Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function

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Can Opioids Attenuate some of the symptoms of Psychosis?

Can Opioids Attenuate some of the symptoms of Psychosis? I ask because there's a dead link on the Wikipedia page http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opioid_dependence#Causes that's meant to support the ...
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25 views

Which Enzymes Degrade Dynorphins and what drugs are there available to inhibit said enzymes?

Which Enzymes Degrade Dynorphins and what drugs are there available to inhibit said enzymes?
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How long does it take for the Opioids listed in the Description to induce Analgesia when Administered via IV?

How long does it take for the Opioids listed in the Description to induce Analgesia when Administered via IV? Now I don't mean how long it takes for euphoria to come on but analgesia. The opioids I ...
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What's the Efficacy of Ampakines in the Treatment for ADHD?

What's the Efficacy of Ampakines in the Treatment for ADHD? Ampakines are a class of drugs that serve as potentiators of the AMPA glutamate receptor. By so doing they serve as nootropic, anxiolytics ...
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1answer
346 views

Where are doxycycline's anti-inflammatory properties derived from?

I have been looking at this antibiotic called doxycycline which is used mainly as an antibiotic. It has however some interesting anti-inflammatory properties. Does anyone know where these ...
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177 views

Does the NMDA antagonist, Memantine that's used to prevent Excitotoxicity cause brain damage?

Does the NMDA antagonist, Memantine that's used to prevent excitotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) cause brain damage? I know that in rodents NMDA antagonists ...
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161 views

What's the therapeutic index of Pethidine (Meperidine in the US)?

What's the therapeutic index $\left(\frac{LD_{50}}{ED_{50}}\right)$ of Pethidine (Meperidine in the US) via the intravenous route for humans or whatever species you can find? The therapeutic window ...
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407 views

Which range are the Therapeutic Indices of Currently-Prescribed Benzodiazepines in?

A compound's therapeutic index is defined as: $$TI = \frac{LD_{50}}{ED_{50}}$$ What range are the therapeutic indices of benzodiazepines in? For the method of administration I would prefer ...
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585 views

How do Benzodiazepines induce Rewarding (Euphoric) effects?

Benzodiazepines are a class of drugs that serve as positive allosteric modulators of the GABAA receptor by binding to their own "site" on the aforementioned receptor. By doing this they produce ...
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1answer
64 views

What Conditions must Drugs satisfy for them to be Deliverable via the Transdermal route?

What Conditions must Drugs satisfy for them to be Deliverable via the Transdermal route? I assume a high $\log{P}$ (lipophilicity) would be one, are there any others?
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Which classes of drugs (filed by their pharmacology) induce a release of β-endorphin?

Which classes of drugs (filed by their binding sites) induce a release of β-endorphin? I know of agonists of the nAChRs and 5-HT1A and ethanol. Are there any others? Please cite journal articles ...
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312 views

How do Opioids Stimulate a Histamine Release?

Histamine is a neurotransmitter that also has peripheral functions such as the regulation of gastric acid secretions, allergic responses, etc. I know that opioids stimulate a release of histamine but ...
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34 views

Which mixed opioid agonist/antagonist are approved for Human Use in Europe and/or the USA? [closed]

Which mixed opioid agonist/antagonist are approved for Human Use in Europe and/or the USA? I know of: Buprenorphine Butorphanol Nalbuphine Pentazocine Are there any others? If so I would like you ...
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1answer
109 views

Do serotonergic (5-HT2A-mediated) psychedelics elicit stimulant effects?

I know that 5-HT2A partial agonism is the key mechanism of action of serotonergic psychedelics but I also know that some research (e.g. the selective (no activity on any other known receptor sites) ...
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1answer
48 views

How does Serotonergic (5-HT2A mediated) Psychedelia work?

How does serotonergic (5-HT2A specific) psychedelia work? I've read that there are some theories that it might involve the induction of a glutamate release in certain regions of the brain involved in ...
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1answer
308 views

How does the eugeroic modafinil work?

How does the drug, modafinil (Provigil), exert its eugeroic (wakefulness-promoting) effects? I've read that it works by increasing dopamine and histamine concentrations in the CNS and by serving as a ...
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1answer
96 views

Do SSRIs downregulate or upregulate the 5-HT3 receptor?

What effect do SSRIs have on the expression of the ligand-gated ion channel, the 5-HT3 receptor?
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98 views

Do mammals develop tolerance to anticholinergics?

I know that first generation H1 antagonists, commonly known as antihistamines have anticholinergic effects. Their sedative side effects go away due to tolerance, but as for their anticholinergic side ...
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323 views

How does toluene inhalation damage the brain?

We just had a discussion about toluene abuse. It is known, that people inhaling toluene for a long time have significant brain damage, including decreased intelligence. I found that toluene is a ...
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650 views

Do hormone drugs affect whether a person feels sexual attraction to males or females?

I know that ingesting testosterone and other hormonal drugs may stimulate libido and increase sexual desire. But I wonder, if a man ingests female hormones such as estrogen, will he experience sexual ...
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1k views

Why is Paracetamol so great?

Every time I get ill (cold, flu etc) I take a couple of these wonderful tablets for up to 4 times a day and I, eventually, get better. What exactly is paracetamol? Why is it so effective and is it ...
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680 views

Why is Botulinum toxin the most potent poison known?

Botulinum toxin (trade name Botox) inhibits acetylcholine release in neurons and causes botulism, an acute paralytic disease which leads to nerve degeneration and takes a long time to recover. I've ...
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157 views

Are inflammation and anxiety connected?

I've been reading a curious paper about the use of cannabis, and one of the passages piqued my interest: There’s also been a lot of work done on another constituent of marijuana, cannabinoid, ...
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658 views

Why do drugs which are hormones have long half-life?

Hormones normally have short half-life. How is it possible that they have long-life in drugs?
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1k views

Conversion rate of topical Retinol to Retinoic Acid (Tretinoin)?

I'm wondering if someone out there has more information than me. Retinoids have well known metabolic pathways in vivo, and it's usually something like: ...
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Why do vaccines cause your arm to hurt?

When you get a shot for a vaccine (for example, the annual flu vaccine), the nurse frequently indicates that your arm will ache for a day or two, maybe more. This ache is typically not just a pain ...
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292 views

Influence of alcohol on brain cells

As I am not related to biology, I would appreciate if you can keep your answers as simple as possible. My question is about the influence of alcohol on the brain. As far as I know, drinking alcohol ...
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1answer
125 views

Pharmacologically, can tricyclic antidepressants have a side-effect profile similar to neuroleptics?

Torticollis (wryneck, cervical dystonia) is a neurologic movement disorder causing involuntary muscle spasms in the neck. Often, neuroleptics can cause such a side effect. I'm wondering if this ...
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1k views

Can a person become addicted to tea?

Can one become addicted to tea like coffee addicts or smokers? I heard there are some common substances in tea and coffee, do they cause addiction?
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385 views

Looking for Kelly Chibale's paper on Malaria cure

From National Geographic, there has been a lot of hype on Kelly Chibale's work from University of Cape Town on the aminopyridine MMV390048. Unfortunately, this was from an announcement from an ...
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137 views

Making penicillin using animals - specifically, a goat

In the scifi novel Lucifer's Hammer, one of the characters (a biologist, if I remember correctly) finds himself in a post-apocalyptic world and tries to make penicillin to save his own life. To do ...
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712 views

Is it possible for a substance to be absorbed by the hair or the scalp?

I've heard that the aplication of Monovin A in the hair would allow it to grow faster. Monovin A seems to be only A vitamin, according to the first website. Could the application of A vitamin in the ...
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487 views

Do drugs always degrade after they have passed their expiration date?

I have been wondering for some time whether several drugs really have an expiration date. Let's narrow the scope and think about only "common" drugs, e.g NSAIDs, antibiotics etc. For example, would ...
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618 views

Circulation through the liver in light of drug metabolism

I have a lingering question which stems from an answer that I gave to What hydrolyses aspirin within the digestive tract and blood stream? When a drug or any other substance is absorbed into the ...
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87 views

Are there any situations in which phenylephrine is preferred to pseudoephedrine?

In the mid 2000s in the US, due to issues of drug enforcement, pseudoephedrine containing medications were brought behind the pharmacy counter and in most cases require ID, and phenylephrine was ...
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238 views

How do the pharmacodynamics of the NSAIDs differ and are there “resistant” COX phenotypes?

I know that the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen) affect the enzymes cyclooxygenase (types I and II). Is there any difference in the degree to which these ...
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Does a mydriatic drug neutralize the action of a miotic?

If a person were administered a mydriatic, would the subsequent application of a miotic neutralize the action of the former? If the sequence were reversed would a mydriatic neutralize the effect of a ...
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Is it better to take a half dose of paracetamol and a half dose of ibuprofen together rather than a full dose of either?

Recently, I heard on this health-related radio programme that it was better to take a half dose of paracetamol and a half dose of ibuprofen together, rather than the full dose of either one, for acute ...
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How does laughing gas (N2O) work?

Laughing gas (N2O), well, makes people laugh. How does just a gas make us do that, there has to be some hormones at work... So, I wanted to know how this works? What is the mechanism?
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Why do the brains of cocaine-users shrink faster than the brains of non-cocaine users?

http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/04/cocaine-may-age-the-brain.html?rss=1 Cocaine-dependent individuals showed a significantly greater-than-normal age-related decline in gray matter in ...
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177 views

From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brain

Recently, some research, for example this article has proposed that inflammation can cause innate immune cells to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines that act on the brain to cause sickness behaviour. ...
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627 views

How does Iota-Carrageenan achieve an antiviral effect?

"Cold Defence" nasal sprays are recommended to be taken either preventatively or in the early stages of a cold. The active ingredient in these sprays is Carrageenan. After some research, the active ...
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1answer
3k views

Why does Penicillin only affect bacterial cell walls

I was quite fascinated by the feature Should Science Pull the Trigger on Antiviral Drugs—That Can Blast the Common Cold? in this month's Wired magazine. They explain that Penicillin is effective at ...
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129 views

What are the effects of combining rapamycin with dietary restriction?

Are the effects additive or subadditive? In many ways, rapamycin acts like a CR mimetic, but even CR can only go so far.
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In what ways, if any, does administration of rapamycin *not* mimic calorie restriction?

Numerous sources like this say that rapamycin increases lifespan. And mTOR antagonism appears to be a large part of this (mTOR antagonism also appears to be a large part of calorie restriction's ...
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685 views

Why is methylcellulose used in pharmaceuticals?

Why is methyl cellulose used as a pharmaceutical excipient? Is it due to certain chemical properties? What are the reasons for relying on the chemical properties of methyl cellulose?
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189 views

What are the effects of caffeine on the mammalian circulatory system?

A friend of mine told me an anecdote about his mother, who drank too much caffeine, to the point she became hypotensive and would pass out. Because caffeine acts as a stimulant, I'm assuming the ...
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2k views

What hydrolyses aspirin within the digestive tract and blood stream?

I have had some further thoughts after my previous question regarding the buccal delivery of medication. The active compound in aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid or systematically 2-Acetoxybenzoic acid) ...
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223 views

How do you design a drug to be delivered to the CNS?

I have just started reading up on structure-based methods for drug design (this is completely not my field so apologies for stupid questions that will be coming along!) Clearly, some drugs are ...
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362 views

Looking for a cancer drug target database to guide sequencing of patient tumor DNA

I have a question I would like to pose to the community. I have recently received access to a bench-top ion torrent DNA sequencer. Our idea is to use this machine to sequence the DNA from patient’s ...