The principles, conventions, and terms used to systematically classify biological information, entities, processes, but also subfields of biology.

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24
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3answers
66k views

What is the difference between orthologs, paralogs and homologs?

These three terms are often misused in the literature. Many researchers seem to treat them as synonyms. So, what is the definition of each of these terms and how do they differ from one another?
3
votes
0answers
24 views

Why the name hypopharynx?

Why the tongue (like structure) in cockroach (or other insects) is called hypopharynx? In humans I know it's the lower part of pharynx, not a structure. Isn't this anatomical name misleading? Are ...
3
votes
2answers
69 views

What neurons make up the CNS?

I generally see it written that there are three types of neurons, classified by projection: (1) sensory neurons, (2) interneurons, and (3) motor neurons. Now, in the CNS, I don’t think there would be ...
0
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0answers
15 views

Term of the type xxx-troph for a compound not used by an organism

A prototroph for compound X can make it, a bradytroph grows faster if X is scavenged, an auxotroph needs to scavenge it and a hyperauxotroph lacks both the biosynthetic pathway and the transporters. ...
5
votes
1answer
46 views

EC number classification of synthase?

It is quoted in wikipedia that: Following the EC number classification, they belong to the group of ligases , with lyases catalysing the reverse reaction. And we all know that enzymes are ...
7
votes
1answer
276 views

Why is aconitase classified as a lyase?

Aconitase in the TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle isomerizes citric acid to isocitric acid via cis-aconitic acid intermediate. Since overall it functions as an isomerase, why it does not belong to ...
-1
votes
1answer
129 views

What do the names of Immunoglobulin subtypes mean? [closed]

What is the exact meaning and full form of IgM IgG IgA etc? What is the rationale behind the names of the isotypes, if there is one? For example, what does "M" mean in IgM?
30
votes
6answers
4k views

Why isn't a virus “alive”?

The recent news about a new supermassive virus being discovered got me thinking about how we define viruses as non-living organisms whilst they are bigger than bacteria, and much more complex than we ...
-3
votes
1answer
52 views

What are anagenesis and cladogenesis?

Are they two types of speciation? I have read wikipedia but can't figure out if they are really two types of speciation
6
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3answers
318 views

What is called the “area size that an animal usually lives in”?

What is called the "area size that an animal usually lives in" or "needs for a normal life"? Is there any specific term?
1
vote
1answer
17 views

What is the difference between hsa-miR-33a and hsa-miR-33b?

Does anyone know what is the difference between two miRNAs like hsa-miR-33a and hsa-miR-33b? The last letter in them shows what? Also, if we know that hsa-miR-33a targets gene A, can we say that hsa-...
8
votes
1answer
88 views

Cockroach-like insect identification

I just saw an insect in my room, and I have never seen anything like it ever before. I captured a photo, please see if you can identify it. It has got quite unique colours on its exodermis and it has ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Question about DNP derivatives of amino acids (specifically epsilon-DNP-lysine)

I have a pretty basic biochemistry question but am having trouble finding the answer to it: Normally, 1-Fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB) reacts with just the amino terminus of amino acids. However, ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Readers in biological nomenclature

I know that a binomial name may be followed by the name of the reader who has been the first to identify the species and to give it that binomial name. It is not completely clear to me what the same ...
17
votes
2answers
2k views

What's the difference between male and female?

As long as we only look at humans the differences are clear: males have chromosomes XY, produce sperm and don't get pregnant. Females have chromosomes XX, produce egg cells and bear babies. But when ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Numbers in the names of tumor markers

In tumor markers such as CA 125, CA 19-9 and many other, CA stands for Carcinoma antigen, but what about the number?
1
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2answers
40 views

Non-descriptive gene nomenclature

I formally come from a physics/physical chemistry background, but I have begun to specialize in the area of the biomedical sciences and biomedical engineering. I found myself reading an article which ...
5
votes
1answer
218 views

What is a subspecies?

Within a species there may be subspecies that are named using trinomial nomenclautre. For example the Grizzly Bear, Ursus arctos horribilis is a subspecies of the Brown Bear Ursus arctos. The ...
5
votes
2answers
985 views

Binomial nomenclature: Why am I seeing different genera with the same species name?

I have looked online but still do not understand how two organisms can have the the same species names but be in different genera? Do all genera share common species names? Also which would be more ...
4
votes
1answer
158 views

Why do people in the scientific community use terminology such as renal, hepatic, cardiac instead of kidney, liver and heart? [closed]

Are there differences between renal, hepatic, cardiac and kidney, liver and heart? Is the "jargon" used more commonly because of tradition, or is there some definitive biological basis to it?
1
vote
0answers
8 views

Where should one start if they want to go about identifying phytoplankton and dinoflagellates?

I'm a first year university student and I really need help on how to identify and recognize the different organisms observed in my water samples. Are there any good references/tips on how to?
4
votes
1answer
55 views

What was Protein G named after?

Protein G (the bacterial antibody binding protein) is often used to pulldown antibodies, for example in chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments. However, I was unable to find a site ...
2
votes
1answer
257 views

How to understand certain protein names

I am looking for a reference to help me understand what is meant by acronyms such as : H3K9me1, H3K9me2, and H3K9Ac. I know that these are all histone proteins, but is there a general nomenclature ...
2
votes
1answer
39 views

Clarification about taxon (plural taxa)

If i am right, then any category placed at any rank in the taxonomical hierarchy is a taxon. For example Panthera, Mammalia, Solanaceae etc. But are general group of organism (casual groups which are ...
-2
votes
1answer
40 views

Why they choose Positive means diseased person in medical science field? [closed]

In English Literature, positive means good word, but in medical science, Positive means very bad. for example HIV+ is not a good word. It is diseased person. so like that, why positive word chosen for ...
5
votes
1answer
38 views

Colorado potato beetle diet

The Colorado potato beetle is best known for being a potato pest. However, I've just learned that it originates from Northern America and the potato itself comes from South America. So the question ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

What is the convention for indicating genomic primer sites?

What is the most common notation for indicating genomic binding sites of primers relative to an ORF? For instance, if I want to indicate a primer like so: ...
9
votes
3answers
1k views

Why are plants referred to by their Latin species names, and not by their popular names?

Often the names of herbal ingredients in certain cosmetics products are given by their scientific names like Anthemis nobilis instead of chamomile or Lavandula angustifolia instead of lavender. Is ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

Correct enzyme nomenclature

I notice many wikipedia articles, courses, pathway sites use a different abbreviation for the same enzyme. Eg: Wikipedia lists the abbreviation of phosphoglycerate mutase as PGM, whilst wikipaths ...
1
vote
2answers
538 views

Epinephrine vs. Adrenaline

Both names are widely used, with what appears to me as a slight prevalence of “epinephrine” in scientific literature and an overwhelming prevalence of “adrenaline” in popular media. Are there any ...
5
votes
1answer
154 views

Why is it called “Ebola virus disease”, not just “Ebola” or “Ebola disease”?

Why do scientists (pretty consistently) call it Ebola virus disease, rather than just Ebola, or Ebola disease? Many other diseases are caused by viruses, but they don't seem to have this detail of ...
3
votes
1answer
237 views

Are corn kernels considered a grain

I have seen corn described as a seed, a grain and a fruit. What are the kernels or a corncob considered to be? A grain, a seed or a fruit?
2
votes
2answers
60 views

Why “broad” instead of “large” cross-immunoreactivity? [closed]

From the articles I read, expressions like "broad cross-immunoreactivity" pops up a lot. So, I was wondering, why "broad" is used here instead of large? Is there a specific reason?
0
votes
1answer
46 views

NCBI-geo differences between platforms,series and samples

This is the first time that I use NCBI-GEO and I've faced with 3 different categories inside it. They are platform, sample and <...
2
votes
1answer
211 views

Why are Oxyuranus snake species named Taipan?

It is interesting, why are Oxyuranus species called Taipan. The snakes are Australian but taipan looks like of Chinese origin word (it means big shot - important person).
0
votes
1answer
105 views

Genetic notations

Genetic testing revealed these two mutations (hypothetically): IVS11+6G>A and IVS11-4G>A Could you please explain every part of this notation, especially "+" and "-" signs.
6
votes
1answer
11k views

What is the proper format for genus and species names in latin?

When using the latin nomenclature for a fish in printed materials (such as Sander vitreus for walleye), what is the correct capitalization of each word? In this example, should 'S' be uppercase only,...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Differences between Gradualism and Uniformitarianism

From what I understand, gradualism is the idea that small changes affect species over time. Uniformitarianism argues that the same processes that occurred in the past are the same as those in the ...
1
vote
3answers
45 views

How do scientists decide which version of a polymorphism is the main one?

This in fact has bugged me for years, but now I finally remembered to ask. I suppose that if one variation is more frequent, it can be labeled as the default, but what about variations that are ...
3
votes
1answer
81 views

List of dinosaurs synonyms

Is there a comprehensive list of dinosaurs synonyms with indications of which name is now considered correct? Something like "there's no brontosaurus, there's only Apatosaurus", "there's no Anatotitan,...
-1
votes
3answers
973 views

Why scientific names of animals & plants are made difficult to spell & remember?

Why scientific names of animals & plants are made difficult to spell & remember? Mango: it is easy to spell. Corvus splendens: it is difficult to spell
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Is there an organism which has a common English name which overlaps with another organism's scientific name (or vice versa?)

Many organisms have their common names identical to their scientific names. For example, there exist apes of the genus Gorilla known commonly as gorillas, and plants of the genus Delphinium known as ...
5
votes
1answer
54 views

Plural of “dibamus”

Migrated from English site. Dibamus is a genus of legless lizards in the family Dibamidae, of the infraorder Dibamia. Genera are usually given in singular, so what is the correct plural of Dibamus?...
11
votes
1answer
660 views

Dreadnoughtus: Why are new taxa named using Dog Latin?

Once upon a time, binomial nomenclature was expected to follow Latin rules: the genus had to be a noun and the species had to be an adjective that agreed with the genus according to Latin rules of ...
6
votes
1answer
987 views

Why does DNA have its name?

Why is DNA called deoxyribonucleic acid and not something else? I get the nucleic acid part (because that's what DNA is made of) but what about the deoxyribo- part, especially the ribo- part. Maybe ...
10
votes
2answers
500 views

When writing about past research should I use the species name they employed or the modern version?

I am currently writing a literature review in which I am talking about the old research on the subject. When this research was carried out the species I'm talking about were classed under a different ...
1
vote
2answers
515 views

What are the rules for plasmid names?

What are best practices for naming newly created plasmids? For example, a common format is pABC123. What is the exact specification? Must there be 3 letters? What ...
3
votes
1answer
301 views

What does the root “phyllum” mean used botanical binomial nomenclature

I often encounter the root "phyllum" in bionomial names in botany, but I've had trouble finding an actual definition for this root in any Latin dictionary outside of its taxonomic meaning. From ...
0
votes
2answers
821 views

What are the genus and species name of different breeds of dog?

Can you refer me to a good source containing the genus and species name of different breeds of dogs?
5
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1answer
144 views

What is the context in which a species gets the name “elegans”

Quite a lot of Latin binomials from different genera contain the same species name. For example, there are a number of that reflect the physical properties of the species (Tables have the latin name, ...