Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function

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What constitutes FDA's First in Class designation for New Molecular Entities?

What constitutes a First in Class designation for new molecular entities? I've seen this term on FDA documents, as well as in databases (Chembl for example), but I was curious if there are any set ...
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58 views

what is the formula to establish ec50 reproducibility with respect to dose response curves for some drug

The EC50 is determined by fitting a standard curve to the experimentally obtained control values for each dose response curve using some software that does trial and comparison until satisfactory(...
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22 views

How do drugs enter synapses?

Many psychopharmaceutical drugs change synapse chemistry or directly agonize neuroreceptors in the brain. For example, cabergoline is a D2 agonist. How do these compounds enter the physical synapses? ...
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24 views

calculate elimination rate constant [duplicate]

A patient diagnosed with cancer takes antiproliferative drugs. Suppose the intake of drug(dose) is 250mg and excreted amount 125 mg. Amount of excreted drug as metabolites 1 and 2 are 75mg and 50mg. ...
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68 views

Is QIAPI 1 a scam?

I find it strange that there isn't a wikipedia article on a drug that allegedly modulates human photosynthesis. I thought I might get a virus from some of the sites selling it, but others seemed ...
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2answers
44 views

Is Valerian extract a diuretic or an antidiuretic?

I am trying to determine if valepotriates (valerian extract) is a diuretic or an antidiuretic. Some individuals take valerian as an herbal supplement for anxiety disorders. Some individuals claim that ...
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2answers
83 views

Why does azithromycin not affect human mitochondria?

Drugs like tetracyclines, macrolides and aminoglycosides bind to prokaryotic ribosomes. It is interesting that our body too having mitochondria, which have prokaryotic ribosomes, there is little(?) ...
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1answer
85 views

Is there a biological explanation for perceived deeper cognition whilst on cannabis?

Cannabis has been associated with literature, arts, and culture for centuries. There are a few features of the drugs affect on the human mind that account for this, however it remains illegal in most ...
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Why are vaccines for polio taken orally while vaccines for TB needs to be injected?

My thoughts are that maybe the TB antigens necessary to produce an immune response are proteins; therefore they can be digested in the stomach and small intestine. But I may be wrong though. I am ...
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1answer
34 views

Why do some drugs require you to take them in an “upright position”?

A friend of mine was taking the supplement Metamucil and on the container it says to take in an "upright position." Why would this be necessary? Doesn't your digestive system push food/liquid ...
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26 views

How do organoarsenics improve digestion efficiency in poultry?

It struck me as very surprising that these organoarsenic compound with structure looking not very compatible with living system is widely used as food additive to increase weight gain and improve food ...
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18 views

Repeating assays assessing drug synergy by Chou and Talalay method

I have been using MTT cell viability assays to test compounds, both as single agents and in combination, in a constant ratio. From these assays I have been able to plot the median effect plot to get ...
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16 views

Biological difference in drugs vs drugs labeled as analytic standard?

I'm scaling up a project that uses ribavirin. Previously, I only had a need for small quantities, so I was prepared to pay a couple hundred dollars for ~50mg of pure chemical (Sigma - R9644). However,...
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1answer
42 views

Enzyme Inhibition in relation to Aspirin

I've been trying to learn a bit more about pharmacology, so bear with my ignorance. In short, I see that aspirin (in part) works by inhibiting cycloxygenase isoenzymes and that this inhibiting is ...
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1answer
12 views

iPSC in drug discovery

Pluripotent stem cells are very popular and lots of research has been conducted to use these cells as a tool for drug discovery. My question is how many years would it theoretically safe is we could ...
1
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1answer
38 views

Is 5-HTP a SSRI?

Can 5-Hydroxytryptophan (oxitriptan) be categorized as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)? Since they both act on the serotonin pathway and are used to treat depression and other mood ...
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2answers
115 views

Does caffeine actually enhance cognition?

I have heard, respectively: Caffeine measurably enhances cognitive function. Caffeine does not measurably enhance cognitive function in any significant way. Caffeine enhances cognitive function, but ...
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1answer
16 views

Is receptor antagonism just long-term binding?

By my understanding, a substance that binds to a receptor and activates it is called an agonist, while a substance that binds to a receptor without activating it is called an antagonist. (Wiki) What ...
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2answers
82 views

Why is alcohol such a weak drug?

Most day to day drugs such as caffeine and paracetamol require a dosage in milligrams to have the desired effect. Why then, does it take many tens of grams of alcohol to have a tangible/noticeable ...
3
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1answer
44 views

What does “generalisation” mean?

I am trying to understand a paper about ethanol: "Generalisation of ethanol with drug mixtures containing a positive modulator of the GABAA receptor and an NMDA antagonist" (Stolerman & Olufsen, ...
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44 views

How does glucose delivered intraperitoneal (i.p.) get into the peripheral circulation?

Intraperitoneal delivery of drugs or fluids is something that occurs much more frequently in veterinary medicine than clinical medicine. In veterinary medicine or scientific studies using animals, ...
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2answers
61 views

Do pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the drug in animals are the same as in human?

I'm trying to understand the purpose of different clinical trial phases, and the following question comes into my mind : Do pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the drug in animals are the ...
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49 views

What is the effect of sodium chloride on head lice?

There are a lot of products that claim to kill lice and eggs. The main ingredient is sodium chloride. How does it work? I wonder if it has something to do with osmotic effects?
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1answer
68 views

What do proton pump inhibitors do?

I know that sodium azide and 2,4-DNPH inhibit proton pumps. The azide is called an inhibitor and 2,4-DNP is called uncoupler. I want to know what's the difference between the mechanisms of action of ...
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1answer
46 views

Aspirin - does it inhibit enzyme of thromboxane?

This is a diagram a friend showed me about the drug aspirin, where we were arguing which enzyme it prevents. Aspirin is known to inhibit the production of prostaglandins. However, it also serves ...
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41 views

Does medication make the body dependent? [closed]

First of, I know of course that certain medication can cause an addiction if incorrectly used. But as far as I understand it, drugs prone to cause addiction have some agent in it, that makes them ...
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1answer
318 views

How does paracetamol work?

Hinz et al. 2008 found that COX-2 may be inhibited by paracetamol, and this is attributed to it's analgesic and antipyretic properties. However there are other more recent claims from Andersson et al.,...
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2answers
122 views

Blood draw from the elderly or those with tiny veins

A lot of people have very small veins making it next to impossible to draw blood. Would a nitroglycerin tablet (or some other vasodilator) before drawing blood help to enlarge veins?
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What are necessary parameters for a tissue scaffold to be biodegradable?`

I am a mechanical engineer with little biological experience, but I have recently been looking at tissue scaffoldings. My current understanding is as follows, but may be flawed. I would appreciate ...
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1answer
134 views

How to determine sensitivity in a dose-response curve?

In a dose-response curve the % inhibition can be plotted against concentration antagonist. In our case, the effect of the antagonist is tested in different genetic variants of a microbe. When trying ...
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3answers
92 views

Homeopathy is placebo, but isn't placebo good?

I never considered homeopathy as a serious and scientific medicine, and now we have plenty of evidence supporting this (http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/mar/12/no-scientific-case-...
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27 views

How do macromolecules (large drugs) in the eye reach the bloodstream and what are the relative significances of these pathways?

I am considering the elimination pathways for antibodies (50-150 kDa) from the vitreous humour to the blood stream. My overarching question is what is the most significant route such antibodies could ...
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1answer
34 views

Infection of urinary tract if the pH of urine is made alkaline

It is very well known that drugs like phenobarbiton,morphine are unionized, lipid soluble.So,in case if there is toxicity due to these drugs,the only way to save the patient is make the pH of urine ...
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32 views

Genotype-Phenotype databases?

Beyond the Stanford HIV database, what other databases out there provide a dataset linking virus/bacterial genotype to quantitative phenotype? I'm looking for high quality datasets to test machine ...
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2answers
129 views

How do antibiotics create drug-resistant strains

I've heard for years that low-level use of antibiotics causes the spread of drug-resistant strains of bacteria, but the explanations always fall short. I understand mutations and natural selection, ...
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1answer
150 views

Do drugs' levo isomers have a better interaction with the receptors in our body than dextro isomers?

Examples of levo drugs include levothyroxine, levocitrizine, and levodopa. Is there any specific reason why the receptors in our body exhibit this stereoisomerism and hold a high preference for the ...
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1answer
67 views

How does Tylenol relieve pain without making me drowsy?

So I have a crown that popped out and has been killing me, I've lived on a steady diet of Tylenol since it popped out. I've noticed that aside from killing most of the pain from the tooth, the tylenol ...
3
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1answer
111 views

Difficulty in finding protein inhibition drugs

I was reading an article on a recent identification of a PARP-14 protein in cancer cells that is responsible for production of additional glucose which keeps cancer cells from dying, and that a PARP-...
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46 views

Western blot extrange band

I performed a WB using plasma rats and monkeys samples with anti ubiquitin K-48 antibody. In every sample the antibody binds something and it appears a specific band that seems to be 71kDa. When I ...
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41 views

Birth control hormones in the water? Or not?

This prior question talks about natural estrogen (TL;DR: Months to years): How quickly do estrogens break down in the environment? Ref: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/485441a A lot of media has said, "...
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3answers
624 views

Do spinal cord reflexes (such as the knee-jerk reflex) continue to function under general anaesthesia?

The knee-jerk reflex (patellar reflex) is an example of a stretch reflex (myotatic reflex). Stretch reflexes are monosynaptic reflexes happening in the spinal cord without involvement of the brain. ...
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2answers
59 views

Chemotherapy - Hair loss

Chemotherapy kills cancer cells by targeting rapidly growing cells. That is why patients are loosing hair as well. My question is, why chemo related hair loss is temporary ? The docs say it is ...
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18 views

Source of journals collecting titles of scientific publications regarding clinical trials with dogs fed medicinal herbs

After some time researching on the web, you can find a lot of websites telling you that some herbs may have or have specific properties(unfortunately most seem to be "advertised" as if they were ...
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45 views

How does drug-induced photosensitivity work?

Some drugs (tetracyclines, for instance) can cause photosensitivity reactions—that is, some patients become extremely sensitive to the sun, developing rashes or inflammation after spending time ...
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1answer
130 views

How much penicillinase is needed to deactivate 125mg of amoxicillin?

How much penicillinase is needed to deactivate 125mg of amoxicillin? Penicillinase in penase concentrate from CPC. 20,000 Levy Units/ml/min I need IU of 125 mg of amoxicillin. Please note that the ...
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1answer
311 views

Have webs woven by LSD-intoxicated spiders ever been studied for their efficiency in fly catching?

I ask, because I have a different interpretation of the experiments performed on web-weaving spiders. The famous Robert Pirsig maintains that LSD is somehow helpful to web-weaving spiders, because it ...
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22 views

What is the permeability of proteins across the hyaloid membrane of vitreous to retina?

Does anyone know of any experimental work to test the permeability of the hyaloid membrane between the vitreous humour of the eye to the retina to proteins? Currently the largest molecule I can find ...
4
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1answer
87 views

Can the liver prioritize it's metabolizing potential?

Let's assume we have two toxins - one of which is routinely metabolized by the liver, and the other is new to the organism (consider for example alcohol in a heavy drinker and any other drug that is ...
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1answer
58 views

If a blocker prevents repolarization, will the neuron be stuck in a depolarized state forever?

Potassium channels help to repolarize the cell after depolarization. But if the potassium channels are blocked, potassium ions cannot flow out of the cell to increase the membrane potential. Thus, one ...
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1answer
54 views

Why doesn't Manipulated Virus for Cancer Cure Work [closed]

I'm not a biologist but I have an idea for a cure for cancer and it is very simple and probably has flaws (if it worked it probrably wouldn't be a cure for all) or is not possible but ... I'm still ...