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51 views

How can periodic asystole of heart cause cataplaxy with partial asystolic syncope? [on hold]

In brain, it can be called reflex asystolic syncope - symptom unconsciousness. In heart, there can be temperary asystole, still with consciousness. If these occur at the same time but with brain ...
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1answer
39 views

What are the risks of elevating the legs too regularly and when tired?

I started to to think the pathophysiology of elevating legs high next to the wall too often and when you are tired. I think possible manifestations some damage to valves of the veins (No!) because ...
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0answers
16 views

Recovering Coma patient with theoretical full knowledge of heart function

In coma, there is the medullary depression (stage of agony). Spontaneous respiration and circulation cease i.e. vasomotor center. There is no full circulatory and respiratory support. Assume you ...
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0answers
9 views

Which pathways Montelukast can alter in blood pH and water homeostasis?

I am thinking which pathways Montelukast can alter in blood pH homeostasis, since there is an indication that Montelukast can increase the perfusion of intra-abdominal organs. It alters those ...
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1answer
64 views

How does myopia develop, exactly?

Recently I was reading about myopia and I understood a few basic facts about it: Its initial cause is a constant spasm in the ciliary muscle. To do less work, the eyeball elongates a tiny bit. ...
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2answers
1k views

What is the biological reason for a burst appendix being potentially lethal?

Given that the appendix does not seem to be used by the human body, what is the biological reason that it is potentially lethal when this organ bursts? Also, what would cause the 'burst'?
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26 views

Can non-carbonated energy drinks boost alcohol intoxication?

I just read news article about banning caffeine in alcohol drinks and about that energy drinks increase the urge to drink alcohol. Energy drinks cause sugar intoxication - answer about it here ...
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1answer
39 views

Hypersensitivity Simultaneously in Ear canals

I got experimental data where hypersensitivity (i.e. tonic pain when touching ear canal) was recognised for about 100 minutes. I do not know which type of hypersensitivity is this one. IgM can ...
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1answer
43 views

Fast standing and the heart's insufficient accommodation of the increased venous return

Assume you are 45 minutes on the supine position. Furthermore: you stand all of a sudden and fast and without sympaticus activity. The venous return (smooth musculature of vessels) accommodates ...
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1answer
35 views

What is the reason behind more severe proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome than in nephritic syndrome?

Why is there less protein loss via urine in case of nephritic syndrome than in case of nephrotic syndrome?
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0answers
47 views

Locally sterile immune response in paradoxical IRS coupled with hypersensitivity I

The king of sterile immune response is antibodies; while in unsterile response - T lymphocyte. I think there can be two types of IRS: either abnormalities with T or B cells. Assume the here the case ...
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0answers
29 views

Few innervations to blood sugar regulation

Assume you have a case of young female where the intake of 75 grams of pure sugar leads to a rapid peak of blood glucose level (within seconds) plateau phase with very steady blood glucose level ...
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0answers
28 views

How can cerebral vasoconstriction lead to decreased O₂ supply?

I am thinking the mechanism from hyperventilation into brain damage: hyperventilation [CO₂] decreases in plasma cerebral vasoconstriction which then decreases the oxygen supply i.e. [O₂] in the ...
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1answer
27 views

To diagnose osteomyelitis of vertebral column in chronic kidney failure

Assume you suspect amyloidosis because of the history of the patient: problem with vertebral column and "purulent" (serous, fibrous, or hemorrhagic) inflammation when patient very young. Now, the ...
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0answers
50 views

Nasal Chronic Inflammation after influenza virus

I am studying the nasal secrotory system of the nose (lymphatic system not relevant; serum) after infection of influenza A virus when there is a big red edema at the back of the nose. I found no ...
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0answers
16 views

To prevent dry cough through reflex arch in chronic rhinitis?

Assume that the patient have atrophic nasal membranes after long chronic rhinitis. He is having frequent dry coughs through reflex arch induced by exercise, allergies, and ... You normally heal ...
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1answer
87 views

What is the cause of dry cough?

I first thought this question in the case of the cause of dry throat after 3-day recovery of dry cough? but then I realised that the cause of dry cough can be a general thing. Assume the person ...
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1answer
58 views

Can Serous inflammation on pleura pulmonalis cause dry cough and runny nouse?

I am interested in the mechanism between the dry cough and runny nose (serous inflammation) here. I started to think how Acute respiratory viral infection is causing the dry cough. The serous ...
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1answer
47 views

Parallel Autonomic regulation of Cough and Runny Nose

I describe here the serous inflammation of runny nose. Cough is mediated by Cough center. I think Runny nose is also controlled by the autonomic nervous system and probably by some reflex. Assume ...
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0answers
26 views

Are there naturally occurring Biological Pacemakers?

There are artificial biological pacemakers which express funny channels. I am thinking if it is possible to have also naturally occurring (only in recovery cases and in silent tissues) biological ...
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0answers
10 views

Mechanisms to start simultaneous depolarisation of two Pacemakers?

I am thinking the biochemical mechanisms of the simultaneous depolarisations of two pacemakers. My intuition Funny channels (but not alone) No autonomic nervous system (my conjencture) What are ...
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0answers
17 views

What are the mechanisms of disabling extrinsic control of heart?

I started this thread by thinking this question but I developed it further below What is the mechanism maintaining refractory period of pacemakers? My conjuncture is that the mechanism is the ...
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1answer
15 views

Which ionic channels of Pacemakers can work in very low frequencies in extrasystole?

At frequency 0-3 Hz. Like computer processors which can work at low frequencies and controlling under- and overvoltage. Normal most significant channels are Ca2+ and K+ that are changing. However, I ...
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0answers
14 views

Calling for Pressure pictures about Right and Left atrium

I am trying to understand the partially patent foramen ovale in patients with right-side heart failure. I am interested how the pressure in right and left atrium change in normal case in abnormal ...
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2answers
51 views

Is Sinus node conduction necessary for heart beating?

Assume a patient with previous cardial infaction which SA node not possible to activate action potential anymore. However, SA trying to beat unsuccessfully repeatedly waisting energy. Therefore, I ...
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0answers
20 views

Laser surgery to stop damaged Sinus node from beating

I am trying to find any publication about laser surgery to stop the damaged sinus node which cannot anymore beat. I could only find publications which modifies SA node function. I am not sure if it ...
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1answer
33 views

Manifestations of open foramen ovale in adults

I read that foramen ovale opens in 30% of adults. I do not know how much of these openings can then close again. Probably, none. It is not pathogenic if no symptoms. It allows blood to enter from ...
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1answer
44 views

Nervous system: Pain and Pleasure?

If you have a constant pain in your body, why does a greater pain or pleasure make you not feel the original pain?
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1answer
44 views

What is ischaemia exactly?

I think it is decreased blood supply to organs and tissues. I also think it is the stopped circulation. However, both ones cannot be right, I think. What is ischaemia exactly?
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3answers
851 views

What causes a 'stuffy' or 'runny' nose when you have a cold?

When humans get the common cold, a common symptom is a stuffy or runny nose. Is that the body's immune response or is that the virus's doing?