The study of the appropriate provisions required to sustain life in an organism or the provisions themselves.

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3k views

How do nutrients get to the cells they need to get to?

I understand the basics of digestion. I know that nutrients get absorbed by the microvilli, enter the bloodstream and travel to the liver but after all that, what is the biological mechanism that ...
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1answer
42 views

What are calories and how to burn them? [closed]

What exactly is a calorie? When burning calories, do we always lose fat? I have tried many apps to measure calories, do they give exact amounts? How many calories should be taken a day?
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1answer
113 views

Why would the citrulline content of the watermelon be so high?

Citrulline is a non-proteinogenic amino acid (that is, citrulline is an amino acid that is not coded for in mRNA), and it is an important metabolic intermediate in the Urea Cycle. The Urea Cycle is ...
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158 views

Vegetable Cellulose

I'm a pharmacy student working on my thesis. I just want to ask the probable sources of vegetable cellulose found in vegetable capsule? Note: I'm referring to the capsule itself not for its possible ...
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28 views

Is it possible to accurately measure micronutrient levels with the blood volume from a Dermal / Capillary puncture?

I have not been able to find much information beyond what tests are normally done with Capillary puncture sampling, as opposed to what tests are possible. Could we test for a single micronutrient, or ...
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770 views

Can animals use the nitrogen in chitin to build proteins?

Fungi and insects contain chitin, which is about 6% nitrogen. Can an animal - like me - make use of this as a nitrogen source to build proteins? Are there any animals that can do this? Are there ...
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24 views

Do we know a complete list of nutrients that humans must ingest to live?

When the people who are making "nutritionally complete" foods like Soylent are developing their product, how do they know that they've covered all their bases? You need to have protein, carbohydrates, ...
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58 views

Can plants directly use sulfuric acid?

In the explanation of the sulfur cycle, it is often said that sulfur moves from the atmosphere to the ground by acid rain in the form of sulfuric acid. Can plants directly use sulfuric acid to ...
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68 views

How do C. elegans manage nutrition?

If there is ample amount of food, do C. elegans worms know when to stop eating or do they store extra energy? Could they put this extra energy to use by moving faster or putting more eggs?
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107 views

Leaves not liked by herbivores

I at times have many goats grazing in our locality. Recently a few cows were seen too. I just offered one of the cows a few leaves from Jasminum sambac plant growing in our garden. The cow smelled and ...
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54 views

How does an excessive amount of beta carotene affect skin colour?

How much is the daily need of beta carotene and how many carrots have to be eaten in order for one's skin to turn "orange". I found 2-4 mg/ day as basic need, 30 mg daily over three weeks turns white ...
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43 views

Is there a known or quantifiable correlation between capsaicin and its effect on the body's metabolism?

I've often heard that spicy foods can speed up your metabolism, I presume, due to the capsaicin. Though I'm sure this is a minor effect - I doubt eating a pound of jalapenos a day will help me lose ...
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65 views

Metabolism of different saccharides

Learning about carbohydrates, I wonder what the differences there are in terms of metabolism, and overall health between the different types of saccharides. In other words, does the body use ...
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1answer
50 views

What is the common diet of food-related IBS patients? Besides most patients being lactose intolerant, what other intolerances do they face?

I am currently writing a paper on irritable bowel syndrome, and I was wondering what the common diet of a patient with food-related IBS consists of. I've already begun discussing the pathogenesis of ...
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2answers
713 views

Histidine - why essential for children?

Why is histidine an essential amino acid for children but not for adults ? What changes in the body occur which lead to the formation of histidine in adults but not in children ? What causes these ...
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51 views

Real Wine and Real Bread Superfoods? [closed]

On NPR news on the Fm Radio a doctor said wine and bread is the best 2 things you can eat together? A practice observed to this day by Christianity although the bread and wine are badly stripped of ...
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0answers
29 views

On vs. off-plant ripening: which one yields a more nutritious fruit?

Many fruits may ripen either when attached to the plant, or once it is detached from the plant. Which option yields a more nutritious fruit? In other words, if one picks a fruit when it is still ...
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17 views

How much does the nutritional value of insects depend on what they're fed? [closed]

Insects are often touted as being the food of the future due to their nutritional value and small amount of resources required to raise them. However, how dependent is the nutritional value of an ...
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0answers
37 views

Could felines live without meat?

Algae are a source of taurine and mushrooms are a source of vitamin D3. Both also contain high protein. So, it seems possible to feed a cat or other felines without any meat. Are there any concerns to ...
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60 views

Zinc and brewer's yeast

I'm hoping for some information relating to yeast nutrition (specifically Saccharomyces cerevisea) in beer fermentation. Zinc is well-known to be necessary for yeast cultures to perform successful ...
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2answers
487 views

Organisms that contain rare chemical elements

By accident, I found a slide from a Polish chemical presentation, that talks about a small group of biological organisms which contain chemical elements not found in the human body, like: B (boron), ...
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2answers
86 views

How do the 'energy making' processes in the body differ for fat calories, protein calories, and carb calories? [closed]

How does the body make energy from each of the macronutrients? Is there a difference in the efficiency of the distinct processes and would the least efficient process be 'better' for weight loss?
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1answer
77 views

Is a fat-soluble vitamin a lipid?

I read in a chemistry book that a steroid is a class of lipids, and that the fat-soluble vitamins like vitamin D are part of steroids. So is a fat-soluble vitamin a lipid? This makes me confused as ...
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1answer
116 views

Is it easier to burn a calorie of fat or a calorie of a carbohydrate?

Say someone eats 100 calories of chocolate vs. 100 calories of carrots. Something tells me that eating the chocolate will lead to you generating more fat. Will it? Is it harder to burn the calories ...
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1answer
377 views

Human Body “Fat” Equilibrium

Here's my theory: If you consume x calories each day with y amount of caloric expenditure each day you gain zero weight, regardless of x and y being out of balance. If you then mechanically ...
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1answer
73 views

Transmission of HIV from Mother-to-Child Through Breastfeeding

If a mother is HIV+ and was on medications which would help her deliver a HIV negative baby, can the baby contract the HIV through her breast milk?
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55 views

Why cooked food considered nutritious if proteins decompose at much lower temperatures?

Food is cooked/baked at temperatures that are significantly higher than what's considered normal for proteins/amino acids (40°C). Then why such food is still considered nutritious after cooking? ...
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3answers
46 views

What are some places where biofilms could develop? [closed]

I'm trying to think of places where a biofilm could develop other than on medical equipment or food processing equipment such as stainless steel mechanized blades or knives. I'm thinking more along ...
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1answer
41 views

Is the sense for salt depending on the electrolyte level in our body?

I often noticed, after (heavy) physical activity like cycling, running, swimming or working an isotonic drink (to recover the electrolyte level) tastes less "salty" compared to when drinking it before ...
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1answer
102 views

Do chickens always lay eggs?

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hühnerei says it takes up to 24 h for a chicken to produce an egg. Is that dependent on the chickens nutrition, i.e., if it does not get enough food or the wrong kind, ...
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1answer
44 views

In flowering plants food is transported in which form? [closed]

In flowering plants food is transported in which form? I searched on google and found that it is sucrose. Why not glucose/fructose/starch?
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500 views

What are the pros and cons of eating earth (soil)?

I wonder if there are any benefits to eat earth. What I mean by earth is the topsoil that is sometimes on vegetable (I eat organic vegetables and some of them like spinach are full of topsoil). I ...
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1answer
231 views

Is fat distributed proportionally around the body?

One guide I have been using to tell me if I really am gaining a lot of weight is a ring around my 2nd last finger on my right hand, if I can slip it on and off without any resistance then I'm fine, ...
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265 views

Raphide toxicity in Pothos plant

Recently I found out that the common houseplant Pothos (Epipremnum aureum) is toxic to cats and dogs due to the presence of "insoluble raphides." I have a lot of these plants around my house and my ...
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61 views

What are the biological and nutritional benefits of having numerous smaller meals a day?

I have heard here and there that instead of consuming 3 largish meals (the traditional 3 meals a day), that consuming several smaller meals throughout the day is beneficial for health (and weight ...
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2answers
87 views

What nutritious insects exist to farm that require the least attention?

What nutritious insects exist to farm that require the least attention? I'm looking to automate simply, in a self regulating way. Edit: To add detail, I imagine the insects would live densely in a ...
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2answers
97 views

How do neurons receive the ions needed for creating electrical pulses?

I really wonder how ions are transported into the brain and the neurons for creating electrical potentials - how do ions get from our digestive system to the neurons? Or are the ions just freely ...
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1answer
4k views

What is the difference between vegetable and animal fats?

I often hear from many people saying to waiters - "Please, don't put oil to salad". They probably believe the fat from vegetables has the same impact on the weight as an "animal" fat (meat, eggs, ...
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0answers
24 views

Is there a saturation point for nutritional intake? [closed]

Is there a point where the body will stop absorbing nutritional intakes? Let's take an example with sugar: if I eat two chocolate bars, will I gain the same weight than by eating 10 chocolate bars, ...
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0answers
18 views

Will yeast nutrient work for growing mycelium? [closed]

Does yeast nutrient (Fermax brand, intended for brewing beer) have all the necessary nutrients for mycelium to grow? I have a bag lying around and I wanted to know if mycelium (specifically agaricus, ...
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0answers
25 views

What are the most efficient sources of nutrition to add lean mass? [closed]

In conjunction with an exercise routine, what sources of nutrition will best help increase lean body mass. Most non-hormonal exercise supplements risk causing liver damage and gout due to excess urea ...
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32 views

Hormones and body mass

I was wondering how some animals (bulls, elephants etc.) become so large by only eating grass or plant based material and why some humans can build large amounts of muscle and mass without a proper ...
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1answer
100 views

Do repeated freeze-thaw strip nutrition from vegetables/food?

For some inexplicable reason from the ladies in my extended family (even friends!) seem to believe that vegetables/food should be subjected to as few freeze/thaw cycles as possible. The rationale put ...
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1answer
45 views

What actually happens to the human body during fasting/starvation? [closed]

I recently came across a UN study which advocated that controlled fasting can be beneficial for the the human body and I am fascinated by stories of wilderness survival against the odds. It piqued ...
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1answer
29 views

What could make a person get ill from not eating often enough? [closed]

Say a person needs to eat every 3 hours, or s\he gets physically ill with fatigue and cold sweating, and this is the case every day. What could cause this?
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1answer
25 views

To what extent is eating and nutrition important in recovery from minor illness like viral fever?

I'm guessing it is important, but just to be a little more precise, What would be the maximum amount of calories above which it is just a waste (or even harmful) How much does the metabolism raise ...
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1answer
40 views

Distribution of nutrients throuought a drink made of plants?

In an attempts to eat my veggies for the day in one shot, I blended together a bag of salad with some water. The mixture separated by density, a thick top layer containing the bits of leaves, and a ...
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0answers
20 views

How can plants be grown in hydroponics, and yet not handle too much water in soil?

It's pretty much common knowledge that plants planted in pots or soil that doesn't have good drainage can't be watered too much, or they'll "drown". Regardless of what actually happens, experience ...
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27 views

How does consumption of vinegar affect food chemistry?

For example: does consumption of vinegar somehow change digestion of flour (bread, cakes, pasta, puffs) ? May be there are some benefits to eat flour meal with vinegar ?
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23 views

To what extent does the cooking time impact the nutritional content when boiling potatoes?

I wonder to what extent the cooking time impacts the nutritional content when boiling unpeeled potatoes with unsalted water. ...