The study of diseases, including their causes and effects.

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What is the name of systemic tension of muscles?

I meat a overtrained friend (25 years old) who cannot rest. He has all muscles and most of the skin very tense. He is practising regularly in gym and sleep badly. He moves like a stick figure and has ...
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58 views

What is the biochemical pathway of fluoride?

Fluoride is a common active ingredient in tooth paste to prevent dental caries. It is also added or removed from the water supply in some communities for the same reason, but in children only. My ...
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Which disorders are fully concordant?

I work in neuroscience, mostly Alzheimer's disease (AD), with some work in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The work is in gene regulation and epigenomics. I'm familiar with monozygotic twin (MZ) ...
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67 views

Do people with gout live longer?

Antioxidants reduce damage to tissue (by scavenging the free radicals) and thus may reduce ageing.It is known that Uric acid is a very good antioxidant. People with gout have excess accumulation of ...
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304 views

How was the Huntington's disease gene's location found?

I read in the book "Why we get sick." by Nesse and Williams that: Steady detective work and fabulous luck have enabled geneticists to pinpoint the Huntington's gene on the short arm of ...
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1answer
518 views

Near point and far point of myopic eye

Suppose a person wears the specs of power -6D, the far point for that person is 16cm. But the near point of normal eye is 25cm. So, is the near point of a person with myopia (having far point less ...
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57 views

Why don't we see new diseases more often? Or, ever?

It seems like every disease we ever hear about is something that's been around since ancient times, since thousands of years ago. Of course new diseases were catalogued over the course of the past ...
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259 views

How do pet gecko lizards pose a health risk?

Does having gecko lizards living in your house pose any health risk?
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22 views

How many systemic reactions in inflammation?

I have this sentence in my notes Inflammation consists of two local reactions and one systemic reactions. which is difficult for me to accept. Two local reactions are vascular and cellular. I ...
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137 views

Organisms as potential Bio-Weapons?

Question: Given that with genetic engineering we can customize organisms as bio-weapons. Which species have the most worrying potential to be weaponized for mass destruction? Background: ...
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38 views

What are the purposes of granulocytes in acute inflammation?

I heard the phrase Neutrophilic leucocytes are kings in the acute inflammation. Neutrophils are granulocytes, while leucocytes are not granulocytes. I think this statement refers to the fact ...
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2k views

Do we actually get more sick (flu/cold) during winter?

The word flu derives from the Italian phrase "influenza de freddo" meaning "influence of the cold". Indeed it is that time of the year when my colleagues seem to have the flu/cold more often than ...
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124 views

What is the difference between fibrogenesis and fibrosis?

Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process. I used the word "fibrogenesis" as the outcome of acute inflammation (healing). ...
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29 views

Functioning of BCG vaccine

I read (from Nature Volume507, S4–S7 (06 March 2014) : For reasons that are poorly understood, BCG protects only infants; it is ineffective in older children and adults. Its efficacy also ...
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20 views

Which inflammatory response with Cytomegalovirus infection?

I am thinking about inflammation process with Cytomegalovirus infection. I first thought it is about chronic inflammation, but then changed my mind because of virus infection. I think cytokines must ...
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1answer
22 views

What are these white areas of coronary thrombosis?

Please, see the picture where the areas (1,2,3) look little yellow: I think these areas are fat, platelets and/or air. I think 3 is fat/platelets while 1 is air/platelets. There also exists white ...
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46 views

What is ischaemia exactly?

I think it is decreased blood supply to organs and tissues. I also think it is the stopped circulation. However, both ones cannot be right, I think. What is ischaemia exactly?
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89 views

Could murder be modeled as an infectious disease?

Background "When swine flu hit the population it spiked in certain areas and tapered off in neighboring regions, it hits hardest where people have least protection and this pattern is more ...
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140 views

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs), any health risks?

Background: An electronic cigarette (e-cig or e-cigarette) is a battery-powered device which simulates tobacco smoking patented in 1963 by Herbert A. Gilbert. It generally uses a heating element ...
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85 views

Improving myopia

I have a friend who no longer needs glasses. He previously had myopia in both eyes but over the years it has improved until he no longer needs glasses clinically. He's had glasses for over 30 years ...
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468 views

I don't wash my hands and never get sick. Any theories? [closed]

I have only been sick a few times in my life(I'm 21 and probably 3-4 times) and even when I am sick I don't feel that bad and I am over it within a day or two. My family has always given me slack for ...
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43 views

Which processes are included in the process called cells eating themselves?

I am reading about atrophy and I am thinking to which processes the phrase cells eating themselves refer to. Cells need something to survive these difficult times. To decrease protein synthesis ...
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124 views

How much influence does toxoplasmosis have on personality and intelligence?

Latent toxoplasmosis effects up to 1/3 of the human population, and up to 40% of the population in Australia. I have heard that latent toxoplasmosis has many significant undesirable effects on ...
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57 views

Standard Classification of Disease

I am working on a project for health center. It involves the creation of a database of all diseases. Currently I want to classify disease on the base of their category based on international standard. ...
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61 views

Can pets catch the cold?

Last night I was drying my cat with a towel after shenanigans in the rain and she sneezed! Questions Can cats/dogs/hamsters or other pets catch the cold? How quickly do they recover?
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169 views

What are the visual, behavioral similarities and differences between Yellow Fever Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and the Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus)?

The Tiger and Yellow Fever Mosquito visually look very similar. Recognizing the difference is important for tracking and controlling the spread of Yellow Fever, Dengue fever and other diseases. ...
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57 views

What are the ingredients of Pheromone Trap using for controlling Fruit flies of cucumber?

Pheromone Traps are used for fruit fly control. But I have no idea which ingredients or chemicals are used for preparing Pheromone trap
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190 views

Why does beta-2-Thienylalanine inhibit bacterial growth?

I'm trying to obtain a better understanding of the Guthrie Test, which checks whether people have a disease called PKU. The Guthrie test uses bacteria to check for Phenylalanine (the amino acid) in ...
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46 views

Growth Hormone and diabetes

Growth hormone and insulin like growth factors are diabetogenic, so I assume that people with high growth hormone (say due to pituitary tumor) may be at high risk for diabetes. Has any correlation ...
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Giving diuretics to insipidus patient

I read in Tortora and Derrickson that giving diuretics to diabetes insipidus patients may in fact alleviate the symptoms of the disease. How is this possible?
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Transmission of disease from mother to fetus

Can parasite, microbes be passed from mother to fetus through the placenta ? I know some like HIV can be.
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57 views

What is the cause of the spots on this leaf?

On a hiking trip to the Alps I found trees whose leaves showed those spots you see on the picture. I am curious about what the cause is. Higher resolution pictures of front and back side.
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22 views

To what extent is eating and nutrition important in recovery from minor illness like viral fever?

I'm guessing it is important, but just to be a little more precise, What would be the maximum amount of calories above which it is just a waste (or even harmful) How much does the metabolism raise ...
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1answer
161 views

Inheritance of Huntington's disease

People with Huntington's disease have HTT genes with more than 37 copies of CAG repeat. The risk of extra copies being generated is higher during sperm formation than during ovum formation. Why is it ...
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Do animals get sick from eating dirty food or eating off the floor?

Humans have very strict tradition of hygiene, such as washing hands before eating, using utensils, and in general keeping as much distance between food and dirt as possible. At the same time, most ...
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195 views

By what mechanism does coeliac disease cause excess fat in the feces?

Wikipedia states that “Severe coeliac disease leads to the characteristic symptoms of pale, loose and greasy stool (steatorrhoea)”. However thumbing through the causes and the pathophysiology it did ...
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Are there any pathogenic archaeans?

Most textbooks seems to restrict pathogens to the domains bacteria and eukarya. Are there any pathogenic archaeans?
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3k views

Is Diabetes sex linked disease

There are two types of diabetes mellitus. a. Type 1 diabetes mellitus b. Type 2 diabetes melliuts Is either of them a sex linked disease? Can either one be inherited? My book says, "this disease is ...
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1answer
73 views

Enlargement of joints in osteoarthrosis

If osteoarthritis (osteoarthrosis) is a degenerative condition, where the cartilage in joints wears down, what causes the joints to become inflamed? I'm reading through a book called Understanding ...
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60 views

Diabetes-diabetes comorbidity

Is it possible to have both type-1 (insulin-dependent) and type-2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus? That is, to have both insulin resistance and zero (or negligible) insulin production? If ...
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Preventing Diabetes by preventing stress?

I have came to know that taking a lot of stress increases the risk of Diabetes, and patients of Diabetes are adviced not to take too much stress, am i correct? if yes then I am unable to understand ...
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Avian Diseases : How to Disinfect [closed]

How can I sanitize a bird's carcass so that no diseases are present after disinfection? I was thinking $\gamma$-ray bombardment since ozonation would only surface disinfect.
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1k views

How do liver and lung metastases cause death?

Metastasis to the liver and lungs are the main causes of death in colorectal cancer.(1) I understand that colorectal cancer may have metastases. But how do these metastases cause death? Reference ...
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58 views

What is the disadvantage of having no anticoagulation after pulmonary embolism?

Is chronic anticoagulation always given after pulmonary embolism? What are the risks or disadvantages if anticoagulation is not given? if terminated early?
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148 views

By what mechanism is Streptococcus bovis acting as a risk factor for colorectal cancer?

Streptococcus bovis bacteremia/endocarditis is considered a risk factor for colorectal cancer. What pathophysiological mechanism may link the two together?
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318 views

By what mechanism does an obstructed bile duct cause excess fat in the stool?

By what mechanism does an obstructed bile duct (for example gallstones) cause steatorrhoea (excess fat in the stool)?
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74 views

What are some of the immediate challenges to break through before finding a cure for mad cow disease?

What are the immediate challenges to break through in seeking a cure for mad cow disease? I know that mad cow disease has no treatment as of yet.
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2answers
490 views

Iron deficiency anemia symptoms explanation

In my classes and on the internet, brittle nails and dry hair (or hair loss) are described as symptoms of iron deficiency anemia, but none explains the cause of such symptoms. Does anyone have any ...
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261 views

What factors govern the variable age of onset in Huntington's Disease?

"Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination and leads to cognitive decline and psychiatric problems." As we all know, this genetic disease ...
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71 views

Whence fecal E. coli (et al.) if swallowing it is dangerous?

I don't know much about medicine, and I know even less about microbiology, but I understand that there are organisms in the lower gastrointestinal tract (and in feces) of a human, like Escherichia ...