The study of diseases, including their causes and effects.

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Why is AIDS not a congenital disease?

AIDS can easily pass from mother to the newborn, then why do we not consider it to be a congenital disease (or syndrome)
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19 views

Comparing genetics [closed]

Compare the possible effect on an individual of knowing that they have genes predisposing them to type-2 diabetes and the dominant allele that causes Huntington's disease. I am not sure about the way ...
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37 views

On ways to treat cancer [closed]

Since cancer cells are a lot more uncontrollable and mutated than 'regular' non-cancerous cells ( they are more susceptible to heat for instance); if an area that has tumours is affected by some ...
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2answers
71 views

How “exactly” is Rabies transmitted?

Context: I know a person which has developed a sort of "phobia" with respect to touching things that has (even the slighest) chance of being in contact with something that can transmit rabies. For ...
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0answers
110 views

How much should one smoke in order to prevent Parkinson's? [closed]

There are studies who claim that nicotine has a neuroprotective effect against Parkinson's(such as this: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11772120) What would be the minimum amount of ...
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38 views

Of people who develop Alzheimer disease, are those people genetically predisposed to it?

I have read a lot lately about microbiological pathogens that are found in blood vessels in the brain of patient's with Alzheimer disease (positive association). So, I am confused whether there are ...
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2answers
81 views

Do humans contract more physical sicknesses and diseases than animals do? [duplicate]

I wondered: If I get into the library and look into the medical section it is evident that there are thousands and thousands of different human physical diseases. But if I look into the section of ...
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1answer
61 views

Why does a Urinary Tract Infection cause a strong, persistent urge to urinate?

There are plenty of articles on the fact the a urinary tract infection (UTI) causes frequent and urgent urination. For example; on this National Institutes of Health webpage. My question is: Why ...
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1answer
59 views

How can hyperthyroidism induce osteoporosis?

It says in my physiology notes that hyperthyroidism can cause osteoporosis. I've been trying to figure out how this could be possible for a little more than an hour now. Every article that I look at ...
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20 views

Oral Fordyce spots

This is an image of a Fordyce spot I found on Googling. I don't know how to interpret this image. Is this an image of a single Fordyce spot? Single as in a single spot when viewed with the naked ...
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10 views

percentage of animal diseases caused by bacteria?

I know this is a long shot, but what is the approximate percentage out of all the animal diseases that are caused by bacteria? One of the Q&A websites answer it as 90, but is there any conclusive ...
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12 views

Why does type 3 systemic hypersensitivity not lead to shock?

Why does type 3 systemic hypersensitivity not lead to anaphylatic shock or hypovolumic shock, which shows the same features of type 1 systemic hypersensitivity like prolonged inflammation, production ...
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2answers
72 views

Can the spinal cord contain an “epileptic focus”?

I was wondering, is there a possibility of an something similar to an epileptic focus to exist within the spinal cord? Note I am using the terminology "epileptic" loosely here, principally for the ...
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11 views

Do other primates get gallstones?

Which non-human primates actually get gall stones the same as humans? All, some, none? References appreciated! Anecdotes about pet primates with gallstones also welcome if you have any...
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1answer
32 views

Spread of malaria from an infected person

If a person is infected with malaria, how can that person be a part of spreading malaria? As in, if a female anopheles mosquito sucks blood out of that infected individual, how is it possible that ...
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0answers
13 views

Steppe peoples method for healing horses' wounds

There was a custom among nomadic steppe peoples like Huns or Mongols of putting pieces of saltened meat in wounds of their horses to make them heal faster. Did it work? If so, how? I suppose it has ...
7
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1answer
67 views

How plasma cells switches secreting different Ig classes?

In Type 1 hypersensitivity how do B lymphocytes switch Ig classes, from synthesizing IgG to IgE? What is the mechanism? I studied multiple pathology books, it says the same as for IgG secreting ...
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2answers
77 views

Difference between protozoa, protists, protoctista?

Are these different classes of organisms or simply different names for the same?
3
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1answer
74 views

What causes the pain when a bone fracture is healing?

Why does a fracture still hurts when it is healing? I understand the pain at the beginning - the bone is not in its place, there is a pressure against the nerves, also the swelling pushes the nerves ...
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1answer
36 views

How can rapid growth cancer get nutrients in vivo?

When I was little, before I get into biological studying, I read a news talking about cancer would be totally cured after decades. I still remember that researchers had a theory to claim if they could ...
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1answer
73 views

Why does ALS start in middle age?

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) often starts at middle age, but I didn't find any suggestion why. Something seems to trigger the symptoms in middle age. If I am not mistaken, the sporadic ALS is ...
3
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2answers
124 views

How do antibiotics create drug-resistant strains

I've heard for years that low-level use of antibiotics causes the spread of drug-resistant strains of bacteria, but the explanations always fall short. I understand mutations and natural selection, ...
4
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1answer
254 views

Why is an HIV infection considered “incurable”?

My biology teacher told me that if one caught HIV, they cannot be cured because it was near to impossible to be completely virus-free. She said this was because HIV keeps on changing its glycoprotein ...
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1answer
55 views

Disease causing variants and Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

Is it true that many disease causing variants/mutations do not follow Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium? If so, then please elaborate on why this may be true (or not) and provide examples. I am interested ...
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1answer
20 views

use of adjuvants and peptides in modern vaccines?

when preparation of modern vaccines we generally use a part of the microbe or the antigen such as polysaccharides to create an effective vaccine against the vaccine. so when the preparation of sub ...
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2answers
161 views

What were the symptoms of Phineas Gage after suffering his brain injury?

Phineas Gage was a construction worker who suffered a head injury due to an explosion at a construction site. A metal rod was pushed up his cheek and through his head. I have heard he demonstrated ...
3
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1answer
18 views

Is disease transmisson through milk consumption or meat consumption considered direct or indirect transmission route?

From an epidemiological point of view, is consumption of raw milk or meat considered as indirect or direct transmission ? Let's take the example of bovine TB. Is consumption of unpasteurized milk ...
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2answers
389 views

Can people with AIDS get tattoos?

When I do a Google search, most of the results are about whether or not people can get HIV / AIDS from getting a tattoo through dirt needles. I am, however, curious whether or not it is possible to ...
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24 views

Are there any auto-immune diseases caused by T cells not detaching from antigen presenting cells (APCs)?

By not detaching I'm referring to after they have formed an immunological synapse, if they don't ever detach.
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1answer
33 views

What are the limiting factors of pathogen population size in human populations?

I understand that one limiting factor in non-human animal populations is that increased pathogen populations decrease animal populations from killing them, which decreases the density of the animals, ...
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47 views

Endogenous PAF inhibitor in metastatic process (?)

When neoplastic cells cause a metastasis, they can create a protective coat of platelets that counterbalances immunitary response. My question is if the coat formed due to PAF can be undone by an ...
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0answers
27 views

Wolbachia - cytoplasmic incompatibility

I read that cytoplasmic incompatibility in Wolbachia occurs when wolbachia-infected male insects mate with wolbachia-free female insects and produce non-viable offspring. By contrast, ...
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11 views

What's the relationship between Drugbank drugs and SMPDB pathways?

In the 'pathway browse' panel SMPDB pathways and their corresponding Drugbank drugs are listed. What are the relationships between the drugs and the pathways? Some listed drugs are not in the ...
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1answer
33 views

RNAi in nematode resistant plants

Background : Certain plants have been genetically engineered to have sense-antisense gene of a parasitic nematode. The dsRNA produced by the plant then inactivates the mRNA produced in the nematode, ...
3
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1answer
56 views

Does tremor frequency generally increase as Parkinson's disease progresses?

I've been trying to research this question, but most if not all the on-line journals require costly subscription, and the studies that are posted look at tremor frequency with regards to other ...
3
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1answer
72 views

How does botulinum toxin enter the blood stream from the digestive tract?

To my understanding, large polypeptides such as botulinum toxin cannot pass the intestinal lining intact. How, then, can it enter the bloodstream and cause botulism poisoning?
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1answer
39 views

Why is the administration of exogenous Anti-D not harmful to the foetus?

Haemolytic disease of the newborn can result from Rhesus incompatibility in utero. In this disease a Rh-ve mother becomes exposed to the antigens of a Rh+ve foetus by fetomaternal haemorrhage causing ...
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2answers
261 views

Can you Transfer Cancer Between People via Saliva or other Bodily Fluids?

This may sound like a strange question. But could a Cancerous cell be transferred from one person to another from Oral contact e.g. Through Saliva, or other exchange of bodily fluids? I know that ...
6
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1answer
170 views

Can androgen-insensitive genetic-males get pregnant?

According to the linked report, people with androgen insensitivity syndrome appear as male, but have both feminine and masculine outer genitalia. However, I was not able to find out whether their ...
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1answer
55 views

Dynamic mutation and huntington's

I read that Huntington's is a disorder caused by dynamic mutations in the DNA, which means that a triplet sequence of DNA changes from generation to generation. Say we have the sequence ATGATGATGATG. ...
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1answer
117 views

What can cause a lump in the middle of the neck? (homework case study) [closed]

What can cause an erythematous, fluctuant, nontender mass in the middle of the neck? Full Case Study: (Its the last of 6 cases and I just can't figure this one out, because of all the possibilities, ...
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1answer
26 views

What is contiguous premise culling and dangerous contact culling?

I am reading this paper related to FMD (foot and mouth disease) epidemics which occurred in UK. It mentioned about terms like IP (infected premise culling), CP (contiguous premise) and DC (dangerous ...
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1answer
92 views

What is the difference between influenza A and B viruses that causes their distinct seasonal patterns?

I recently learned from an answer at health.SE* that influenza B tends to occur later in the season compared to influenza A. According to the graph in that answer, during this year’s flu season the ...
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1answer
875 views

What's a mouth ulcer/canker sore “made of”, and why do they develop?

Mouth ulcers are red/white rings with a crater. They are sore and last for 7-10 days. What I want to know is what they are 'made of' - i.e., what is the ring filled with, and why is the centre crater ...
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132 views

Can leukopenia in a person with an otherwise normal immune system lead to non-infectious diseases in the long-term?

If a person has developed leukopenia as a side-effect of long-term use of anti-convulsant medications and his/her immune system appears normal otherwise (does not get infections any more often than a ...
3
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1answer
69 views

Liver - Regeneration in Cirrhosis

Liver is the most resilient of the human organ (on par with or next to skin). A very interesting experiment on liver regeneration is here. Even if two-thirds of the liver is removed, the remaining ...
5
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1answer
110 views

Case study and speculations on the brain of Edward Mordake

I am very interested in the case of the man named Edward Mordake who lived in the 19th century. In particular, he had two faces. If you have not heard of this man, please, search this up as there are ...
3
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1answer
222 views

Can Leptospirosis be spread through human urine

I am wondering if Leptospirosis can be spread via the urine of an infected human individual. All of the sources I have been able to find on the web have stated that the disease is primarily spread ...
2
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1answer
37 views

Finding confidence level of miRNA disease associations

I'm an undergraduate computer engineering student, and I have a project about bioinformatics. In this manner, I need to find prediction( or association I'm not sure the correct terminology) confidence ...
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41 views

Should gene therapy safety protocol include isolation?

In the case of a gene therapy trial where viral vectors are used to deliver genes into mammalian cells, including humans, should biosafety and ethical protocols include isolation of the patient as a ...