The study of the appropriate provisions required to sustain life in an organism or the provisions themselves.

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2answers
172 views

Relationship between our microbiome and personalized nutrition

Recently, it has been asked whether there are 'metabolic types' between humans that can benefit from a sort of personalized nutrition. One answer suggested that one discerning factor could be the ...
11
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4answers
1k views

Has there ever been an attempt to create nutritionally tailored food for adult human consumption?

For all domestic animals, and for all animals kept in laboratory, complete and precise composition of perfect food is figured out (cat food, dog food, cattle, rats, laboratory monkeys and apes) -- ...
10
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2answers
99 views

Do macrophages get nutritional value from the pathogens that they eat?

X-posted on reddit AskScience here. I know that macrophages engulf foreign bodies and transport them to various waste excretion pathways (sorry if the terminology is wrong), and if the foreign bodies ...
9
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1answer
73 views

What are the survival limitations of alcohol?

This question was inspired by watching one of the Pirates of the Caribbean movies; particularly where Jack Sparrow allegedly survives on a desert island by finding an unlimited supply of rum. I've ...
8
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2answers
3k views

Can humans transdermally absorb minerals from ocean water, and if so how much?

According to several studies quoted here, chemicals can be absorbed by the skin transdermally, at least under certain conditions. When it comes to elements in seawater like sodium, magnesium, ...
8
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1answer
14k views

What is the composition of human feces?

Are there any studies or general information on the composition of human feces? I'd specifically like to know the percentage of carbohydrates and amino acids relative to the amount that was ingested ...
7
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2answers
95 views

Is cyanocobalamin toxic?

I see that cyanocobalamin is not naturally occurring, and is synthesized in vivo to methylcobalamin. As part of the synthetic pathway, cyanide is broken off. All opinions I can find are that this ...
7
votes
1answer
49 views

Why do humans require vitamin B12 supplementation while herbivores do not?

This question came about from reading the comments of this (very unclear) question, which the author did not properly clarify. Vegans are often recommended to take vitamin B12 supplements, as the ...
7
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2answers
208 views

How was the guided daily amount (GDA) calculated?

We are constantly shown nutritional information on food packaging stating this food contains "x" amount of your guided daily amount. A linked to the values is here. How were these values calculated? ...
6
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2answers
168 views

Tap vs. mineral water for drinking

I was told a human should drink a small glass (0,3 liter) of mineral water per day to get the minerals. What is the rationale behind this? What is the difference between tap water and mineral water in ...
6
votes
3answers
101 views

laboratory mice, nutrition, and humans

It seems that many nutrition experiments [directed at human diet] are carried on laboratory mice. Is there any justification that nutrition that is good or bad for laboratory mice will also be same ...
6
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2answers
296 views

Is there a biological reason for spreading food intake into breakfast-lunch-dinner?

I keep hearing over an over how humans can satisfy their entire daily caloric need in one sitting at a fast food restaurant. At the same time I'm looking at the kitchen plates, cups, etc, and they ...
6
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2answers
175 views

Do omnivore mammals vary food preferences based on dietary needs?

I'm wandering if mammals that can eat many different kinds of food (omnivores) vary their preference for food not only based on the availability, but also based on dietary needs? I'm looking at this ...
5
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1answer
92 views

Mites on ginger root

I was just looking at some mouldy ginger found in the fridge under the microscope and was horrified/delighted to find (what looked to be) mites growing in it. I have searched the web and can only find ...
5
votes
1answer
60 views

Vitamin and mineral contents of common fruits

I'm looking for nutritional data, mostly vitamin and mineral contents of common fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, kiwis etc. Are there scientific (published and peer-reviewed) sources that ...
5
votes
1answer
152 views

functional hypocholesterolemia due to very high HDL or low LDL?

Nutritional and medical recommendations about cholesterol seem to focus exclusively on hypercholesterolemia, and as such, they provide only a maximum desirable level for LDL and a minimum for HDL. ...
5
votes
0answers
41 views

Do blood glucose “spikes” contribute to insulin resistance, or is prolonged elevation required?

There's increasing public discussion about the health risks of chronic insulin resistance* (IR). In many cases there's a focus on high glycemic index foods that "spike" your blood sugar, which implies ...
4
votes
1answer
175 views

Possible to Gain More Weight than the Food You Eat

I was wondering if it's possible gain more weight than the mass of the food you eat. At a first look, this is impossible because of conversation of matter, but are there other things to take into ...
4
votes
1answer
198 views

What are minerals (other than zinc) that the human body cannot store

It is known that zinc is an essential mineral that the body cannot store. What are other minerals, especially metals, that the body cannot store? (other than water-soluble vitamins such as vitamin B ...
4
votes
1answer
60 views

Fats as energy source

As we know that the preferred source of energy for our body (source) are carbohydrates but heart muscle is an exception and need some explanation for this exception, that why the preferred source of ...
4
votes
1answer
73 views

Do plants have preference for the form of nitrogen as nutrient?

In the nitrogen cycle (ecology), it is usually described that plants can use nitrogen in the form of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-). Do plants prefer one form of nitrogen over the other?
4
votes
1answer
56 views

Oxidation means inflamation?

All right, I was reading article on nutrition, that focussed on content analysis of pastry-like food product for kids. I have to say that I am not sure this article would pass the imaginary smell ...
4
votes
1answer
237 views

Powdered meal replacement vs regular meal

Can a person live with this alternative nutrition? Of course, assuming that eating pleasure is assumed the same. The nutrients that contain are far better than average meal a person eats the majority ...
4
votes
4answers
220 views

Why can't you just take a vitamin? Why you need a healthy diet on top of that?

From what I understand, your body needs certain amounts of vitamins and minerals to maintain health. Why can't we just take enough pills to obtain these vitamins and minerals?
4
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2answers
111 views

Can carnivores survive on a (processed) vegetarian diet? Why or why not?

There are many differences in for example the digestive system between carnivores, herbivores and omnivores. It seems that in certain kinds of species adaptability with respect to diet is possible. ...
4
votes
1answer
80 views

Which are mobile and immobile elements in plants?

I am confused with this element or nutrient classification in the plants, since some authors set elements like $\ce{S}$ and $\ce{Ni}$ as mobile and other as immobile elements (Citation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). ...
4
votes
1answer
313 views

Is the amount of phosphoric acid added to colas enough to disrupt the function of the kidney over the long term?

Both Coca-Cola and Pepsi add phosphoric acid $H_3PO_4$ to their colas to give them a signature "bite". The kidneys use a phosphoric acid/dihydrogen phosphate/hydrogen phosphate homeostasis as one ...
3
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3answers
221 views

What Defines a Food as Edible?

With many foods today containing chemicals, agents and preservatives etc... What biological criteria must a new food and its constituent components satisfy biologically, to be defined as edible? ...
3
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1answer
5k views

What does the term 'bioavailability' mean?

From what I've read, Bioavailability is the degree to which food nutrients are available for absorption and utilization in the body. How would you explain this with an example?
3
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4answers
236 views

Why do the humans become sleepy after meals?

I don't know about all the mankind, but I know enough people, who becomes sleepy after their meals. Also, I'm not sure, what kind of food do they consume, but I personally get sleepy almost from any ...
3
votes
1answer
126 views

In theory, would it be possible to create an injection of Vitamins, Minerals, sugars etc so that eating was no longer necessary?

I am wondering, out of pure curiosity, whether with current medical & biological science, (or indeed with accepted probable future developments in those areas), in theory, would it be possible to ...
3
votes
1answer
346 views

From a purely biological perspective, how does an optimal human diet look? [closed]

There is hardly any subject as contested in the media as what humans should eat. Usually, such discussions are devoid of actual scientific reasoning, though they all claim to be backed by scientific ...
3
votes
1answer
39 views

Which part of oranges contain fiber?

I think it's pith, but here (non-english country) many chef suggest orange's vascular veins which look "fibrous" and have similar translated word with "fiber" itself. Please enlighten me which?
3
votes
1answer
21 views

Why is it so hard to find the amount of biotin in food? [closed]

According to the WHO publications biotin is a thing we need. Although its non toxic, so you can't get too much. However, excluding a few (small) lists that deal exclusively with biotin content there ...
3
votes
1answer
82 views

What's the difference between diuretic veggies and alcohol that make the latter bad?

So I'm reading this article to Treat Fluid Retention and it suggests Eat foods with diuretic properties. But also Avoid drinks that will dehydrate the body such as tea, coffee and alcohol. ...
3
votes
1answer
81 views

Chemoautotrophy in large organisms?

The major nutritional mechanisms include chemoautotrophy, heterotrophy (including parasitism and saprotrophy) and photoautotrophy. All of these modes of nutrition developed first in prokaryotic ...
2
votes
2answers
57 views

How do roots obtain nutrition?

I have a city garden (see picture below) and yesterday I was nurturing it and I pulled up a small plant. I saw its root system and laid it in the sun to dry a bit and then scraped of the rest of the ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

What is the distinction between the terms detrivores, decomposers, saprotrophs and saprozoic organisms?

All of them feed on dead and decaying matter (detritus). Detrivores and decomposers are distinct, as it says on Wikipedia, in the fact detrivores consume macroscopic clumps of detritus while ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

Consequence of Plants as Incomplete Protein Source

Some years ago, in a 1000~ level biology course we learned that the DNA essentially encodes formulas for creating proteins from amino acids. While the human body can synthesize many many amino acids, ...
2
votes
1answer
988 views

How do nutrients get to the cells they need to get to?

I understand the basics of digestion. I know that nutrients get absorbed by the microvilli, enter the bloodstream and travel to the liver but after all that, what is the biological mechanism that ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

Vegetable Cellulose

I'm a pharmacy student working on my thesis. I just want to ask the probable sources of vegetable cellulose found in vegetable capsule? Note: I'm referring to the capsule itself not for its possible ...
2
votes
1answer
17 views

Is it possible to accurately measure micronutrient levels with the blood volume from a Dermal / Capillary puncture?

I have not been able to find much information beyond what tests are normally done with Capillary puncture sampling, as opposed to what tests are possible. Could we test for a single micronutrient, or ...
2
votes
1answer
500 views

Can animals use the nitrogen in chitin to build proteins?

Fungi and insects contain chitin, which is about 6% nitrogen. Can an animal - like me - make use of this as a nitrogen source to build proteins? Are there any animals that can do this? Are there ...
2
votes
1answer
35 views

Can plants directly use sulfuric acid?

In the explanation of the sulfur cycle, it is often said that sulfur moves from the atmosphere to the ground by acid rain in the form of sulfuric acid. Can plants directly use sulfuric acid to ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

How do C. elegans manage nutrition?

If there is ample amount of food, do C. elegans worms know when to stop eating or do they store extra energy? Could they put this extra energy to use by moving faster or putting more eggs?
2
votes
1answer
72 views

Leaves not liked by herbivores

I at times have many goats grazing in our locality. Recently a few cows were seen too. I just offered one of the cows a few leaves from Jasminum sambac plant growing in our garden. The cow smelled and ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

Metabolism of different saccharides

Learning about carbohydrates, I wonder what the differences there are in terms of metabolism, and overall health between the different types of saccharides. In other words, does the body use ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

What is the common diet of food-related IBS patients? Besides most patients being lactose intolerant, what other intolerances do they face?

I am currently writing a paper on irritable bowel syndrome, and I was wondering what the common diet of a patient with food-related IBS consists of. I've already begun discussing the pathogenesis of ...
2
votes
2answers
413 views

Histidine - why essential for children?

Why is histidine an essential amino acid for children but not for adults ? What changes in the body occur which lead to the formation of histidine in adults but not in children ? What causes these ...
2
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0answers
48 views

Zinc and brewer's yeast

I'm hoping for some information relating to yeast nutrition (specifically Saccharomyces cerevisea) in beer fermentation. Zinc is well-known to be necessary for yeast cultures to perform successful ...