A tag used for questions on the mechanisms responsible for the initiation, development, and treatment of pathological processes in humans and animals.

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19
votes
1answer
289 views

Why do you die if you cannot breathe?

I was wondering what the actual reason for death by suffocation is. Obviously it is related to oxygen deprivation. But what is the underlying cause of death? Is it due to insufficient oxygen for ...
17
votes
3answers
4k views

What causes a 'stuffy' or 'runny' nose when you have a cold?

When humans get the common cold, a common symptom is a stuffy or runny nose. Is that the body's immune response or is that the virus's doing?
8
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the biological reason for a burst appendix being potentially lethal?

Given that the appendix does not seem to be used by the human body, what is the biological reason that it is potentially lethal when this organ bursts? Also, what would cause the 'burst'?
7
votes
1answer
226 views

How does myopia develop, exactly?

Recently I was reading about myopia and I understood a few basic facts about it: Its initial cause is a constant spasm in the ciliary muscle. To do less work, the eyeball elongates a tiny bit. ...
4
votes
1answer
145 views

What is the reason behind more severe proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome than in nephritic syndrome?

Why is there less protein loss via urine in case of nephritic syndrome than in case of nephrotic syndrome?
3
votes
1answer
68 views

Hypersensitivity Simultaneously in Ear canals

I got experimental data where hypersensitivity (i.e. tonic pain when touching ear canal) was recognised for about 100 minutes. I do not know which type of hypersensitivity is this one. IgM can ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

How much is local blood non-Newtonian in Pathophysiology?

I am studying the Barus effect / Merrington effect / die swell / extrudate swell, which is a characteristic of non-Newtonian viscoelastic liquids (Introduction to the phenomenon in this video) i.e. ...
2
votes
1answer
486 views

What is the cause of dry cough?

I first thought this question in the case of the cause of dry throat after 3-day recovery of dry cough? but then I realised that the cause of dry cough can be a general thing. Assume the person ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

How can low cholesterol cause mortality?

I am studying processes 1. stroke, 2. heart disease, and 3. cancer, and their mechanisms associated with low cholesterol which is a result of lowering cholesterol especially in elderly, Low ...
2
votes
1answer
43 views

Why does mud therapy work by some pain related diseases?

Apparently, some users here agree there is no ion exchange through the skin. Mud therapy has some therapeutic effect for pain related diseases. As an anecdotal example, I experienced pain relief by ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

How many diseases can be linked to disruption in the microbiome of a human?

I was listing to the radio and heard recent research found a link between children and higher cases of asthma when certain bacteria are missing from the microbiome. How many other diseases can be ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

Where does the exudate comes from during inflammation?

During inflammation transudate and exudate is formed by vessels. I would like to make sure if it comes from arterioles, venules, or both, and the reason why.
2
votes
1answer
106 views

Fast standing and the heart's insufficient accommodation of the increased venous return

Assume you are 45 minutes on the supine position. Furthermore: you stand all of a sudden and fast and without sympaticus activity. The venous return (smooth musculature of vessels) accommodates ...
2
votes
0answers
34 views

How to gauge the clinical significance of specific cell type presence?

How does one decide whether the presence of certain cell types is clinically important or negligible? Would the presence of certain cells in conjunction with other symptoms be enough, or should it be ...
1
vote
1answer
81 views

Why is sarcoma more prevalent and common in right heart?

Ewing's sarcoma or Ewing sarcoma is a malignant small, round, blue cell tumor. It is a rare disease in which cancer cells are found in the bone or in soft tissue. It is more common in right heart than ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

What is ischaemia exactly?

I think it is decreased blood supply to organs and tissues. I also think it is the stopped circulation. However, both ones cannot be right, I think. What is ischaemia exactly?
1
vote
2answers
182 views

Is Sinus node conduction necessary for heart beating?

Assume a patient with previous cardial infaction which SA node not possible to activate action potential anymore. However, SA trying to beat unsuccessfully repeatedly waisting energy. Therefore, I ...
1
vote
1answer
84 views

To diagnose osteomyelitis of vertebral column in chronic kidney failure

Assume you suspect amyloidosis because of the history of the patient: problem with vertebral column and "purulent" (serous, fibrous, or hemorrhagic) inflammation when patient very young. Now, the ...
1
vote
1answer
126 views

Can Serous inflammation on pleura pulmonalis cause dry cough and runny nouse?

I am interested in the mechanism between the dry cough and runny nose (serous inflammation) here. I started to think how Acute respiratory viral infection is causing the dry cough. The serous ...
1
vote
1answer
81 views

Nervous system: Pain and Pleasure?

If you have a constant pain in your body, why does a greater pain or pleasure make you not feel the original pain?
1
vote
0answers
16 views

Predictive Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) for Bipolar Disorder

Are there any validated SNPs that are either predictive of developing bipolar spectrum disorder or are associated with its pathophysiology?
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Recovering Coma patient with theoretical full knowledge of heart function

In coma, there is the medullary depression (stage of agony). Spontaneous respiration and circulation cease i.e. vasomotor center. There is no full circulatory and respiratory support. Assume you ...
1
vote
0answers
56 views

Can non-carbonated energy drinks boost alcohol intoxication?

I just read news article about banning caffeine in alcohol drinks and about that energy drinks increase the urge to drink alcohol. Energy drinks cause sugar intoxication - answer about it here ...
1
vote
0answers
51 views

What are the mechanisms of disabling extrinsic control of heart?

I started this thread by thinking this question but I developed it further below What is the mechanism maintaining refractory period of pacemakers? My conjecture is that the mechanism is the ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Which ionic channels of Pacemakers can work in very low frequencies in extrasystole?

At frequency 0-3 Hz. Like computer processors which can work at low frequencies and controlling under- and overvoltage. Normal most significant channels are Ca2+ and K+ that are changing. However, I ...
0
votes
1answer
160 views

Similarity between a heart attack and a spasm

When someone is having a heart attack, could it be considered , in some situations, a spasm? Below, I have written how I believe the process may work. The heart is basically a muscle working ...
0
votes
1answer
5k views

What are the risks of elevating the legs too regularly and when tired?

I started to to think the pathophysiology of elevating legs high next to the wall too often and when you are tired. I think possible manifestations some damage to valves of the veins (No!) because ...
0
votes
1answer
131 views

Parallel Autonomic regulation of Cough and Runny Nose

I describe here the serous inflammation of runny nose. Cough is mediated by Cough center. I think Runny nose is also controlled by the autonomic nervous system and probably by some reflex. Assume ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Manifestations of open foramen ovale in adults

I read that foramen ovale opens in 30% of adults. I do not know how much of these openings can then close again. Probably, none. It is not pathogenic if no symptoms. It allows blood to enter from ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Why does the oral epithelium break and fall off when it is burned?

When you gobble up food that is too hot, you may damage the inside of your mouth cavity. More precisely speaking, I believe the mucous membrane lining the surface of your mouth cavity is damaged. ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

How to Stabilize Histamine Surges in Exercise of MD/DMII?

I am studying how to stabilize histamine surges/effects without antihistamines in exercise of Metabolic Syndrome (MD) and Diabetes Mellitus II (DMII). Generic/simplified case: Symptoms in exercise: ...
0
votes
0answers
92 views

Why do leukemia and lymphoma cause “night sweats”?

One of the symptoms of these blood cancers is sleep hyperhidrosis (aka night sweats). Also referred to as one of the B-symptoms, it may be used for prognosis. What is the the mechanism behind the ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Can light pollution cause cancer?

Impaired circadian rhythm is associated with cancer. Light pollution affects the circadian rhythm and the circadian rhythm affects the metabolism. But what is the (molecular) connection between ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

To prevent dry cough through reflex arch in chronic rhinitis?

Assume that the patient have atrophic nasal membranes after long chronic rhinitis. He is having frequent dry coughs through reflex arch induced by exercise, allergies, and ... You normally heal ...