Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function

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Do antidepressants with their BDNF expression-increasing effects display disease-modifying effects in Alzheimer's disease?

I ask this question because I've looked everywhere I can think of and not one mention of this even though it definitely makes sense based on the finding that antidepressants increase brain-derived ...
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96 views

Inverse of dopamine reuptake inhibitor?

The wikipedia article on the dopamine transporter gives examples of some drugs whose effects are mediated by the inhibition of the dopamine transporter, such as cocaine and amphetamines. Are there ...
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92 views

What are the characteristics of a promising drug target?

When researchers are looking to start developing a drug, what characteristics do they look for in the potential proteins (assuming they already have good quality structural models)?
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55 views

Are there any examples where 'magic bullet' drugs have worked?

Magic bullets are drugs that can be administered on a micro local scale near the tumour by exploiting the different surface antigens that cancers expose. The drug attaches via an mAb (attached to the ...
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1answer
56 views

What is the disadvantage of having no anticoagulation after pulmonary embolism?

Is chronic anticoagulation always given after pulmonary embolism? What are the risks or disadvantages if anticoagulation is not given? if terminated early?
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1answer
129 views

How do you average Ki values?

It's embarrassing for me to ask this but well such is life. NIMH Psychoactive Drug Screening Program (PDSP) Ki Database is mentioned as the source of the average binding affinity (Ki) values given in ...
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25 views

What are the conditions that must be satisfied in order for drugs to be deliverable via the epidural route?

I ask this because I've read that while pentazocine is approved by the FDA for the treatment of labour pain, epidural administration is not listed as one of its means of administration (which thing I ...
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2answers
216 views

What's a good and reliable database on the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data of drugs both approved and unapproved?

What's a good and reliable database for the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data of drugs both approved (in the US and elsewhere) and unapproved?
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38 views

What's the mechanism of action of Levomepromazine's analgesic effects?

I have absolutely no idea as to how Levomepromazine elicits its analgesic effects so please do direct me to journal articles and other credible sources with you, the answerer, making a summary of ...
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56 views

Which receptor in particular does, “MUSCARINIC CHOLINERGIC” refer to in Goodman and Gilman?

On pg. 410 of Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 12th Edition the term "MUSCARINIC CHOLINERGIC" is used (in the context of side effects of antidepressant agents) with ...
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136 views

How does Tianeptine work to elicit its therapeutic effects?

Tianeptine is an antidepressant and anxiolytic that has some additional analgesic properties that's used in some European countries, and the theories I've heard about how it works include the ...
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1answer
88 views

Confusion related to a term probe-by-background interaction

I was reading a paper related to bioinformatics where it uses the drug response on the cancer cells and the gene expression of the individual cells are studied to find any useful insights. Specially, ...
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1answer
288 views

How exactly does marijuana damage brain cells?

I've heard that THC can cause permanent damage to brain cells. I've also heard this reffered to anti drug propaganda. Another theory i've read is that temporary effects reduce intelligence but long ...
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1answer
226 views

Definition of Dye- Reduction Test?

Can some one give a simple explanation or definition on what a dye-reduction test is.
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1answer
78 views

Which Enzymes Catalyse the Deacetylation of Drugs in the Human Body?

If you would like more specifics seeing how I realise that this question is very broad and may be difficult to answer in general then hopefully the following will help you out: I am particularly ...
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1answer
40 views

What does “Psychomodulatory” mean in the context of potentially psychoactive drugs?

What does "Psychomodulatory" mean in the context of potentially psychoactive drugs? That is, in this journal article http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0028390812001931 in the ...
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61 views

Is there a Pharmacology Textbook that Satisfies the Conditions listed in the Body of this Question?

The conditions are: As extensive and explanatory as Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Twelfth Edition With additional extensive and thoroughly explanatory information ...
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1answer
1k views

How does paracetamol interfere with immune system?

Paracetamol is used to reduce body temperature when it is to high. The high body temperature (fever) is known to be an indication that immune system fights against an infection. In this context I ...
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1answer
359 views

What is the biological mechanism underlying caffeine intolerance? (CYP1A2 or other?)

As far as I can tell, caffeine metabolism occurs primarily via the CYP1A2 enzyme. I am curious as to whether mutations in the CYP1A2 gene are associated with caffeine intolerance. Some site that is ...
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1answer
38 views

Does the Enzyme Monoamine Oxidase, Isoenzyme A have an allosteric modulatory site?

Does the Enzyme Monoamine Oxidase, Isoenzyme A (MAO-A) have an allosteric modulatory site? I ask because I would like to know if it is possible, in theory at least, for a positive allosteric modulator ...
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0answers
26 views

Can Opioids Attenuate some of the symptoms of Psychosis?

Can Opioids Attenuate some of the symptoms of Psychosis? I ask because there's a dead link on the Wikipedia page http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opioid_dependence#Causes that's meant to support the ...
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22 views

Which Enzymes Degrade Dynorphins and what drugs are there available to inhibit said enzymes?

Which Enzymes Degrade Dynorphins and what drugs are there available to inhibit said enzymes?
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1answer
21 views

How long does it take for the Opioids listed in the Description to induce Analgesia when Administered via IV?

How long does it take for the Opioids listed in the Description to induce Analgesia when Administered via IV? Now I don't mean how long it takes for euphoria to come on but analgesia. The opioids I ...
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47 views

What's the Efficacy of Ampakines in the Treatment for ADHD?

What's the Efficacy of Ampakines in the Treatment for ADHD? Ampakines are a class of drugs that serve as potentiators of the AMPA glutamate receptor. By so doing they serve as nootropic, anxiolytics ...
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1answer
337 views

Where are doxycycline's anti-inflammatory properties derived from?

I have been looking at this antibiotic called doxycycline which is used mainly as an antibiotic. It has however some interesting anti-inflammatory properties. Does anyone know where these ...
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1answer
143 views

Does the NMDA antagonist, Memantine that's used to prevent Excitotoxicity cause brain damage?

Does the NMDA antagonist, Memantine that's used to prevent excitotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) cause brain damage? I know that in rodents NMDA antagonists ...
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1answer
147 views

What's the therapeutic index of Pethidine (Meperidine in the US)?

What's the therapeutic index $\left(\frac{LD_{50}}{ED_{50}}\right)$ of Pethidine (Meperidine in the US) via the intravenous route for humans or whatever species you can find? The therapeutic window ...
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2answers
321 views

Which range are the Therapeutic Indices of Currently-Prescribed Benzodiazepines in?

A compound's therapeutic index is defined as: $$TI = \frac{LD_{50}}{ED_{50}}$$ What range are the therapeutic indices of benzodiazepines in? For the method of administration I would prefer ...
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1answer
474 views

How do Benzodiazepines induce Rewarding (Euphoric) effects?

Benzodiazepines are a class of drugs that serve as positive allosteric modulators of the GABAA receptor by binding to their own "site" on the aforementioned receptor. By doing this they produce ...
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1answer
59 views

What Conditions must Drugs satisfy for them to be Deliverable via the Transdermal route?

What Conditions must Drugs satisfy for them to be Deliverable via the Transdermal route? I assume a high $\log{P}$ (lipophilicity) would be one, are there any others?
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15 views

Which classes of drugs (filed by their pharmacology) induce a release of beta-endorphin?

Which classes of drugs (filed by their binding sites) induce a release of $\beta$-endorphin? I know of agonists of the nAChRs and 5-HT1A and ethanol. Are there any others? Please cite journal ...
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264 views

How do Opioids Stimulate a Histamine Release?

Histamine is a neurotransmitter that also has peripheral functions such as the regulation of gastric acid secretions, allergic responses, etc. I know that opioids stimulate a release of histamine but ...
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29 views

Which mixed opioid agonist/antagonist are approved for Human Use in Europe and/or the USA?

Which mixed opioid agonist/antagonist are approved for Human Use in Europe and/or the USA? I know of: Buprenorphine Butorphanol Nalbuphine Pentazocine Are there any others? If so I would like you ...
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1answer
106 views

Do serotonergic (5-HT2A-mediated) psychedelics elicit stimulant effects?

I know that 5-HT2A partial agonism is the key mechanism of action of serotonergic psychedelics but I also know that some research (e.g. the selective (no activity on any other known receptor sites) ...
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1answer
44 views

How does Serotonergic (5-HT2A mediated) Psychedelia work?

How does serotonergic (5-HT2A specific) psychedelia work? I've read that there are some theories that it might involve the induction of a glutamate release in certain regions of the brain involved in ...
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1answer
241 views

How does the eugeroic modafinil work?

How does the drug, modafinil (Provigil), exert its eugeroic (wakefulness-promoting) effects? I've read that it works by increasing dopamine and histamine concentrations in the CNS and by serving as a ...
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77 views

Do SSRIs downregulate or upregulate the 5-HT3 receptor?

What effect do SSRIs have on the expression of the ligand-gated ion channel, the 5-HT3 receptor?
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87 views

Do mammals develop tolerance to anticholinergics?

I know that first generation H1 antagonists, commonly known as antihistamines have anticholinergic effects. Their sedative side effects go away due to tolerance, but as for their anticholinergic side ...
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1answer
258 views

How does toluene inhalation damage the brain?

We just had a discussion about toluene abuse. It is known, that people inhaling toluene for a long time have significant brain damage, including decreased intelligence. I found that toluene is a ...
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560 views

Do hormone drugs affect whether a person feels sexual attraction to males or females?

I know that ingesting testosterone and other hormonal drugs may stimulate libido and increase sexual desire. But I wonder, if a man ingests female hormones such as estrogen, will he experience sexual ...
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2answers
1k views

Why is Paracetamol so great?

Every time I get ill (cold, flu etc) I take a couple of these wonderful tablets for up to 4 times a day and I, eventually, get better. What exactly is paracetamol? Why is it so effective and is it ...
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566 views

Why is Botulinum toxin the most potent poison known?

Botulinum toxin (trade name Botox) inhibits acetylcholine release in neurons and causes botulism, an acute paralytic disease which leads to nerve degeneration and takes a long time to recover. I've ...
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1answer
155 views

Are inflammation and anxiety connected?

I've been reading a curious paper about the use of cannabis, and one of the passages piqued my interest: There’s also been a lot of work done on another constituent of marijuana, cannabinoid, ...
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1answer
540 views

Why do drugs which are hormones have long half-life?

Hormones normally have short half-life. How is it possible that they have long-life in drugs?
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876 views

Conversion rate of topical Retinol to Retinoic Acid (Tretinoin)?

I'm wondering if someone out there has more information than me. Retinoids have well known metabolic pathways in vivo, and it's usually something like: ...
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2answers
8k views

Why do vaccines cause your arm to hurt?

When you get a shot for a vaccine (for example, the annual flu vaccine), the nurse frequently indicates that your arm will ache for a day or two, maybe more. This ache is typically not just a pain ...
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1answer
259 views

Influence of alcohol on brain cells

As I am not related to biology, I would appreciate if you can keep your answers as simple as possible. My question is about the influence of alcohol on the brain. As far as I know, drinking alcohol ...
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1answer
119 views

Pharmacologically, can tricyclic antidepressants have a side-effect profile similar to neuroleptics?

Torticollis (wryneck, cervical dystonia) is a neurologic movement disorder causing involuntary muscle spasms in the neck. Often, neuroleptics can cause such a side effect. I'm wondering if this ...
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1k views

Can a person become addicted to tea?

Can one become addicted to tea like coffee addicts or smokers? I heard there are some common substances in tea and coffee, do they cause addiction?
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372 views

Looking for Kelly Chibale's paper on Malaria cure

From National Geographic, there has been a lot of hype on Kelly Chibale's work from University of Cape Town on the aminopyridine MMV390048. Unfortunately, this was from an announcement from an ...