The study of the appropriate provisions required to sustain life in an organism or the provisions themselves.

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Are apples really better for the immune system than most fruit? [migrated]

"An apple a day keeps the doctor away", the saying goes, implying that apples are somehow especially good for the immune system. But does this idiom have any validity to it? Are apples high in ...
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1answer
24 views

Can I tell my antioxidants intake based on nutrition facts labels?

The recommended daily intake of fruits and vegetables is 5-10 portions (url), in order to meet the "required antioxidant levels" (dark-leaf green vegetables, berries, cruciferous vegetables, ...). ...
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25 views

Do I have to chew for digestion to kick in?

Liquid nutrient-rich products (such as Soylent) are consumed without chewing. But if I have to chew to initiate digestion, are those nutrients really "processed"?
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38 views

Where do plants obtain the metal ions needed for biological processes?

Enzymes employ metal ions (e.g. Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) for catalysing certain reactions. Let's consider planting a seed. Where will it obtain these metal ions from? Just from water?
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23 views

How can plants be grown in hydroponics, and yet not handle too much water in soil?

It's pretty much common knowledge that plants planted in pots or soil that doesn't have good drainage can't be watered too much, or they'll "drown". Regardless of what actually happens, experience ...
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1answer
70 views

What actually happens to the human body during fasting/starvation? [closed]

I recently came across a UN study which advocated that controlled fasting can be beneficial for the the human body and I am fascinated by stories of wilderness survival against the odds. It piqued ...
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1answer
29 views

Do we know a complete list of nutrients that humans must ingest to live?

When the people who are making "nutritionally complete" foods like Soylent are developing their product, how do they know that they've covered all their bases? You need to have protein, carbohydrates, ...
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1answer
48 views

In flowering plants food is transported in which form? [closed]

In flowering plants food is transported in which form? I searched on google and found that it is sucrose. Why not glucose/fructose/starch?
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28 views

How does consumption of vinegar affect food chemistry?

For example: does consumption of vinegar somehow change digestion of flour (bread, cakes, pasta, puffs) ? May be there are some benefits to eat flour meal with vinegar ?
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25 views

Is there a saturation point for nutritional intake? [closed]

Is there a point where the body will stop absorbing nutritional intakes? Let's take an example with sugar: if I eat two chocolate bars, will I gain the same weight than by eating 10 chocolate bars, ...
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23 views

To what extent does the cooking time impact the nutritional content when boiling potatoes?

I wonder to what extent the cooking time impacts the nutritional content when boiling unpeeled potatoes with unsalted water. http://www.livestrong.com/article/340060-does-boiling-potatoes-reduce-...
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0answers
19 views

Will yeast nutrient work for growing mycelium? [closed]

Does yeast nutrient (Fermax brand, intended for brewing beer) have all the necessary nutrients for mycelium to grow? I have a bag lying around and I wanted to know if mycelium (specifically agaricus, ...
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2k views

Why is it advised that infants are fed mother's milk?

I have heard that mother's milk is preferred over other baby foods, because it contains immunoglobulines (secretory IgA), and other essential nutrients. But why is mother's milk so special? Any ...
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1answer
51 views

What are calories and how to burn them? [closed]

What exactly is a calorie? When burning calories, do we always lose fat? I have tried many apps to measure calories, do they give exact amounts? How many calories should be taken a day?
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21 views

How does Ultra-pasteurized milk compare with pasteurized milk?

I am specifically interested in whether all proteins and nutrients lose their structure permanently because of the very high temperature of ultra-pasteurization. What is the case for pasteurized milk?...
2
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1answer
62 views

How does an excessive amount of beta carotene affect skin colour?

How much is the daily need of beta carotene and how many carrots have to be eaten in order for one's skin to turn "orange". I found 2-4 mg/ day as basic need, 30 mg daily over three weeks turns white ...
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1answer
26 views

Enzymes and Digestion

If biological enzymes (protease,amylase,lipase etc.) just speed up the reaction (in the digestion process), then what actually digests the food?? (I'm a secondary student)
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51 views

Real Wine and Real Bread Superfoods? [closed]

On NPR news on the Fm Radio a doctor said wine and bread is the best 2 things you can eat together? A practice observed to this day by Christianity although the bread and wine are badly stripped of ...
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2answers
34 views

Is there evidence to suggest that nutrients in vitamin capsules are not as readily absorbed as the same nutrients in whole foods?

I recently fell ill with a cold, and began to take a vitamin C capsule each day to help my immune system. When I noticed no change in my condition, I began to incorporate an abundance of citrus into ...
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25 views

What are the most efficient sources of nutrition to add lean mass? [closed]

In conjunction with an exercise routine, what sources of nutrition will best help increase lean body mass. Most non-hormonal exercise supplements risk causing liver damage and gout due to excess urea ...
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29 views

On vs. off-plant ripening: which one yields a more nutritious fruit?

Many fruits may ripen either when attached to the plant, or once it is detached from the plant. Which option yields a more nutritious fruit? In other words, if one picks a fruit when it is still ...
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0answers
40 views

How to quantify quality of vegetables and fruits?

I am interested in knowing if there have been studies in quantifying the quality of vegetables and fruits. By simple examination, it is possible for us to identify if a particular vegetable is 'spoilt'...
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2answers
438 views

Why do carnivores evolve?

If humans can live without consuming other animals, then why we do it; from a biological point of view, why do we eat meat? I would also extend the question to another animals, because many animals ...
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75 views

Why doesn't lard taste good? [closed]

I mean looking from evolutionary perspective sugar tastes sweet and individuals that had this perception ate more sugar and survived and those that didn't perceive sugar as sweet didn't eat it and ...
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1answer
83 views

Is a fat-soluble vitamin a lipid?

I read in a chemistry book that a steroid is a class of lipids, and that the fat-soluble vitamins like vitamin D are part of steroids. So is a fat-soluble vitamin a lipid? This makes me confused as ...
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3answers
139 views

Where can you find the quantities of each amino acid of a particular protein or food?

Taking a potato as an example. If I wanted to know how much µg or % of each of it's amino acids there are in 1 gram of pure potato protein, where can I find this information? Is there a freely ...
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1answer
122 views

Why would the citrulline content of the watermelon be so high?

Citrulline is a non-proteinogenic amino acid (that is, citrulline is an amino acid that is not coded for in mRNA), and it is an important metabolic intermediate in the Urea Cycle. The Urea Cycle is ...
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1answer
31 views

What could make a person get ill from not eating often enough? [closed]

Say a person needs to eat every 3 hours, or s\he gets physically ill with fatigue and cold sweating, and this is the case every day. What could cause this?
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410 views

How do large herbivores get enough protein?

The food they eat seem extremely low on protein. Do they need less protein per mass unit than carnivores? Most of them grow quite a lot in the first year, is most of that from the mothers milk?
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18 views

What exactly are polyphenols and what benefits do they provide to humans?

I say somewhere that they are antioxidants, but I was wondering if the two terms are synonymous or if that is just one of many things polyphenols can do.
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1answer
74 views

Transmission of HIV from Mother-to-Child Through Breastfeeding

If a mother is HIV+ and was on medications which would help her deliver a HIV negative baby, can the baby contract the HIV through her breast milk?
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1answer
208 views

What are 'acid stable' amino acids?

I tend to see terms amino acid, acid stable amino acid, and free amino acids used often in ...
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12 views

What explains the different nutrients of seeds?

I was eating a orange while at work and thought to myself, "Why are oranges sugary, and avocados fatty?" They functionally both do the same thing, right? So my thoughts are simply that this is ...
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2answers
43 views

Is there a known or quantifiable correlation between capsaicin and its effect on the body's metabolism?

I've often heard that spicy foods can speed up your metabolism, I presume, due to the capsaicin. Though I'm sure this is a minor effect - I doubt eating a pound of jalapenos a day will help me lose ...
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186 views

Does the human body convert water?

I just read Andy Weir's "The Martian" (which was very good) and one line made me wonder: [...] a human body only borrows water. Is that true? Does all water "that goes in, go out"?
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72 views

How does a garlic clove thrive inside a closed refrigerator?

A garlic clove has been growing very well inside a closed refrigerator. It has developed beautiful green stalks, which I think are the equivalent of leafs. Since they are green, I assume they ...
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22 views

Is it better to eat something that is more or less related to humans?

My question is, would it be better to eat something like a sea cucumber or would be it better to eat a chimpanzee? Maybe this isn't a dichotic answer. Is it better to eat something in between, like ...
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2answers
99 views

How do neurons receive the ions needed for creating electrical pulses?

I really wonder how ions are transported into the brain and the neurons for creating electrical potentials - how do ions get from our digestive system to the neurons? Or are the ions just freely ...
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19 views

How much does the nutritional value of insects depend on what they're fed? [closed]

Insects are often touted as being the food of the future due to their nutritional value and small amount of resources required to raise them. However, how dependent is the nutritional value of an ...
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1answer
35 views

Why is it so hard to find the amount of biotin in food? [closed]

According to the WHO publications biotin is a thing we need. Although its non toxic, so you can't get too much. However, excluding a few (small) lists that deal exclusively with biotin content there ...
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39 views

Could felines live without meat?

Algae are a source of taurine and mushrooms are a source of vitamin D3. Both also contain high protein. So, it seems possible to feed a cat or other felines without any meat. Are there any concerns to ...
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128 views

Why do humans require vitamin B12 supplementation while herbivores do not?

This question came about from reading the comments of this (very unclear) question, which the author did not properly clarify. Vegans are often recommended to take vitamin B12 supplements, as the ...
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1answer
55 views

Why cooked food considered nutritious if proteins decompose at much lower temperatures?

Food is cooked/baked at temperatures that are significantly higher than what's considered normal for proteins/amino acids (40°C). Then why such food is still considered nutritious after cooking? (...
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1answer
109 views

Consequence of Plants as Incomplete Protein Source

Some years ago, in a 1000~ level biology course we learned that the DNA essentially encodes formulas for creating proteins from amino acids. While the human body can synthesize many many amino acids, ...
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2answers
179 views

Can carnivores survive on a (processed) vegetarian diet? Why or why not?

There are many differences in for example the digestive system between carnivores, herbivores and omnivores. It seems that in certain kinds of species adaptability with respect to diet is possible. ...
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1answer
3k views

Which are mobile and immobile elements in plants?

I am confused with this element or nutrient classification in the plants, since some authors set elements like $\ce{S}$ and $\ce{Ni}$ as mobile and other as immobile elements (Citation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). ...
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2answers
423 views

How do roots obtain nutrition?

I have a city garden (see picture below) and yesterday I was nurturing it and I pulled up a small plant. I saw its root system and laid it in the sun to dry a bit and then scraped of the rest of the ...
3
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1answer
498 views

What is the distinction between the terms detrivores, decomposers, saprotrophs and saprozoic organisms?

All of them feed on dead and decaying matter (detritus). Detrivores and decomposers are distinct, as it says on Wikipedia, in the fact detrivores consume macroscopic clumps of detritus while ...
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169 views

Vegetable Cellulose

I'm a pharmacy student working on my thesis. I just want to ask the probable sources of vegetable cellulose found in vegetable capsule? Note: I'm referring to the capsule itself not for its possible ...
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87 views

How do the 'energy making' processes in the body differ for fat calories, protein calories, and carb calories? [closed]

How does the body make energy from each of the macronutrients? Is there a difference in the efficiency of the distinct processes and would the least efficient process be 'better' for weight loss?