The study of diseases, including their causes and effects.

learn more… | top users | synonyms (1)

23
votes
2answers
2k views

Why is rabies incurable?

I'm still not sure about the mechanics that lead to rabies being incurable. I know that it can be treated before any symptoms show up, but why is it that once symptoms show the person is a dead man ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

What is the reason for 'microcytic' anaemia?

I know the causes for microcytic anaemia are Fe deficiency, prolonged inflammation, Thalessemia, Sideroblastic etc. All these logically point to a decrease in Haemoglobin synthesis - either Haeme or ...
3
votes
1answer
42 views

What negative effects does cannabalism have in other species (like prion diseases) and how are they mitigated?

It is well known that human cannibals are likely to suffer from a variety of ailments, particularly prion diseases. However a great many other species, from insect to ape practice cannibalism at much ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

What are the real chances of HIV transmission? [closed]

I am really confused about this matter (as far as transmission via sexual intercourse is concerned). I've heard a lot of versions from doctors and on internet. To be more specific: A pathologist ...
3
votes
3answers
52 views

Can pathogens enter the bloodstream if the epidermis has been scraped off?

Assume that the epidermis has been scraped off by a fall (not just scratched). Also assume that the dermis is completely untouched. Does this allow pathogens to enter the body more easily, or does the ...
4
votes
0answers
23 views

Reason for variation in the site of onset of edema

What is the reason for the observed clinical difference in the earliest site of onset of edema in cases of different etiologies? For example, in Congestive Heart Failure, it appears initially as ...
4
votes
2answers
132 views

What mechanisms do animals living in groups (herds, packs, swarms) have against spreading contagious diseases?

While for example a wolf pack provides protection to a sick wolf, increasing its chance of survival, there is a risk of infecting other members of the pack, decreasing their total chance of survival. ...
0
votes
1answer
54 views

Geographical distribution of malaria and tuberculosis

Unlike malaria, tuberculosis (TB) is found across the whole world. Why and explain? I mean why are people affected with TB more than malaria and some say that in cold and developed countries malaria ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

why are malarial parasites specific for anopheles [closed]

why are malarial parasites specific for anopheles mosquito. why do they need only anopheles, they just need lower temperature to complete their life cycle. all mosquitoes are cold blooded, so they can ...
2
votes
2answers
46 views

How do prions transmit their conformation to other proteins?

I was reading about prions and many sources say something to this effect: "Prions may propagate by transmitting their misfolded protein state: When a prion enters a healthy organism, it induces ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

How to Determine Sufficient Time for Melanoma Survivor to Be Considered Low Risk?

Regarding melanoma, how do we determine the minimum amount of time that a patient is disease free for them to be considered low risk? We are attempting to do survival analysis on RNASeq data from ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

What is meant by clinical progression? [closed]

What do the terms 'clinical progression' and 'disease progression' mean? Are they different from each other?
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Question related to pathogen population [closed]

Does only one pathogen of one species enter the host and cause harm to the host or is a certain number of pathogen populations of the same species needed inside the host to disrupt the functionality ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

What can saliva tell about ones health? [closed]

I was wondering if I d want to analyze something related to my current health based on my saliva. What could it be? I mean e.g. by putting a thermometer in your mouth you can know your body ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Quantity of toxin release by pathogen in host

I came across these lines from this paper: Pathogenic microbes exert a broader sphere of influence by releasing a bolus of toxin that can act upon many cells within a given tissue and/or diffuse ...
8
votes
2answers
84 views

Can paper/plastic currency serve as a medium for pathogens?

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/15/health/15real.html seems to indicate for a surface, to serve as a medium, the following properties are relevant animation humidity temperature The article ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Which diagram correctly describe an effect of tar entering lungs?

Which flow diagram correctly describes the effect of tar entering lungs? Tar is a cause of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which includes both chronic bronchitis and emphysema and it ...
5
votes
1answer
2k views

What's a mouth ulcer/canker sore “made of”, and why do they develop?

Mouth ulcers are red/white rings with a crater. They are sore and last for 7-10 days. What I want to know is what they are 'made of' - i.e., what is the ring filled with, and why is the centre crater ...
3
votes
1answer
47 views

Finding confidence level of miRNA disease associations

I'm an undergraduate computer engineering student, and I have a project about bioinformatics. In this manner, I need to find prediction( or association I'm not sure the correct terminology) confidence ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

Why aren't we immune to the “cold” [duplicate]

As far as I know, people suffer from the cold since ever. Why didn't and don't we evolve to resist it?
2
votes
0answers
33 views

Can the restless leg syndrome may have been caused due to natural selection? [closed]

Disclaimer: I don't know how much restless the leg has to be, in order to be considered a syndrome. RLS runs not only in my family but also several people in the locality. My hypothesis is that RLS ...
74
votes
2answers
9k views

Can HIV be transmitted via mosquitos?

It is known that HIV is usually transmitted by direct blood or body fluid contact between an infected individual and a healthy person (like blood transfusion or needle sharing): Suppose a mosquito ...
1
vote
2answers
45 views

Why doesn't the Tsetse fly wipe out all animal life in its range?

The Tsetse fly, which is native to interior West Africa, carries the protozoan that causes sleeping sickness, a disease which was apparently invariably fatal before the advent of modern medications. ...
27
votes
2answers
1k views

Why doesn't blood remain on a mosquito's proboscis in quantities that could spread blood-borne diseases?

We know that HIV can't be transmitted by mosquitos, and nor can other highly virulent viruses that are transmitted through blood and bodily fluid exchanges, such as Ebola (thankfully!). Marcus Junius ...
3
votes
2answers
853 views

What is the difference between clinical and non-clinical depression, and is there a term for different severity of the bipolar disorder?

I was looking for a term which describes a bipolar disorder of lesser severity. I know from experience from someone I know well, what a very severe case of the bipolar disorder looks like, when an ...
-1
votes
1answer
62 views

Why might dogs get sick less frequently than their owners?

An article I was reading cited this study result "A comparison of 2473 pairs of dogs and their owners found that dogs were about 50 per cent less likely to have had two or more acute illnesses in the ...
3
votes
0answers
40 views

Is diarrhoea advantageous to the microbe?

Diarrhoea is a common side effect of many feco-orally transmitted bacterial infections. How does diarrhoea help the pathogen? Should it not have a selective evolutionary advantage? Do all symptoms of ...
1
vote
2answers
623 views

Can you Transfer Cancer Between People via Saliva or other Bodily Fluids?

This may sound like a strange question. But could a Cancerous cell be transferred from one person to another from Oral contact e.g. Through Saliva, or other exchange of bodily fluids? I know that ...
1
vote
2answers
92 views

Can the spinal cord contain an “epileptic focus”?

I was wondering, is there a possibility of an something similar to an epileptic focus to exist within the spinal cord? Note I am using the terminology "epileptic" loosely here, principally for the ...
4
votes
2answers
66 views

Grouping OMIM disease codes

I have ~100 sets of genes, and each set includes between 2 and 70 genes. I'd like to perform an enrichment analysis on each of these sets to test if they're enriched for OMIM disease labels. However, ...
-4
votes
2answers
165 views

What is the difference between AIDS and SCID? [closed]

AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome According to wikipedia, Caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Following initial infection, a person may not notice any ...
1
vote
0answers
48 views

Which disorders are fully concordant?

I work in neuroscience, mostly Alzheimer's disease (AD), with some work in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The work is in gene regulation and epigenomics. I'm familiar with monozygotic twin (MZ) ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Do plant and animal bacterial pathogen differ too much?

I will be involved in a plant disease produced by a bacterial pathogen, Acidovorax citrulli. I've previously worked with animal pathogens such as Haemophilus parasuis. Are there any big differences ...
0
votes
0answers
46 views

What is effect of sperm in blood?

Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Clostridium perfringens all produce hyaluronidase. Each of these bacteria are pathogens (use hyaluronidase as a virulence factor to destroy the ...
1
vote
0answers
81 views

How would the immune system respond to antigens and food poisoning?

QUESTION: How does this information explain the likelihood of a more violent response in someone who has already had food poisoning caused by salmonella bacteria WHAT I KNOW: In the first exposure, ...
4
votes
0answers
18 views

Why do kupffer cells not attack sporozoites of malaria?

During malaria, why don't kuppfer cells (hepatic macrophages) attack the plasmodium and stop schizogony, thus saving us from the disease?
1
vote
1answer
82 views

Explanation of the ‘cherry red spot' in Tay Sachs disease

In Tay Sachs disease, a hallmark symptom is a cherry red spot in the macula of the eye surrounded by a halo of white. I understand that the ganglion cells, which are higher in numbers around the ...
3
votes
1answer
30 views

Why are vegetations in Infective endocarditis common on the atrial side?

Robbin's Pathology says that vegetations of IE are more common on the atrial side in AV valves. In Liebmann Sack's Endocarditis, which is a sterile (non bacterial) type of endocarditis, the underside ...
5
votes
1answer
56 views

How was gene therapy able to cure diseases through the transformation of actively dividing cells?

I thought that gene therapy, when performed on target cells that regenerate themselves constantly, can be effective for a limited time only. I.e., the effect gradually wears off after a while, ...
0
votes
1answer
89 views

What are most common natural causes of death? [closed]

What are most frequently occurring natural causes of death?
1
vote
0answers
44 views

On ways to treat cancer [closed]

If an area that has tumours is affected by some non-lethal disease would it kill the cancer cells first since the tumour cells are more 'unstable' ? Could this non-lethal disease 'process' be ...
14
votes
1answer
460 views

Why is the species-diversity of deadly parasites greatest in the tropics?

There are so many parasites living in tropical regions of Africa, South America, or Asia, but very few in Europe or North America. Is this due to climate, or are there other reasons? Many of the ...
4
votes
2answers
4k views

Why does a blood test show ethanol when no alcohol was consumed?

Why would ethanol show up in a blood test if a person had not been drinking alcohol in many years. What are other reasons for showing ethanol?
7
votes
0answers
86 views

What causes the range of severity of neurological deficits in Down's syndrome?

It's known that the severity of symptoms caused by a trisomy 21 varies from individual to individual. Part of the explanation for this range of severity is the finding that 94% of Down's syndrome ...
2
votes
3answers
4k views

How do viruses or bacteria survive outside the body long enough to spread?

Say I cough on my table, then someone else touches it and picks up something I've got... how is it that these things can live outside the body, how long can they manage it, and how long is generally '...
1
vote
0answers
52 views

What is meningitis? [closed]

I know that meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges surrounding the brain and the spinal cord. But I still don't understand this definition. If you can broaden the definition, please do.
3
votes
2answers
174 views

Do people with gout live longer?

Antioxidants reduce damage to tissue (by scavenging the free radicals) and thus may reduce ageing.It is known that Uric acid is a very good antioxidant. People with gout have excess accumulation of ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

Does sickle cell anaemia protect a victim against malaria? [duplicate]

My biology textbook says that a person with sickle cell anaemia is less prone to malaria. Why is that so? I'm guessing that its because the malarial parasite needs human RBCs for completing its life ...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

Why does HPV Infect Squamous Epithelial Cells and Not Others?

I've seen this question about HPV and the reference therein. The link states "Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus that presents tropism for epithelial cells, causing infections of the skin and ...
3
votes
1answer
160 views

Why is AIDS not a congenital disease?

AIDS can easily pass from mother to the newborn, then why do we not consider it to be a congenital disease (or syndrome)