Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function

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Epinephrine vs. Adrenaline

Both names are widely used, with what appears to me as a slight prevalence of “epinephrine” in scientific literature and an overwhelming prevalence of “adrenaline” in popular media. Are there any ...
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20 views

IC50 and area under the curve

I was hoping to get some clarification on how drug response data (i.e. IC50) are presented. On publicly available datasets like Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer, area under the curve (AUC) ...
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27 views

Defining Resistance and Sensitivity Thresholds for IC50

I have a dataset containing IC50 data for each of my cell lines and up to 80 drugs. Basically for each drug I want to be able to define an IC50 threshold where if a cell line has an IC50 above that ...
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119 views

Can a fungus become resistant to a chemical such as Potassium Permanganate?

A friend used potassium permanganate solution to treat tinea on the hands/feet but after some initial success, the tinea seems to be making a comeback. Could the fungus develop resistance to potassium ...
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15 views

Is it possible to measure Secondary Bile Acid Kinetics?

Is it possible to measure secondary bile acid kinetic and flux measurements in vivo? Anyone have any experience with this sort of technique?
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1answer
108 views

How is ammonia removed from the colon?

“Lactulose is also used to reduce the amount of ammonia in the blood of patients with liver disease. It works by drawing ammonia from the blood into the colon where it is removed from the body.” ...
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51 views

Why is cisplatin a very potent antineoplastic for testicular cancer, but not necessarily for other cancers?

Cisplatin (structure below) is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent which is very effective in the treatment of some cancers. Its introduction was responsible for improving the cure rate for ...
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1answer
82 views

How can succinylcholine cause myorelaxation?

I first thought that this is because of prolonged depolarisations. However, I am not sure anymore, because after reading PubChem, the only possible pathways are are Choline agonist. So I would say ...
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117 views

What are the psychedelic effects of (star) anise and how many people are affected?

Backstory: My girlfriend reacts heavily to chocolate and drinks containing stellar anise, in a way that seems comparable to psychedelic drugs. After consuming it, it takes approximately five minutes ...
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1answer
56 views

Can Opioids Attenuate some of the symptoms of Psychosis?

Can Opioids Attenuate some of the symptoms of Psychosis? I ask because there's a dead link on the Wikipedia page that's meant to support the notion that opioids attenuate some of the symptoms of ...
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1answer
42 views

Which enzymes degrade dynorphins and what drugs inhibit these enzymes?

Which enzymes degrade dynorphins and what drugs are there available to inhibit said enzymes?
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1answer
553 views

Does inhaling glue (glue sniffing) reduce appetite?

I have heard from many homeless people that they sniff glue just to reduce appetite, as it comes cheap and is more affordable than actual food. Is this true, and if yes, why? This is totally opposite ...
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1answer
24 views

How does amiodarone act as an alpha and beta blocker?

Amiodarone is potassium channel blocker but also voltage-gated Na+ channel blocker according to Pubchem. However, upon reading my notes I discovered Amiodarone blocks potassium channels and block ...
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1answer
32 views

Why is Benzylpenicillin better in Bacterial Meningitis than Amoxicillin?

Both are beta lactams. However, benzylpenicillin, which is also called penicillin G i.e. narrow group antibiotic. I have now in both the following as a mechanism of action Binds to PBP in ...
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3answers
36 views

Doxorubicin's intercalant and topoisomerase inhibition in leukemia?

I am thinking the role of doxorubicin's pathways in cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma: topoisomerase inhibitor and inhibit DNA activity intercalant - intercalant DNA bases and inhibit DNA ...
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1answer
14 views

Is dinoprost PGF2-alpha or PGE2?

In many places it says PGF2-alpha. Now, I am thinking PGE2 is a substype of PGF2-alpha. However, I am not sure. Is dinoprost PGE2?
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7 views

Imidazoline receptor agonist in clonidine?

I am thinking which pathway is more important in hypertension, ADHD and withdrawal of clonidine: alpha-2 agonist imidazoline receptor agonist (maybe) Alpha-2 is the classical one. Pubchem starts ...
2
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1answer
52 views

Do both Carbamazepinum and Lamotriginum increase glutamate threshold?

I have in my notes that: Carbamazepinum increases threshold for glutamate Lamotriginum delays release of glutamic acid I would like to simplify these sentences into a single line. I would like to ...
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2answers
94 views

Why does caffeine give you so much energy, while being so low on calories?

There's definitely something I'm missing here. Since calories is a unit of measurement for energy, and caffeine seemingly gives you a lot, how can the labels on caffeinated products have such a low ...
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1answer
32 views

Why is Electrical Cardioversion contraindicated in AF and Digitalis Poisoning?

I am thinking why electrical cardioversion is contraindicated in atrial fibrillation with digitalis toxicity/poisoning. Cardiac digitalis is also called digoxin and cardiac glycoside. It is ...
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2answers
54 views

What is “theae folium”?

I wanted to buy black tea at a pharmacy and the pharmacist told me that russian tea is actually black tea so I bought it instead.It's made out of theae folium leaves and for some reason I can't find ...
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398 views

Looking for a cancer drug target database to guide sequencing of patient tumor DNA

I have a question I would like to pose to the community. I have recently received access to a bench-top ion torrent DNA sequencer. Our idea is to use this machine to sequence the DNA from patient’s ...
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2answers
57 views

Classify chemotherapy drugs?

I'm studying a TCGA dataset trying to find correlations between gene expression and clinical data which might shed light on some pathways. One column of the clinical data provides a list of ...
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1answer
54 views

Consuming animals by slaughtering vs injecting barbiturates?

In "Least painful way to die" we get an answer ... Companion animals (e.g., dogs and cats): injected barbiturates are recommended Laboratory animals (e.g., mice and rats): injected ...
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294 views

How does Sodium Valproate cause neural plasticity

I have been reading a fascinating paper: Valproate reopens critical-period learning of absolute pitch 18 individuals were given Sodium Valproate (VPA) for a fortnight during which they trained on a ...
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1answer
52 views

Does homeopathic or herbal treatment of cancer have any scientific recognition?

Even though we have a very high tech society, cancer is still a serious issue. We humans still are not entirely capable of fighting cancer. Radiation and chemotherapy are still considered the best ...
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54 views

Relationship between toxicity of drugs and negative effects on brain

Are psychoactive drugs with lower lethal doses more neurotoxic (more damaging to the brain)? For example, tetrahydrocannabinol (one of the active components of cannabis) has a much higher lethal dose ...
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103 views

The effect on the efficacy and potency of a non-competetive antagonist binding to the active site of the receptor (dose-response curve)

According to the book "Principles of Pharmacology: The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy" by Golan et al, non-competetive antagonists can bind to both the allosteric site and the active site. I ...
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2answers
129 views

Is there a known glucosepane cross-link breaker?

I read the following on wikipedia: There is, however, no agent known that can break down the most common AGE, glucosepane, which appears 10 to 1,000 times more common in human tissue than any ...
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1answer
46 views

Why are pharmacology studies so experimental?

I am a medicine student, and as far as I see from our pharmacology lectures, pharmacologists work almost completely experimental. Quite typically they take a substance (e.g., from nature), they add, ...
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1answer
56 views

Given an EC50 value, how do I reproduce the sigmoidal curve from which this was calculated?

All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) is a potent ligand for a nuclear receptor called retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARa). The concentration of atRA at which RARa is half maximal is 19nM. The dose-response ...
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11 views

Why is there only adrenoreceptors and no active adrenergic innervation in bronchus and uterus?

Our bronchus and uterus has beta adrenoreceptors, but they have no active sympathetic nervous system innervation in these organs. Was there a sympathetic innervation in trachea and uterus, earlier, ...
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1answer
67 views

How to define drug-resistant or -sensitive cell line when knowing the IC50 values?

I have got the IC50 data for a drug on different cell lines. How to define if the cell line is sensitive or resistant towards this drug? Could anyone tell me how to define this?
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4k views

What is a pA(2) value?

I saw this article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16710314 and it mentioned pA(2) values and I had no idea what they were. What are they? What do they mean? If possible it'd be just dandy if you ...
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1answer
44 views

By what mechanism does Risperidone swell breast tissue?

There has been much talk of the anti-psychotic drug Rispeirdone causing un-natural breast tissue growth as well as galactorhea (milk production). Especially in young men and boys. What is the ...
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210 views

Is there a specific mechanism for the delivery of pain medication?

For example, when one takes aspirin or ibuprofen does the chemical get dispersed to all pain receptor? My question really is, how does the chemical know where to target in the body? I figure wherever ...
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1answer
106 views

Does a mydriatic drug neutralize the action of a miotic?

If a person were administered a mydriatic, would the subsequent application of a miotic neutralize the action of the former? If the sequence were reversed would a mydriatic neutralize the effect of a ...
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1answer
18k views

How does laughing gas (N₂O) work?

Laughing gas (N2O), well, makes people laugh. How does just a gas make us do that, there has to be some hormones at work... So, I wanted to know how this works? What is the mechanism?
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1answer
467 views

How does toluene inhalation damage the brain?

We just had a discussion about toluene abuse. It is known, that people inhaling toluene for a long time have significant brain damage, including decreased intelligence. I found that toluene is a ...
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1answer
155 views

Do Penicillin based antibiotics affect birth control?

I wasn't sure whether to ask this question on Biology or Chemistry Stack Exchange, since it is really biochemisty, but this is something that's been puzzling me. Most pharmacists (all that I've ...
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1answer
53 views

What microscope/magnification would I need to observe P. Acnes bacteria?

I am currently attempting to grow a culture of P. Acnes bacteria. Right now, my only hope in identifying colonies of the bacteria in the culture is to use a black light to find colonies that glow ...
3
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2answers
362 views

Why are there so many medicinal plants?

Here is wikipedia page containing a list of plants used in herbal medicine. One might first want to argue that many of them actually do not have any medicinal/beneficial effect on heatlth. I think we ...
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1answer
69 views

What is the best way to orally administer a water insoluble powdered drug to macaque monkeys?

They typically need to be given ~150mg, once a day, and it'll last for two weeks. The drug is very water insoluble, becomes almost like a paste, not suitable for tube feeding. And yes, this is for for ...
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1answer
21k views

Why Does Salt Water Help Sore Throats?

I am having some trouble understanding how salt water, a simple solution, could so effectively remove the pains of a sore throat. I do believe that the answer is closely related to hypo/hyper-tonic ...
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75 views

negatively charged albumin as major carrier of acidic/negative charged drugs in blood

I reading that orsomucoid (alpha-1-acid glycoprotein) is the major carrier of positively charged (basic) drugs in the blood, while albumin carries negatively charged (acidic) and drugs with neutral ...
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1answer
52 views

How does steroid dependence occur?

I have seen on the internet that prolonged steriod treatment can result in the development of steroid drug tolerance leading to decreased hormone secretion. In turn this may lead to drug dependence, ...
3
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1answer
191 views

Elevated position effect on recovery times from upper respiratory infections at rest?

In nursing school, they advice for people with upper respiratory infections to be in a slightly elevated position at the head region when sleeping. My intuition of the reason is that the lymphatic ...
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1answer
40 views

Spironolactone's role with adrenergic agents in heart failure?

I am studying the treatment plan of adrenergic agents for heart failure. Then, in the group discussion, spironolactone was included. But I cannot understand how it is relevant when considering ...
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1answer
108 views

Are there any examples where 'magic bullet' drugs have worked in cancer treatment?

Magic bullets are drugs that can be administered on a micro local scale. In this context administration/binding would occur in or near the tumour by exploiting the different surface antigens that ...
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1answer
64 views

What's the mechanism of action of Levomepromazine's analgesic effects?

I have absolutely no idea as to how Levomepromazine elicits its analgesic effects so please do direct me to journal articles and other credible sources with you, the answerer, making a summary of ...