The study of diseases, including their causes and effects.

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Do any nonhuman species have effective ebola immunity?

I've read that ebola is an effective killer in humans because it has the ability to interrupt dendritic cells from manufacturing proteins that cause the immune system to destroy the dendritic cells ...
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Is there a Lyme disease vaccine?

Each Spring, our local health unit begins its campaign of Lyme disease and tick-bite awareness. I was wondering if there has ever been a vaccine available, and if so, what antigen does it target?
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What is the name of systemic tension of muscles?

I meat a overtrained friend (25 years old) who cannot rest. He has all muscles and most of the skin very tense. He is practising regularly in gym and sleep badly. He moves like a stick figure and has ...
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Which disorders are fully concordant?

I work in neuroscience, mostly Alzheimer's disease (AD), with some work in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The work is in gene regulation and epigenomics. I'm familiar with monozygotic twin (MZ) ...
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41 views

Do people with gout live longer?

Antioxidants reduce damage to tissue (by scavenging the free radicals) and thus may reduce ageing.It is known that Uric acid is a very good antioxidant. People with gout have excess accumulation of ...
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29 views

Near point and far point of myopic eye

Suppose a person wears the specs of power -6D, the far point for that person is 16cm. But the near point of normal eye is 25cm. So, is the near point of a person with myopia (having far point less ...
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140 views

How was the Huntington's disease gene's location found?

I read in the book "Why we get sick." by Nesse and Williams that: Steady detective work and fabulous luck have enabled geneticists to pinpoint the Huntington's gene on the short arm of ...
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10 views

Fibrinous inflammation, exudate and scarring in monotonous movements and ageing

I have palpated many hard organs during my work and studies. I have seen many young and old people who have hard organs, like very hard shoulder - very common. I have interviewed some of them, some ...
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Why don't we see new diseases more often? Or, ever?

It seems like every disease we ever hear about is something that's been around since ancient times, since thousands of years ago. Of course new diseases were catalogued over the course of the past ...
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Functioning of BCG vaccine

I read (from Nature Volume507, S4–S7 (06 March 2014) : For reasons that are poorly understood, BCG protects only infants; it is ineffective in older children and adults. Its efficacy also ...
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28 views

What is the difference between fibrogenesis and fibrosis?

Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process. I used the word "fibrogenesis" as the outcome of acute inflammation (healing). ...
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Can pulmonary infarction be asymptomatic?

I think it can because there are many parts in lungs. Like for some COPD patients. However, I am not sure if COPD patients can have infarction. Lungs have parallel circulation. Red infarct is ...
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33 views

Can a fungus become resistant to a chemical such as Potassium Permanganate?

A friend used potassium permanganate solution to treat tinea on the hands/feet but after some initial success, the tinea seems to be making a comeback. Could the fungus develop resistance to potassium ...
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Which inflammatory response with Cytomegalovirus infection?

I am thinking about inflammation process with Cytomegalovirus infection. I first thought it is about chronic inflammation, but then changed my mind because of virus infection. I think cytokines must ...
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52 views

How do a viruses or bacteria survive outside the body long enough to spread?

Say I cough on my table, then someone else touches it and picks up something I've got... how is it that these things can live outside the body, how long can they manage it, and how long is generally ...
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What are these white areas of coronary thrombosis?

Please, see the picture where the areas (1,2,3) look little yellow: I think these areas are fat, platelets and/or air. I think 3 is fat/platelets while 1 is air/platelets. There also exists white ...
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Are there any forms of heart failure where cell size decreases?

I think hypertrophy happens in most of the cases. However, I am not sure if hypertrophy always happens. I started to think about wet lungs (pulmonary reason for the left-sided heart failure). Can the ...
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38 views

What is ischaemia exactly?

I think it is decreased blood supply to organs and tissues. I also think it is the stopped circulation. However, both ones cannot be right, I think. What is ischaemia exactly?
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What can thrombosis lead to?

I am thinking this question. Thrombosis can result in organisation of thrombus, sepsis thromboembolism, fibrinoid swelling adiposity. I fibrinoid swelling (edema) (4) can occur. Also, I think (3) ...
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69 views

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs), any health risks?

Background: An electronic cigarette (e-cig or e-cigarette) is a battery-powered device which simulates tobacco smoking patented in 1963 by Herbert A. Gilbert. It generally uses a heating element ...
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23 views

What are the purposes of granulocytes in acute inflammation?

I heard the phrase Neutrophilic leucocytes are kings in the acute inflammation. Neutrophils are granulocytes, while leucocytes are not granulocytes. I think this statement refers to the fact ...
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Improving myopia

I have a friend who no longer needs glasses. He previously had myopia in both eyes but over the years it has improved until he no longer needs glasses clinically. He's had glasses for over 30 years ...
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What are the movement mechanisms of thrombus?

I am thinking how thrombus (veins, arteries and heart) can move. Secondary mechanisms come to my mind only: some enzyme which lyses it, probably adhesion mechanism. Blood circulation (flow rate) is ...
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How many systemic reactions in inflammation?

I have this sentence in my notes Inflammation consists of two local reactions and one systemic reactions. which is difficult for me to accept. Two local reactions are vascular and cellular. I ...
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I don't wash my hands and never get sick. Any theories? [closed]

I have only been sick a few times in my life(I'm 21 and probably 3-4 times) and even when I am sick I don't feel that bad and I am over it within a day or two. My family has always given me slack for ...
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32 views

Which processes are included in the process called cells eating themselves?

I am reading about atrophy and I am thinking to which processes the phrase cells eating themselves refer to. Cells need something to survive these difficult times. To decrease protein synthesis ...
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What is the biochemical pathway of fluoride?

Fluoride is a common active ingredient in tooth paste to prevent dental caries. It is also added or removed from the water supply in some communities for the same reason, but in children only. My ...
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Why it is rare for person to get infected with two Pathogens?

Why is it rare for a person to have 2 (or more) infectious diseases (for example: Flu & Cold together at the same time)? Although it's rare, it happens when the immune system is weak (e.g when ...
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Standard Classification of Disease

I am working on a project for health center. It involves the creation of a database of all diseases. Currently I want to classify disease on the base of their category based on international standard. ...
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56 views

How much influence does toxoplasmosis have on personality and intelligence?

Latent toxoplasmosis effects up to 1/3 of the human population, and up to 40% of the population in Australia. I have heard that latent toxoplasmosis has many significant undesirable effects on ...
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51 views

Can pets catch the cold?

Last night I was drying my cat with a towel after shenanigans in the rain and she sneezed! Questions Can cats/dogs/hamsters or other pets catch the cold? How quickly do they recover?
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What are the visual, behavioral similarities and differences between Yellow Fever Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and the Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus)?

The Tiger and Yellow Fever Mosquito visually look very similar. Recognizing the difference is important for tracking and controlling the spread of Yellow Fever, Dengue fever and other diseases. ...
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4answers
110 views

Organisms as potential Bio-Weapons?

Question: Given that with genetic engineering we can customize organisms as bio-weapons. Which species have the most worrying potential to be weaponized for mass destruction? Background: ...
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583 views

Do we actually get more sick (flu/cold) during winter?

The word flu derives from the Italian phrase "influenza de freddo" meaning "influence of the cold". Indeed it is that time of the year when my colleagues seem to have the flu/cold more often than ...
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Could murder be modeled as an infectious disease?

Background "When swine flu hit the population it spiked in certain areas and tapered off in neighboring regions, it hits hardest where people have least protection and this pattern is more ...
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What are the ingredients of Pheromone Trap using for controlling Fruit flies of cucumber?

Pheromone Traps are used for fruit fly control. But I have no idea which ingredients or chemicals are used for preparing Pheromone trap
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106 views

Why does beta-2-Thienylalanine inhibit bacterial growth?

I'm trying to obtain a better understanding of the Guthrie Test, which checks whether people have a disease called PKU. The Guthrie test uses bacteria to check for Phenylalanine (the amino acid) in ...
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Giving diuretics to insipidus patient

I read in Tortora and Derrickson that giving diuretics to diabetes insipidus patients may in fact alleviate the symptoms of the disease. How is this possible?
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Growth Hormone and diabetes

Growth hormone and insulin like growth factors are diabetogenic, so I assume that people with high growth hormone (say due to pituitary tumor) may be at high risk for diabetes. Has any correlation ...
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Transmission of disease from mother to fetus

Can parasite, microbes be passed from mother to fetus through the placenta ? I know some like HIV can be.
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547 views

Why is weight gain a symptom of Cushing's Syndrome?

Cushing's syndrome results from increased levels of cortisol in the body. Cortisol as I understand it however, promotes the breakdown of glycogen and amino-acids in the process of gluconeogenesis, to ...
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What is the cause of the spots on this leaf?

On a hiking trip to the Alps I found trees whose leaves showed those spots you see on the picture. I am curious about what the cause is. Higher resolution pictures of front and back side.
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Inheritance of Huntington's disease

People with Huntington's disease have HTT genes with more than 37 copies of CAG repeat. The risk of extra copies being generated is higher during sperm formation than during ovum formation. Why is it ...
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Do animals get sick from eating dirty food or eating off the floor?

Humans have very strict tradition of hygiene, such as washing hands before eating, using utensils, and in general keeping as much distance between food and dirt as possible. At the same time, most ...
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Are there any pathogenic archaeans?

Most textbooks seems to restrict pathogens to the domains bacteria and eukarya. Are there any pathogenic archaeans?
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Is Diabetes sex linked disease

There are two types of diabetes mellitus. a. Type 1 diabetes mellitus b. Type 2 diabetes melliuts Is either of them a sex linked disease? Can either one be inherited? My book says, "this disease is ...
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To what extent is eating and nutrition important in recovery from minor illness like viral fever?

I'm guessing it is important, but just to be a little more precise, What would be the maximum amount of calories above which it is just a waste (or even harmful) How much does the metabolism raise ...
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49 views

Enlargement of joints in osteoarthrosis

If osteoarthritis (osteoarthrosis) is a degenerative condition, where the cartilage in joints wears down, what causes the joints to become inflamed? I'm reading through a book called Understanding ...
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Diabetes-diabetes comorbidity

Is it possible to have both type-1 (insulin-dependent) and type-2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus? That is, to have both insulin resistance and zero (or negligible) insulin production? If ...
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Reasons why people say that AIDS/HIV doesn't exist

It's been recurrent when I hear people saying that AIDS doesn't exist. When I ask why, they give weird reasons like HIV is a virus created to control economy and to develop medicine, etc. Also when I ...