Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function

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Relationship between toxicity of drugs and negative effects on brain

Are substances (drugs) that have lower potential lethal doses more neurotoxic (more damaging to the brain)? For example, Tetrahydrocannabinol (Cannabis) has a much higher lethal dose than ...
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What is a xenobiotic response? [closed]

Xenobiotics are chemicals that are foreign to a given biological system; for example drugs such as antibiotics given to humans. However, what is a xenobiotic response? Is it the response that body ...
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The effect on the efficacy and potency of a non-competetive antagonist binding to the active site of the receptor (dose-response curve)

According to the book "Principles of Pharmacology: The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy" by Golan et al, non-competetive antagonists can bind to both the allosteric site and the active site. I ...
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2answers
110 views

Is there a known glucosepane cross-link breaker?

I read the following on wikipedia: There is, however, no agent known that can break down the most common AGE, glucosepane, which appears 10 to 1,000 times more common in human tissue than any ...
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1answer
267 views

How does Sodium Valproate cause neural plasticity

I have been reading a fascinating paper: Valproate reopens critical-period learning of absolute pitch 18 individuals were given Sodium Valproate (VPA) for a fortnight during which they trained on a ...
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46 views

Consuming animals by slaughtering vs injecting barbiturates?

In "Least painful way to die" we get an answer ... Companion animals (e.g., dogs and cats): injected barbiturates are recommended Laboratory animals (e.g., mice and rats): injected ...
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1answer
43 views

Classify chemotherapy drugs?

I'm studying a TCGA dataset trying to find correlations between gene expression and clinical data which might shed light on some pathways. One column of the clinical data provides a list of ...
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1answer
42 views

Why are pharmacology studies so experimental?

I am a medicine student, and as far as I see from our pharmacology lectures, pharmacologists work almost completely experimental. Quite typically they take a substance (e.g., from nature), they add, ...
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1answer
42 views

Given an EC50 value, how do I reproduce the sigmoidal curve from which this was calculated?

All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) is a potent ligand for a nuclear receptor called retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARa). The concentration of atRA at which RARa is half maximal is 19nM. The dose-response ...
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11 views

Why is there only adrenoreceptors and no active adrenergic innervation in bronchus and uterus?

Our bronchus and uterus has beta adrenoreceptors, but they have no active sympathetic nervous system innervation in these organs. Was there a sympathetic innervation in trachea and uterus, earlier, ...
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1answer
46 views

How to define drug-resistant or -sensitive cell line when knowing the IC50 values?

I have got the IC50 data for a drug on different cell lines. How to define if the cell line is sensitive or resistant towards this drug? Could anyone tell me how to define this?
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2answers
4k views

What is a pA(2) value?

I saw this article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16710314 and it mentioned pA(2) values and I had no idea what they were. What are they? What do they mean? If possible it'd be just dandy if you ...
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1answer
43 views

By what mechanism does Risperidone swell breast tissue?

There has been much talk of the anti-psychotic drug Rispeirdone causing un-natural breast tissue growth as well as galactorhea (milk production). Especially in young men and boys. What is the ...
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2answers
208 views

Is there a specific mechanism for the delivery of pain medication?

For example, when one takes aspirin or ibuprofen does the chemical get dispersed to all pain receptor? My question really is, how does the chemical know where to target in the body? I figure wherever ...
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1answer
102 views

Does a mydriatic drug neutralize the action of a miotic?

If a person were administered a mydriatic, would the subsequent application of a miotic neutralize the action of the former? If the sequence were reversed would a mydriatic neutralize the effect of a ...
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1answer
17k views

How does laughing gas (N₂O) work?

Laughing gas (N2O), well, makes people laugh. How does just a gas make us do that, there has to be some hormones at work... So, I wanted to know how this works? What is the mechanism?
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1answer
438 views

How does toluene inhalation damage the brain?

We just had a discussion about toluene abuse. It is known, that people inhaling toluene for a long time have significant brain damage, including decreased intelligence. I found that toluene is a ...
3
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1answer
70 views

Do Penicillin based antibiotics affect birth control?

I wasn't sure whether to ask this question on Biology or Chemistry Stack Exchange, since it is really biochemisty, but this is something that's been puzzling me. Most pharmacists (all that I've ...
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1answer
49 views

What microscope/magnification would I need to observe P. Acnes bacteria?

I am currently attempting to grow a culture of P. Acnes bacteria. Right now, my only hope in identifying colonies of the bacteria in the culture is to use a black light to find colonies that glow ...
3
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2answers
346 views

Why are there so many medicinal plants?

Here is wikipedia page containing a list of plants used in herbal medicine. One might first want to argue that many of them actually do not have any medicinal/beneficial effect on heatlth. I think we ...
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1answer
69 views

What is the best way to orally administer a water insoluble powdered drug to macaque monkeys?

They typically need to be given ~150mg, once a day, and it'll last for two weeks. The drug is very water insoluble, becomes almost like a paste, not suitable for tube feeding. And yes, this is for for ...
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1answer
20k views

Why Does Salt Water Help Sore Throats?

I am having some trouble understanding how salt water, a simple solution, could so effectively remove the pains of a sore throat. I do believe that the answer is closely related to hypo/hyper-tonic ...
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1answer
44 views

How can succinylcholine cause myorelaxation?

I first thought that this is because of prolonged depolarisations. However, I am not sure anymore, because after reading PubChem, the only possible pathways are are Choline agonist. So I would say ...
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64 views

negatively charged albumin as major carrier of acidic/negative charged drugs in blood

I reading that orsomucoid (alpha-1-acid glycoprotein) is the major carrier of positively charged (basic) drugs in the blood, while albumin carries negatively charged (acidic) and drugs with neutral ...
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1answer
50 views

How does steroid dependence occur?

I have seen on the internet that prolonged steriod treatment can result in the development of steroid drug tolerance leading to decreased hormone secretion. In turn this may lead to drug dependence, ...
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1answer
122 views

Elevated position effect on recovery times from upper respiratory infections at rest?

In nursing school, they advice for people with upper respiratory infections to be in a slightly elevated position at the head region when sleeping. My intuition of the reason is that the lymphatic ...
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1answer
40 views

Spironolactone's role with adrenergic agents in heart failure?

I am studying the treatment plan of adrenergic agents for heart failure. Then, in the group discussion, spironolactone was included. But I cannot understand how it is relevant when considering ...
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1answer
99 views

Are there any examples where 'magic bullet' drugs have worked in cancer treatment?

Magic bullets are drugs that can be administered on a micro local scale. In this context administration/binding would occur in or near the tumour by exploiting the different surface antigens that ...
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1answer
61 views

What's the mechanism of action of Levomepromazine's analgesic effects?

I have absolutely no idea as to how Levomepromazine elicits its analgesic effects so please do direct me to journal articles and other credible sources with you, the answerer, making a summary of ...
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0answers
21 views

Which classes of drugs (filed by their pharmacology) induce a release of β-endorphin?

Which classes of drugs (filed by their binding sites) induce a release of β-endorphin? I know of agonists of the nAChRs and 5-HT1A and ethanol. Are there any others? Please cite journal articles ...
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1answer
41 views

Clonidine's adrenonergic nature?

I am little confused here. I used the term adrenoagonist and sympatholytic to describe the compound. However, my teacher says that the correct term here is adrenomimetic -term. My understanding of ...
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1answer
42 views

Anesthetics, specifically inhaled anesthetics

I have had a look at previous inhaled anesthetics and many of them appear to be fluorocarbons. What could be the mechanism behind fluorine's anesthetic properties? Is it the specific bonding pattern ...
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46 views

Are ipratropium and tolterodine parasympatholytic?

They are nonselective cholinoblockers and antimuscarinic. Other cholinoblockers of parasympaticus, which I know, are parasympatholytic such as atropine, butylscopolamine, trihexyphenidyl, titropium ...
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1answer
51 views

Differentiation of norepinephrine and epinephrine in indications

Norepinephrine is less beta2 adrenomimetic than epinephrine so more selective so less bronchospasm so may be therofore better in treatment of cardiac failure and different shocks. However, I am not ...
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1answer
24 views

How can Pyridostigmine have the indication of Myasthenia?

I am thinking how pyridostigmine can be used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis. Its similar compound (neostigmine) is also anticholine esterase. This compound has the indication of myasthenia ...
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1answer
51 views

To understand side-effects for nebivolol's beta1 selective pathway in PubChem? [closed]

Assume you have a drug nebivolol. When nebivolol is used as beta1 selective drug, beta2 is mostly for side effects, but this is not clear from PubChem. I do not know any cases where nebivolol is used ...
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1answer
88 views

What is the mechanism of action of lithium-induced polyuria?

I was reading in my pharmacology textbook on lithium in treating bipolar disorder, and I was curious to know if there was any specific action lithium takes to produce symptoms such as polyuria and ...
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1answer
126 views

Do SSRIs downregulate or upregulate the 5-HT3 receptor?

What effect do SSRIs have on the expression of the ligand-gated ion channel, the 5-HT3 receptor?
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18 views

To Study Interactions of two molecules in PubChem

Assume you have two substances Diosminum / Hesperidinum. The former strengthens vascular walls. The latter has role in some glycoside biosynthesis. From Biochemistry, I recall that glycodises have ...
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1answer
33 views

Is Norepinephrine beta2 adrenomimetic?

I know that it has alpha1, alpha2 and beta1 effects. It has beta2 receptor where epinephrine can effect. However, to say that it is beta adrenomimetic, I am not sure. That is ligand binding beta2 ...
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1answer
41 views

Salbutamol's Pathways of Interaction and Classification

Salbutamol is a very commonly used direct-acting β2-agonist. This suggests me that it is sympatholytic. However, it has sympathomimetic pathways, see PubChem for Sympathomimetic. I am trying to ...
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1answer
24 views

Ephedrine or pseudoephedrine indirectly central alpha2 mimetic?

I started to think this problem by first thinking if the alpha2 mimetism is possible in either case. It seems to be indirectly in either one. Ephedrine seems to have more prominent effect in CNS. ...
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25 views

Quetiapine tolerance

I've researched quetiapine for quite some time now and I've found some references to tolerance, but nothing conclusive. My question is whether quetiapine use builds tolerance to the drug and if so, ...
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23 views

Why is drug clearance not affected by blood flow in case of low extraction ratios?

Background information: 1) Variation of organ blood flow: a) for drugs with low extraction ratio (<0.3): the venous drug concentration is virtually identical to the arterial concentration ...
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1answer
21 views

What is the most common way of administering loop diuretics and what is their time course of action?

I am reviewing some material on loop diuretics, and I am curious to know how these drugs are administered. Also, I am interested in knowing their time course of action once they are administered into ...
0
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1answer
33 views

Does vitamin D form crystals in the blood with calcium and magnesium?

I read on a vitamin-D product (2000NE) that I should not use calcium and magnesium with it, because it can result crystal formation in the blood. I googled, but find anything about this. Is it true? ...
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1answer
105 views

What are the psychedelic effects of (stellar) anise and how many people are affected?

Backstory: My girlfriend reacts heavily to chocolate and drinks containing stellar anise, in a way that seems comparable to psychedelic drugs. After consuming it, it takes approximately five minutes ...
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2answers
83 views

Why does caffeine give you so much energy, while being so low on calories?

There's definitely something I'm missing here. Since calories is a unit of measurement for energy, and caffeine seemingly gives you a lot, how can the labels on caffeinated products have such a low ...
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1answer
35 views

What are the reactions in the body that triggers dizziness after cigar(nicotine) smoking in non-smokers?

Suppose there is a person that has never used nicotine in any form in his/her life. Why does the person get dizzy after a few "shots" from a cigar(nicotine)? What's the difference between using other ...
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1answer
18 views

What enables azacitidine to incorporate into both DNA and RNA?

I did a mini-project on the drug azacitidine for my pharmacology class, and I learned that azacitidine has the ability to incorporate into both DNA and RNA. I think this is really unique because a ...