Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function

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What is the best way to orally administer a water insoluble powdered drug to macaque monkeys?

They typically need to be given ~150mg, once a day, and it'll last for two weeks. The drug is very water insoluble, becomes almost like a paste, not suitable for tube feeding. And yes, this is for for ...
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523 views

How does the eugeroic modafinil work?

How does the drug, modafinil (Provigil), exert its eugeroic (wakefulness-promoting) effects? I've read that it works by increasing dopamine and histamine concentrations in the CNS and by serving as a ...
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205 views

From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brain

Recently, some research, for example this article has proposed that inflammation can cause innate immune cells to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines that act on the brain to cause sickness behaviour. ...
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2k views

How does paracetamol interfere with immune system?

Paracetamol is used to reduce body temperature when it is to high. The high body temperature (fever) is known to be an indication that immune system fights against an infection. In this context I ...
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52 views

How does Serotonergic (5-HT2A mediated) Psychedelia work?

How does serotonergic (5-HT2A specific) psychedelia work? I've read that there are some theories that it might involve the induction of a glutamate release in certain regions of the brain involved in ...
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1k views

Conversion rate of topical Retinol to Retinoic Acid (Tretinoin)?

I'm wondering if someone out there has more information than me. Retinoids have well known metabolic pathways in vivo, and it's usually something like: ...
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71 views

Does DHA increase the effects of clarithromycin?

I've read on this publication that every drug that induces CYP3A can reduce the effectiveness of clarithromycin. Clarithromycin inhibits CYP3A. But it does not say anything about the opposite ...
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119 views

If D1 receptors stimulate adenylate cyclase (through GPCRs) and D2 receptors inhibit it, then why do mutations in both have similar effects?

D1 and D2 both refer to specific types of dopamine receptors. I'm sure it has something to do with the fact that the D1 receptors are in regions different from D2 receptors. I know that adenylate ...
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409 views

Why are there so many medicinal plants?

Here is wikipedia page containing a list of plants used in herbal medicine. One might first want to argue that many of them actually do not have any medicinal/beneficial effect on heatlth. I think we ...
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Why is Paracetamol so great?

Every time I get ill (cold, flu etc) I take a couple of these wonderful tablets for up to 4 times a day and I, eventually, get better. What exactly is paracetamol? Why is it so effective and is it ...
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400 views

Looking for Kelly Chibale's paper on Malaria cure

From National Geographic, there has been a lot of hype on Kelly Chibale's work from University of Cape Town on the aminopyridine MMV390048. Unfortunately, this was from an announcement from an ...
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74 views

Why is dopamine or a dopamine-receptor agonist not pumped into the brain of Parkinson patients?

I am aware that dopamine cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, but can't it be pumped inside the cerebrospinal fluid via some permanent tube implant? Wouldn't Parkinson patients chose that over ...
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43 views

Doxorubicin's intercalant and topoisomerase inhibition in leukemia?

I am thinking the role of doxorubicin's pathways in cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma: topoisomerase inhibitor and inhibit DNA activity intercalant - intercalant DNA bases and inhibit DNA ...
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2answers
211 views

Is there a specific mechanism for the delivery of pain medication?

For example, when one takes aspirin or ibuprofen does the chemical get dispersed to all pain receptor? My question really is, how does the chemical know where to target in the body? I figure wherever ...
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61 views

Is half-a-tablet of X a substitute for a tablet of X/2?

This may be anecdotal. At the pharmacy earlier, the prescription called for a drug with X mg of the target chemical. The pharmacy however only had stock of a higher potency of the same brand. E.g. ...
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46 views

Drugs metabolism and detection

If someone is taking treatment for a psychiatric disorder, for example diazepine, would traces of the metabolized drug show in their sweat or saliva? Would it be chemically detectable?Any links to ...
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155 views

Pharmacology Half Life Calculation

I'm really stuck on this question. I'm being asked to find the half life of a drug. The Vd is 50L/kg. The clearance is 0.1 L/hr/kg. The patient weighs 70 kg. Equation is: T1/2 (halflife) = 0.693 * ...
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2k views

Can a person become addicted to tea?

Can one become addicted to tea like coffee addicts or smokers? I heard there are some common substances in tea and coffee, do they cause addiction?
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24 views

Meta-analysis of fruits in blocking Cytochrome family

My professor says that some drugs cannot be used with grapefruit. I am trying to search a list of cytochromes and their effect to block members in the cytochrome family. Some in Cyt P450. What is ...
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43 views

If a blocker prevents repolarization, will the neuron be stuck in a depolarized state forever?

Potassium channels help to repolarize the cell after depolarization. But if the potassium channels are blocked, potassium ions cannot flow out of the cell to increase the membrane potential. Thus, one ...
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120 views

What is the mechanism of action of lithium-induced polyuria?

I was reading in my pharmacology textbook on lithium in treating bipolar disorder, and I was curious to know if there was any specific action lithium takes to produce symptoms such as polyuria and ...
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100 views

When might an inhibitor of bacterial transformation be useful?

I am part of a project elucidating some structures that are required for bacterial transformation. We have the opportunity to screen inhibitors of the system to stop it from functioning. I am not a ...
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205 views

Have webs woven by LSD-intoxicated spiders ever been studied for their efficiency in fly catching?

I ask, because I have a different interpretation of the experiments performed on web-weaving spiders. The famous Robert Pirsig maintains that LSD is somehow helpful to web-weaving spiders, because it ...
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46 views

Why are pharmacology studies so experimental?

I am a medicine student, and as far as I see from our pharmacology lectures, pharmacologists work almost completely experimental. Quite typically they take a substance (e.g., from nature), they add, ...
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682 views

Do Penicillin based antibiotics affect birth control?

I wasn't sure whether to ask this question on Biology or Chemistry Stack Exchange, since it is really biochemisty, but this is something that's been puzzling me. Most pharmacists (all that I've ...
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69 views

What is meant by drug tolerance?

What is meant by drug tolerance? This question is in my biology textbook for IGCSE and I have no idea what drug tolerance is. It would be very helpful if someone could clarify. Thank you.
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51 views

Why are many anti-malaria drugs gap junction antagonists?

Why are many anti-malaria drugs gap junction antagonists? My professor recently just mentioned that many of the anti-malaria drugs block gap junctions. i am wondering if this blocking is important ...
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128 views

How is ammonia removed from the colon?

“Lactulose is also used to reduce the amount of ammonia in the blood of patients with liver disease. It works by drawing ammonia from the blood into the colon where it is removed from the body.” ...
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101 views

Does tea have its effect if you have a sleep after drinking it?

If I drink tea, then go to sleep for a while, when I wake up, will the effect of tea still be on me (the refreshing effect)? Does it depend on the duration of sleep?
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220 views

Elevated position effect on recovery times from upper respiratory infections at rest?

In nursing school, they advice for people with upper respiratory infections to be in a slightly elevated position at the head region when sleeping. My intuition of the reason is that the lymphatic ...
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49 views

Preventing paracetamol overdose

Paracetamol overdose is one of the most common drug toxicities. It may be treated by intravenous N-acetylcysteine which replaces the glutathione that is used up in paracetamol metabolism to prevent ...
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1answer
68 views

What's the mechanism of action of Levomepromazine's analgesic effects?

I have absolutely no idea as to how Levomepromazine elicits its analgesic effects so please do direct me to journal articles and other credible sources with you, the answerer, making a summary of ...
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27 views

How long does it take for the Opioids listed in the Description to induce Analgesia when Administered via IV?

How long does it take for the Opioids listed in the Description to induce Analgesia when Administered via IV? Now I don't mean how long it takes for euphoria to come on but analgesia. The opioids I ...
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189 views

What's the therapeutic index of Pethidine (Meperidine in the US)?

What's the therapeutic index $\left(\frac{LD_{50}}{ED_{50}}\right)$ of Pethidine (Meperidine in the US) via the intravenous route for humans or whatever species you can find? The therapeutic window ...
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125 views

Do serotonergic (5-HT2A-mediated) psychedelics elicit stimulant effects?

I know that 5-HT2A partial agonism is the key mechanism of action of serotonergic psychedelics but I also know that some research (e.g. the selective (no activity on any other known receptor sites) ...
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153 views

What's the Mechanism of Paradoxical Excitatory Effects with Sedating Antihistamines? [closed]

I've been reading the British National Formulary 65 (BNF-65) and it mentioned that in some, especially at higher dosages, sedating (first-generation) antihistamines, can produce paradoxical excitatory ...
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53 views

Can ingestion of B6 cause gastrointestinal disturbance? [closed]

Can the ingestion of vitamin B6 upset the stomach, and if so by what mechanism?
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82 views

Assays during drug discovery

After researching the definition of Assay, I am left with the idea that an assay refers to scientific screening. It could be of chemicals, microbes, etc. I understand that during drug-discovery ...
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779 views

Name of scientist who discovered lifesaving drug and chose not to patent it?

I recall reading about a 20th century scientist who made a life-saving drug that could have patented it and made millions. He chose not to and saved the lives of millions around the globe. I thought ...
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36 views

What Role Antagonists Play in the Study of Drugs?

I am pretty unfamiliar to pharmacology. I'm doing a research on drug abuse, particularly opioids' mechanism of action. I encountered several times evidences that come from studies using antagonists ...
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83 views

What is “theae folium”?

I wanted to buy black tea at a pharmacy and the pharmacist told me that russian tea is actually black tea so I bought it instead.It's made out of theae folium leaves and for some reason I can't find ...
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436 views

How exactly does marijuana damage brain cells?

I've heard that THC can cause permanent damage to brain cells. I've also heard this reffered to anti drug propaganda. Another theory i've read is that temporary effects reduce intelligence but long ...
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2answers
126 views

Can a fungus become resistant to a chemical such as Potassium Permanganate?

A friend used potassium permanganate solution to treat tinea on the hands/feet but after some initial success, the tinea seems to be making a comeback. Could the fungus develop resistance to potassium ...
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1answer
60 views

How is it decided that one drug is better than others by X times?

I read in Tortora and Derrickson that : Enkephelins are 200 times powerful than morphine in their analgesic effects. I wonder how exactly researchers arrive at a number (like 200 here). I also ...
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52 views

Defining Resistance and Sensitivity Thresholds for IC50

I have a dataset containing IC50 data for each of my cell lines and up to 80 drugs. Basically for each drug I want to be able to define an IC50 threshold where if a cell line has an IC50 above that ...
2
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1answer
326 views

What is LD50 for 25i (25I-NBOMe)?

Firstly I would like to apologise if this is not correct place to ask this question, as it can be seen more as chemistry and not biology question. I was looking around for data on psychedelic ...
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1answer
81 views

Can cerebrospinal fluid deliver nutrients/drugs to neurons during sleep?

I'm looking at this article on the possible mechanism of detoxifying brain during sleep using cerebrospinal fluid. It states that at night, the space between neurons may allow better (up to 20x) ...
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89 views

Confusion related to a term probe-by-background interaction

I was reading a paper related to bioinformatics where it uses the drug response on the cancer cells and the gene expression of the individual cells are studied to find any useful insights. Specially, ...
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162 views

Are inflammation and anxiety connected?

I've been reading a curious paper about the use of cannabis, and one of the passages piqued my interest: There’s also been a lot of work done on another constituent of marijuana, cannabinoid, ...
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Circulation through the liver in light of drug metabolism

I have a lingering question which stems from an answer that I gave to What hydrolyses aspirin within the digestive tract and blood stream? When a drug or any other substance is absorbed into the ...