Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function

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Why does caffeine give you so much energy, while being so low on calories?

There's definitely something I'm missing here. Since calories is a unit of measurement for energy, and caffeine seemingly gives you a lot, how can the labels on caffeinated products have such a low ...
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2answers
55 views

Is half-a-tablet of X a substitute for a tablet of X/2?

This may be anecdotal. At the pharmacy earlier, the prescription called for a drug with X mg of the target chemical. The pharmacy however only had stock of a higher potency of the same brand. E.g. ...
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36 views

Drugs metabolism and detection

If someone is taking treatment for a psychiatric disorder, for example diazepine, would traces of the metabolized drug show in their sweat or saliva? Would it be chemically detectable?Any links to ...
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62 views

Pharmacology Half Life Calculation

I'm really stuck on this question. I'm being asked to find the half life of a drug. The Vd is 50L/kg. The clearance is 0.1 L/hr/kg. The patient weighs 70 kg. Equation is: T1/2 (halflife) = 0.693 * ...
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1answer
1k views

Can a person become addicted to tea?

Can one become addicted to tea like coffee addicts or smokers? I heard there are some common substances in tea and coffee, do they cause addiction?
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19 views

Meta-analysis of fruits in blocking Cytochrome family

My professor says that some drugs cannot be used with grapefruit. I am trying to search a list of cytochromes and their effect to block members in the cytochrome family. Some in Cyt P450. What is ...
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1answer
26 views

What is the mechanism of action of lithium-induced polyuria?

I was reading in my pharmacology textbook on lithium in treating bipolar disorder, and I was curious to know if there was any specific action lithium takes to produce symptoms such as polyuria and ...
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1answer
80 views

When might an inhibitor of bacterial transformation be useful?

I am part of a project elucidating some structures that are required for bacterial transformation. We have the opportunity to screen inhibitors of the system to stop it from functioning. I am not a ...
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1answer
32 views

What is meant by drug tolerance?

What is meant by drug tolerance? This question is in my biology textbook for IGCSE and I have no idea what drug tolerance is. It would be very helpful if someone could clarify. Thank you.
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1answer
45 views

Why are many anti-malaria drugs gap junction antagonists?

Why are many anti-malaria drugs gap junction antagonists? My professor recently just mentioned that many of the anti-malaria drugs block gap junctions. i am wondering if this blocking is important ...
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1answer
71 views

Does tea have its effect if you have a sleep after drinking it?

If I drink tea, then go to sleep for a while, when I wake up, will the effect of tea still be on me (the refreshing effect)? Does it depend on the duration of sleep?
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77 views

Elevated position effect on recovery times from upper respiratory infections at rest?

In nursing school, they advice for people with upper respiratory infections to be in a slightly elevated position at the head region when sleeping. My intuition of the reason is that the lymphatic ...
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1answer
42 views

Preventing paracetamol overdose

Paracetamol overdose is one of the most common drug toxicities. It may be treated by intravenous N-acetylcysteine which replaces the glutathione that is used up in paracetamol metabolism to prevent ...
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45 views

What's the mechanism of action of Levomepromazine's analgesic effects?

I have absolutely no idea as to how Levomepromazine elicits its analgesic effects so please do direct me to journal articles and other credible sources with you, the answerer, making a summary of ...
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1answer
22 views

How long does it take for the Opioids listed in the Description to induce Analgesia when Administered via IV?

How long does it take for the Opioids listed in the Description to induce Analgesia when Administered via IV? Now I don't mean how long it takes for euphoria to come on but analgesia. The opioids I ...
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1answer
160 views

What's the therapeutic index of Pethidine (Meperidine in the US)?

What's the therapeutic index $\left(\frac{LD_{50}}{ED_{50}}\right)$ of Pethidine (Meperidine in the US) via the intravenous route for humans or whatever species you can find? The therapeutic window ...
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1answer
109 views

Do serotonergic (5-HT2A-mediated) psychedelics elicit stimulant effects?

I know that 5-HT2A partial agonism is the key mechanism of action of serotonergic psychedelics but I also know that some research (e.g. the selective (no activity on any other known receptor sites) ...
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74 views

What's the Mechanism of Paradoxical Excitatory Effects with Sedating Antihistamines? [closed]

I've been reading the British National Formulary 65 (BNF-65) and it mentioned that in some, especially at higher dosages, sedating (first-generation) antihistamines, can produce paradoxical excitatory ...
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48 views

Can ingestion of B6 cause gastrointestinal disturbance? [closed]

Can the ingestion of vitamin B6 upset the stomach, and if so by what mechanism?
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256 views

Why are there so many medicinal plants?

Here is wikipedia page containing a list of plants used in herbal medicine. One might first want to argue that many of them actually do not have any medicinal/beneficial effect on heatlth. I think we ...
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75 views

Assays during drug discovery

After researching the definition of Assay, I am left with the idea that an assay refers to scientific screening. It could be of chemicals, microbes, etc. I understand that during drug-discovery ...
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2answers
713 views

Name of scientist who discovered lifesaving drug and chose not to patent it?

I recall reading about a 20th century scientist who made a life-saving drug that could have patented it and made millions. He chose not to and saved the lives of millions around the globe. I thought ...
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2answers
33 views

What Role Antagonists Play in the Study of Drugs?

I am pretty unfamiliar to pharmacology. I'm doing a research on drug abuse, particularly opioids' mechanism of action. I encountered several times evidences that come from studies using antagonists ...
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1answer
357 views

How exactly does marijuana damage brain cells?

I've heard that THC can cause permanent damage to brain cells. I've also heard this reffered to anti drug propaganda. Another theory i've read is that temporary effects reduce intelligence but long ...
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1answer
55 views

How is it decided that one drug is better than others by X times?

I read in Tortora and Derrickson that : Enkephelins are 200 times powerful than morphine in their analgesic effects. I wonder how exactly researchers arrive at a number (like 200 here). I also ...
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1answer
138 views

What is LD50 for 25i (25I-NBOMe)?

Firstly I would like to apologise if this is not correct place to ask this question, as it can be seen more as chemistry and not biology question. I was looking around for data on psychedelic ...
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62 views

Can cerebrospinal fluid deliver nutrients/drugs to neurons during sleep?

I'm looking at this article on the possible mechanism of detoxifying brain during sleep using cerebrospinal fluid. It states that at night, the space between neurons may allow better (up to 20x) ...
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1answer
89 views

Confusion related to a term probe-by-background interaction

I was reading a paper related to bioinformatics where it uses the drug response on the cancer cells and the gene expression of the individual cells are studied to find any useful insights. Specially, ...
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1answer
157 views

Are inflammation and anxiety connected?

I've been reading a curious paper about the use of cannabis, and one of the passages piqued my interest: There’s also been a lot of work done on another constituent of marijuana, cannabinoid, ...
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1answer
617 views

Circulation through the liver in light of drug metabolism

I have a lingering question which stems from an answer that I gave to What hydrolyses aspirin within the digestive tract and blood stream? When a drug or any other substance is absorbed into the ...
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1answer
32 views

Concentration of caffeine in physiologically relevant setting

Caffeine is known to overcome G2/M (and possibly other types of) cell cycle arrest through its effects on DNA repair machinery and is used as a positive control in studies of cell cycle arrest. In ...
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1answer
62 views

Mesoporous silica particles as anti cancer drug delivery method

If this question is a little off topic for Biology, I'm sorry. I've recently read a lot about mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a promising drug delivery method. The huge range of customizability of ...
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1answer
28 views

Classify chemotherapy drugs?

I'm studying a TCGA dataset trying to find correlations between gene expression and clinical data which might shed light on some pathways. One column of the clinical data provides a list of ...
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3answers
167 views

Why is it that drinking caffeinated tea does not help one to stay awake?

I have never felt after drinking tea that I can have the power of being able to work late at night. Neither have I felt that it helps me to be awake while working or keeping eyes opened while I am not ...
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288 views

What's a good and reliable database on the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data of drugs both approved and unapproved?

What's a good and reliable database for the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data of drugs both approved (in the US and elsewhere) and unapproved?
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1answer
129 views

What are the effects of combining rapamycin with dietary restriction?

Are the effects additive or subadditive? In many ways, rapamycin acts like a CR mimetic, but even CR can only go so far.
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1answer
31 views

Function of an VEGF inhibitor in the treatment of macular degeneration

I'm working on a short presentation of treatments of macular degeneration for a biomedical optics seminar on macular degeneration. Since I don't have any relevant medical or biological background ...
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1answer
149 views

How do you average Ki values?

It's embarrassing for me to ask this but well such is life. NIMH Psychoactive Drug Screening Program (PDSP) Ki Database is mentioned as the source of the average binding affinity (Ki) values given in ...
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1answer
95 views

Do SSRIs downregulate or upregulate the 5-HT3 receptor?

What effect do SSRIs have on the expression of the ligand-gated ion channel, the 5-HT3 receptor?
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1answer
380 views

Which is the tissue damaging agent in krokodil (street desomorphine)

I've just read about krokodil and saw some quite hideous pictures about what it does to the human body. I guess just desomorphine alone wouldn't have this effect. Which ingredient(s) causes the ...
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0answers
76 views

How is ammonia removed from the colon?

“Lactulose is also used to reduce the amount of ammonia in the blood of patients with liver disease. It works by drawing ammonia from the blood into the colon where it is removed from the body.” ...
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Is there a Pharmacology Textbook that Satisfies the Conditions listed in the Body of this Question?

The conditions are: As extensive and explanatory as Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Twelfth Edition With additional extensive and thoroughly explanatory information ...
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What's the Efficacy of Ampakines in the Treatment for ADHD?

What's the Efficacy of Ampakines in the Treatment for ADHD? Ampakines are a class of drugs that serve as potentiators of the AMPA glutamate receptor. By so doing they serve as nootropic, anxiolytics ...
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1answer
29 views

Could super-caffeinating somebody's bloodstream be dangerous?

I'm currently planning out an RPG based on Misfits. Basically young offenders get super powers. I want one of the villains to have a really lame power that they use to become incredibly dangerous. I ...
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1answer
25 views

How does fluorouracil inhibit pyrimidine synthesis?

I was reading in my pharmacology textbook about fluorouracil, and my book mentioned that fluorouracil is an antimetabolite whose function is to inhibit pyrimidine synthesis. However, I was curious to ...
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1answer
43 views

Applying drugs to brain via scalp (transdermal)

Many medications are intended only for the brain, but are taken orally. Hence <10% finds its intended target, while the remaining >90% is at best wasted, and at worst causes unwanted side-effects. ...
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1answer
31 views

Anesthetics, specifically inhaled anesthetics

I have had a look at previous inhaled anesthetics and many of them appear to be fluorocarbons. What could be the mechanism behind fluorine's anesthetic properties? Is it the specific bonding pattern ...
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1answer
33 views

Clonidine's adrenonergic nature?

I am little confused here. I used the term adrenoagonist and sympatholytic to describe the compound. However, my teacher says that the correct term here is adrenomimetic -term. My understanding of ...
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1answer
30 views

Difference between medicinal caffeine and regular caffeine

There are some OTC paracetamol tablets, some with caffeine. Is this caffeine the same as the regular caffeine (found in a coffee)? Does it perform better than it in any way?
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66 views

What is the effect of Montelukast on the amount of IgE in blood?

I know that it decreases the amount of leucotrienes in blood. I saw a patient with high IgE altough under Montelukast medication. This suggests me that Montelukast does not affect the immunoglobulins, ...