the hypoglossal nerve is located when I look at the diagram but I'd like to know how far is the nerve from the skin and where is the closest area to the skin before and right ...
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115 views

Does the Jungian notion of collective unconsciousness have any legitimacy in the light of modern neurobiology and epigenetics?

Carl Jung has long ago proposed a rather controversial notion of collective unconsciousness [1, 2, 3], a form of the unconscious (that part of the mind containing memories and impulses of which ...
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72 views

Biology Experiment Data (Hodgkin-Huxley)

I'm doing research into the Hodgkin-Huxley Model from an electronics/mathematics perspective and I'm looking to find actual numerical results from experiments on squid axons. I want to compare the ...
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68 views

Does pain scale with mammal mass?

Some biological features scale with the animal mass (see previous Q&A). Assuming the same concentration of nociceptors on the skin surface, I'm wondering how painful a 1 cm wound will be ...
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480 views

Does brain activity generate heat gradients in the brain?

I'm reading this article on guiding axon growth using temperature gradient, and it mentions that the trajectory of growth of neuron connections can be influenced by temperature gradients as little as ...
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143 views

How long does Lentivirus take to express in vivo mouse neurons?

Does anyone know how long it takes for a standard Lentivirus vector to express its genes (under a strong promoter such as CAG, CB7, etc.), after injection into the brain of a mouse? By hearsay I ...
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72 views

Does Dorsal Raphe Nuclei firing pattern change in response to voluntary breathing?

I'm reading this paper, which discusses how Serotonin may be involved in motor functions of mammals: 5-HT and motor control: a hypothesis . The paper includes the following diagram of the Dorsal ...
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14 views

Brain wave and motor movement correlation

I am trying to better understand which brain waves are generated when the motor system (arms, legs, muscles of any kind) are activated. According to Wikipedia, several types (Beta, Gamma, Mu) appear ...
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26 views

How do Binaural Beats Work?

We have a project on different ways of relaxation. One way I found out was binaural beats. Could anyone please tell me how they work. You guys are masters when it comes to simplifying things! All I ...
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22 views

Are axons capable of endocytosis?

There is evidence for the uptake of toxic substances like prions from the cell bodies of neurons via endocytosis (e.g. described here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2892479/). There is ...
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23 views

Development and function of spindle cells

In his book How to Create a Mind author Ray Kurzweil makes some claims about spindle neurons that he provides no source for. Concretely he states that spindle cells: Involved in handling emotion ...
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Limits of brain neuronal spatial mapping

It is being claimed that brain maps the world space in (roughly) 1-to-1 correspondance of a place to a neuron (link1, link2). My question is: as the mapping happens in 1-to-1 manner, then is it ...
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24 views

Are there different types of communication and computation neurons?

I know from my basic education in neurology that the brain has various sorts of neurons. These are usually bunched into 3 different categories. I read in a recently published book including papers on ...
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Regarding cryonics, why can't you freeze a living body and then thaw it later, fully functional?

Cryonics is very popular in science fiction today, as a method of preserving animals, including humans, for long time storage and thawing the tissue later in the future. What is the difficulties with ...
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28 views

Immediate Early Genes during sleep

In Neuroscience 3rd ed by Bear et al. on page 607, immediate early genes are described as related to changing synaptic strength, yet have decreased expression during sleep. The explanation given is ...
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31 views

Systematic anticoagulant injection after a CVA

Since most of the cerebrovascular accident are ischemic ones, would it be usefull to have anticoagulant everywhere (we already have AEDs everywhere) so that everytime someone would have symptoms of a ...
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38 views

Supporting evidence to research paper

I am writing a research paper about the connection between age and active memory. I have been writing about the changes/development in grey and white matter, and in particular about synaptic pruning ...
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21 views

How does the brain train its neural network?

One question that came up learning how artificial neural networks are working was how the brain can train its neural network? When we say we have an artificial neural network, the problem behind it ...
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8 views

How do mindfulness meditation and lucid dreaming relate?

It has occurred to me that mindfulness meditation and lucid dreaming are probably closely related. I'd like to know how brain activation patterns and other biological parameters compare between the ...
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27 views

Is there any evidence to suggest that exercise reduces the side effects of caffeine?

I heard a friend say: I'm not drinking coffee this week. My body can only process the caffeine if I run at least 15km a week. I found this claim fascinating - that exercise temporarily ...
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33 views

Distribution of synaptic connections

What is the roughly the distribution of the various synaptic connections in the brain. Consider the following types: axoaxonic synapse between the axon of one neuron and the axon of another ...
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66 views

Is there a lower temperature limit, below which we cannot sense a difference in temperature?

At work I have to handle samples stored at -20 and -70 degrees Celsius, and they don't feel that different to me.
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Gastroenteritis virus causing mutation of the Enterochromaffin cells

I am working on the solution to a worldwide problem: IBS or chronic diarrhea following a viral gastroenteritis infection. I think I have an answer. The only missing piece to the puzzle I found in a ...
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29 views

Stress regulation in mosquitoes

I was just trying to understand how in insects, specifically mosquitoes does the process of emergency responding, stress regulation take place? Or in simpler words how are flight, fright and fight ...