Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function

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What are main animal origin antiseptics? [on hold]

I started to think which are the main animal origin antiseptics to understand possible negative sides of these antiseptics. Antiseptic is a substance that inhibit bacterial growth both in vitro and ...
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19 views

Meta-analysis of fruits in blocking Cytochrome family

My professor says that some drugs cannot be used with grapefruit. I am trying to search a list of cytochromes and their effect to block members in the cytochrome family. Some in Cyt P450. What is ...
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33 views

Drugs metabolism and detection

If someone is taking treatment for a psychiatric disorder, for example diazepine, would traces of the metabolized drug show in their sweat or saliva? Would it be chemically detectable?Any links to ...
3
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1answer
23 views

What is meant by drug tolerance?

What is meant by drug tolerance? This question is in my biology textbook for IGCSE and I have no idea what drug tolerance is. It would be very helpful if someone could clarify. Thank you.
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48 views

Pharmacology: Drug Administration

Why is the enteral route seem by far the most common way to administer a drug to the body?
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1answer
40 views

Pharmacokinetics: why do certain drugs follow zero-order kinetics?

I understand that alcohol and phenytoin are two examples of drugs that follow zero-order kinetics. Why do these two particular drugs follow zero-order kinetics as opposed to first-order kinetics?
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34 views

Applying drugs to brain via scalp (transdermal)

Many medications are intended only for the brain, but are taken orally. Hence <10% finds its intended target, while the remaining >90% is at best wasted, and at worst causes unwanted side-effects. ...
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38 views

Compatibility drugs info

Let's suppose that I take a DrugA for ProblemA and then I got this ProblemB and started to take DrugB. Are there general rules I can look up to figure out whether I can take DrugA & DrugB ...
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1answer
58 views

Is there any completely Computation Drug ever launched in market?

I am working in bioinformatics(part of it in Drug Designing) for years, still if I have no idea about it. As it is too hard to prove (Pass all Clinical trials) and get FDA Approvals. So, My question ...
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1answer
56 views

What is LD50 for 25i (25I-NBOMe)?

Firstly I would like to apologise if this is not correct place to ask this question, as it can be seen more as chemistry and not biology question. I was looking around for data on psychedelic ...
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1answer
43 views

Can neurotransmitter depletion cause short-term drug tolerance?

I'm curious to know if neurotransmitter degradation factors into drug tolerance and neural conduction and, if so, to what extent. As I recall from textbooks I read as an undergrad, one mechanism of ...
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72 views

How does Sodium Valproate cause neural plasticity

I have been reading a fascinating paper: Valproate reopens critical-period learning of absolute pitch 18 individuals were given Sodium Valproate (VPA) for a fortnight during which they trained on a ...
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1answer
53 views

Mesoporous silica particles as anti cancer drug delivery method

If this question is a little off topic for Biology, I'm sorry. I've recently read a lot about mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a promising drug delivery method. The huge range of customizability of ...
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1answer
19 views

Classify chemotherapy drugs?

I'm studying a TCGA dataset trying to find correlations between gene expression and clinical data which might shed light on some pathways. One column of the clinical data provides a list of ...
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1answer
61 views

Does tea have its effect if you have a sleep after drinking it?

If I drink tea, then go to sleep for a while, when I wake up, will the effect of tea still be on me (the refreshing effect)? Does it depend on the duration of sleep?
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15 views

Is there a definitive theory of how general anesthesia works?

Is it true that the method of action of general anesthesia is not exactly known? In other words, is there no conclusive theory of how it works?
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1answer
45 views

Pharmacology Half Life Calculation

I'm really stuck on this question. I'm being asked to find the half life of a drug. The Vd is 50L/kg. The clearance is 0.1 L/hr/kg. The patient weighs 70 kg. Equation is: T1/2 (halflife) = 0.693 * ...
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1answer
43 views

What is the effect of Montelukast on the amount of IgE in blood?

I know that it decreases the amount of leucotrienes in blood. I saw a patient with high IgE altough under Montelukast medication. This suggests me that Montelukast does not affect the immunoglobulins, ...
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1answer
29 views

Could super-caffeinating somebody's bloodstream be dangerous?

I'm currently planning out an RPG based on Misfits. Basically young offenders get super powers. I want one of the villains to have a really lame power that they use to become incredibly dangerous. I ...
3
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1answer
35 views

Preventing paracetamol overdose

Paracetamol overdose is one of the most common drug toxicities. It may be treated by intravenous N-acetylcysteine which replaces the glutathione that is used up in paracetamol metabolism to prevent ...
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2answers
647 views

Name of scientist who discovered lifesaving drug and chose not to patent it?

I recall reading about a 20th century scientist who made a life-saving drug that could have patented it and made millions. He chose not to and saved the lives of millions around the globe. I thought ...
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23 views

What is the distribution of agent on plasma proteins in ECF?

I am studying Montelukast here: Montelukast is more than 99% bound to plasma proteins. The steady state volume of distribution of montelukast averages 8 to 11 liters. Studies in rats with ...
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3answers
94 views

Why is it that drinking caffeinated tea does not help one to stay awake?

I have never felt after drinking tea that I can have the power of being able to work late at night. Neither have I felt that it helps me to be awake while working or keeping eyes opened while I am not ...
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1answer
39 views

Why are many anti-malaria drugs gap junction antagonists?

Why are many anti-malaria drugs gap junction antagonists? My professor recently just mentioned that many of the anti-malaria drugs block gap junctions. i am wondering if this blocking is important ...
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53 views

Is half-a-tablet of X a substitute for a tablet of X/2?

This may be anecdotal. At the pharmacy earlier, the prescription called for a drug with X mg of the target chemical. The pharmacy however only had stock of a higher potency of the same brand. E.g. ...
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2answers
69 views

Can a fungus become resistant to a chemical such as Potassium Permanganate?

A friend used potassium permanganate solution to treat tinea on the hands/feet but after some initial success, the tinea seems to be making a comeback. Could the fungus develop resistance to potassium ...
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1answer
49 views

Does Yerba Mate contain Beta carbolines like harman and norharman?

I know that this is true of (roasted) coffee but haven't been able to find any reliable information about mate in its smoked or steamed state. Thank you.
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40 views

Sleep: a tale of two morning stimulants

According to "common knowledge", morning/afternoon exercise is "good" for sleep (in the long run) and caffeine is bad (less so in the morning). However, both of these stimulate the brain; exercise ...
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1answer
66 views

How to relate human metabolic model reactions and cancer drug targets / reactome items?

Trying to find a way to take a cancer drug (from CancerDR, for instance) and infer the metabolic reactions that are affected by it in the Human Metabolic Model. Essentially, I would like to know ...
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1answer
57 views

How does a smoker's pleasure work?

I smoke. For some reason, I've always had this idea that the pleasure of smoking works more or less like this: from the lungs, the nicotine reaches the blood, with which it travels to the brain, and ...
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1answer
57 views

Can cerebrospinal fluid deliver nutrients/drugs to neurons during sleep?

I'm looking at this article on the possible mechanism of detoxifying brain during sleep using cerebrospinal fluid. It states that at night, the space between neurons may allow better (up to 20x) ...
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1answer
74 views

Beetroot white skin mould

Does a mould make a beetroot poisonous or inedible ? Lemon's mould for instance, makes penicillin, but it's green there, and I'm allergic to penicillin, would the white mould produce penicillin too? ...
2
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1answer
55 views

How is it decided that one drug is better than others by X times?

I read in Tortora and Derrickson that : Enkephelins are 200 times powerful than morphine in their analgesic effects. I wonder how exactly researchers arrive at a number (like 200 here). I also ...
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42 views

What is the best way to orally administer a water insoluble powdered drug to macaque monkeys?

They typically need to be given ~150mg, once a day, and it'll last for two weeks. The drug is very water insoluble, becomes almost like a paste, not suitable for tube feeding. And yes, this is for for ...
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70 views

When might an inhibitor of bacterial transformation be useful?

I am part of a project elucidating some structures that are required for bacterial transformation. We have the opportunity to screen inhibitors of the system to stop it from functioning. I am not a ...
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2answers
89 views

Epinephrine vs. Adrenaline

Both names are widely used, with what appears to me as a slight prevalence of “epinephrine” in scientific literature and an overwhelming prevalence of “adrenaline” in popular media. Are there any ...
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Why is it that alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists haven't been tried, in clinical trials, as an adjunct to PDE4 inhibitors?

Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors such as rolipram and piclamilast have demonstrated a number of potential therapeutic effects in preclinical studies and even the odd clinical study, but their ...
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1answer
30 views

Function of an VEGF inhibitor in the treatment of macular degeneration

I'm working on a short presentation of treatments of macular degeneration for a biomedical optics seminar on macular degeneration. Since I don't have any relevant medical or biological background ...
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1answer
54 views

Dimethyltryptamine and Sigma 1-type opioid receptor interaction

Where exactly do dimethyltryptamine and sigma 1-type opioid receptor interact? I read in this When the Endogenous Hallucinogenic Trace Amine N,N-Dimethyltryptamine Meets the Sigma-1 Receptor but it ...
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47 views

Does DHA increase the effects of clarithromycin?

I've read on this publication that every drug that induces CYP3A can reduce the effectiveness of clarithromycin. Clarithromycin inhibits CYP3A. But it does not say anything about the opposite ...
2
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1answer
349 views

Which is the tissue damaging agent in krokodil (street desomorphine)

I've just read about krokodil and saw some quite hideous pictures about what it does to the human body. I guess just desomorphine alone wouldn't have this effect. Which ingredient(s) causes the ...
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67 views

What's the Mechanism of Paradoxical Excitatory Effects with Sedating Antihistamines?

I've been reading the British National Formulary 65 (BNF-65) and it mentioned that in some, especially at higher dosages, sedating (first-generation) antihistamines, can produce paradoxical excitatory ...
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81 views

Why can't sodium butyrate be delivered orally in humans and other mammals?

I think I know why -- bioavailability problems but since I have no firm evidence to support this theory I thought I would ask the biology stackexchange community for their input. I'd like some firm ...
2
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2answers
31 views

What Role Antagonists Play in the Study of Drugs?

I am pretty unfamiliar to pharmacology. I'm doing a research on drug abuse, particularly opioids' mechanism of action. I encountered several times evidences that come from studies using antagonists ...
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2answers
72 views

Assays during drug discovery

After researching the definition of Assay, I am left with the idea that an assay refers to scientific screening. It could be of chemicals, microbes, etc. I understand that during drug-discovery ...
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1k views

What are potential side effects of myostatin inhibitors?

Myostatin inhibitors, which are being developed to treat muscle wasting diseases like muscular dystrophy, are likely to be abused by athletes. What are the potential long-term side-effects of taking a ...
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2answers
198 views

Why are there so many medicinal plants?

Here is wikipedia page containing a list of plants used in herbal medicine. One might first want to argue that many of them actually do not have any medicinal/beneficial effect on heatlth. I think we ...
4
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2answers
250 views

Are there dangers to Teflon and aluminium cookware?

I've been reading some articles on the internet about dangers of Teflon and aluminium to the body. My family say I'm just exaggerating the situation, and maybe I am, though I'm not sure because not ...
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1answer
39 views

What Effect would Cannabinoids have on the Acute Porphyrias?

I should be clear in saying that this question is NOT intended for personal medical advice. Rather what I am looking for is journal articles and/or books that touch on this subject because I think it ...
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1answer
53 views

Selective Androgen Receptor Agonist

I'm looking for an inducer that strongly activates the androgen receptor, but not the glucocorticoid receptor that is not DEA regulated. I know that SARMS (Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators) are ...