The study of diseases, including their causes and effects.

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How do prions transmit their conformation to other proteins?

I was reading about prions and many sources say something to this effect: "Prions may propagate by transmitting their misfolded protein state: When a prion enters a healthy organism, it induces ...
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2answers
38 views

Geographical distribution of malaria and tuberculosis

Unlike malaria, tuberculosis (TB) is found across the whole world. Why and explain? I mean why are people affected with TB more than malaria and some say that in cold and developed countries malaria ...
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115 views

What causes the pain when a bone fracture is healing?

Why does a fracture still hurts when it is healing? I understand the pain at the beginning - the bone is not in its place, there is a pressure against the nerves, also the swelling pushes the nerves ...
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16 views

What is the reason for 'microcytic' anaemia?

I know the causes for microcytic anaemia are Fe deficiency, prolonged inflammation, Thalessemia, Sideroblastic etc. All these logically point to a decrease in Haemoglobin synthesis - either Haeme or ...
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What causes the range of severity of neurological deficits in Down's syndrome?

It's known that the severity of symptoms caused by a trisomy 21 varies from individual to individual. Part of the explanation for this range of severity is the finding that 94% of Down's syndrome ...
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Why do kupffer cells not attack sporozoites of malaria?

During malaria, why don't kuppfer cells (hepatic macrophages) attack the plasmodium and stop schizogony, thus saving us from the disease?
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Is diarrhoea advantageous to the microbe?

Diarrhoea is a common side effect of many feco-orally transmitted bacterial infections. How does diarrhoea help the pathogen? Should it not have a selective evolutionary advantage? Do all symptoms of ...
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41 views

Should gene therapy safety protocol include isolation?

In the case of a gene therapy trial where viral vectors are used to deliver genes into mammalian cells, including humans, should biosafety and ethical protocols include isolation of the patient as a ...
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116 views

What is the biochemical pathway of fluoride?

Fluoride is a common active ingredient in tooth paste to prevent dental caries. It is also added or removed from the water supply in some communities for the same reason, but in children only. My ...
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28 views

Wolbachia - cytoplasmic incompatibility

I read that cytoplasmic incompatibility in Wolbachia occurs when wolbachia-infected male insects mate with wolbachia-free female insects and produce non-viable offspring. By contrast, ...
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35 views

Subtypes of Acute myeloid leukemia

I am a computer scientist with no biological background and working on analyzing lab results of patients with Acute myeloid leukemia. They have been tagged with following subtypes of AML: AML with ...
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94 views

What are the ingredients of Pheromone Trap using for controlling Fruit flies of cucumber?

Pheromone Traps are used for fruit fly control. But I have no idea which ingredients or chemicals are used for preparing Pheromone trap
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How would the immune system respond to antigens and food poisoning?

QUESTION: How does this information explain the likelihood of a more violent response in someone who has already had food poisoning caused by salmonella bacteria WHAT I KNOW: In the first exposure, ...
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Of people who develop Alzheimer disease, are those people genetically predisposed to it?

I have read a lot lately about microbiological pathogens that are found in blood vessels in the brain of patient's with Alzheimer disease (positive association). So, I am confused whether there are ...
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11 views

percentage of animal diseases caused by bacteria?

I know this is a long shot, but what is the approximate percentage out of all the animal diseases that are caused by bacteria? One of the Q&A websites answer it as 90, but is there any conclusive ...
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26 views

Are there any auto-immune diseases caused by T cells not detaching from antigen presenting cells (APCs)?

By not detaching I'm referring to after they have formed an immunological synapse, if they don't ever detach.
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37 views

How do we determine a disease's incubation period?

There was a suspected case of Ebola in France, which was later dismissed, since the suspect lastly came into contact with a potentially contaminated person more than 21 days before, which is the ...
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67 views

Does drinking spoiled milk that has been boiled upset the GI tract?

With water, boiling will kill harmful pathogens. Does this also hold true for milk ? If it does not, what in the milk will continue to cause gatrointestinal distress ? Shouldn't boiling kill the ...
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47 views

Plateletpheresis for hemophilia

Plateletpheresis is seperation of platelets from whole blood and putting the leukocytes and erythrocytes back into the blood. If the person donating platelets does not have hemophilia than could a ...
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103 views

What is the name of systemic tension of muscles?

I meat a overtrained friend (25 years old) who cannot rest. He has all muscles and most of the skin very tense. He is practising regularly in gym and sleep badly. He moves like a stick figure and has ...
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48 views

Which disorders are fully concordant?

I work in neuroscience, mostly Alzheimer's disease (AD), with some work in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The work is in gene regulation and epigenomics. I'm familiar with monozygotic twin (MZ) ...
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8 views

Bence-Jones proteins in urine on heat

The preliminary test for proteinuria is precipitation/turbidity on heat due to denaturation. This turbidity should not disappear when 10% acetic acid is added - to differentiate from phosphates. ...
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19 views

Do plant and animal bacterial pathogen differ too much?

I will be involved in a plant disease produced by a bacterial pathogen, Acidovorax citrulli. I've previously worked with animal pathogens such as Haemophilus parasuis. Are there any big differences ...
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37 views

What is effect of sperm in blood?

Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Clostridium perfringens all produce hyaluronidase. Each of these bacteria are pathogens (use hyaluronidase as a virulence factor to destroy the ...
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25 views

Cheap, effective searching for pathogenes?

Background: some time ago, I suffered from some recurrent sickness, with frequency of about 2 weeks. As far as I learned, this is a sure sign of an infection. I've been to the doctors, and they did ...
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37 views

Oral Fordyce spots

This is an image of a Fordyce spot I found while Googling. I don't know how to interpret this image. Is this an image of a single Fordyce spot? I mean "single" as in a single spot when viewed by the ...
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Why does type 3 systemic hypersensitivity not lead to shock?

Why does type 3 systemic hypersensitivity not lead to anaphylatic shock or hypovolumic shock, which shows the same features of type 1 systemic hypersensitivity like prolonged inflammation, production ...
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12 views

Do other primates get gallstones?

Which non-human primates actually get gall stones the same as humans? All, some, none? References appreciated! Anecdotes about pet primates with gallstones also welcome if you have any...
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Steppe peoples method for healing horses' wounds

There was a custom among nomadic steppe peoples like Huns or Mongols of putting pieces of saltened meat in wounds of their horses to make them heal faster. Did it work? If so, how? I suppose it has ...
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47 views

Endogenous PAF inhibitor in metastatic process (?)

When neoplastic cells cause a metastasis, they can create a protective coat of platelets that counterbalances immunitary response. My question is if the coat formed due to PAF can be undone by an ...
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11 views

What's the relationship between Drugbank drugs and SMPDB pathways?

In the 'pathway browse' panel SMPDB pathways and their corresponding Drugbank drugs are listed. What are the relationships between the drugs and the pathways? Some listed drugs are not in the ...
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41 views

Is there a graph or ontology that maps diseases to its possible causes or causing diseases?

I am looking for a mapping, list, ontology or graph that shows the connection between a diseases and its (currently known) causes and/or risk factors. For example a well known risk factor for acute ...
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42 views

Are there any viruses that are part of all land animals?

An article on I Fucking Love Science (linked to below) got me thinking, are there any viruses that have been so successful that they have spread to all land animals similar to Toxoplasmosis which has ...