Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function

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When might an inhibitor of bacterial transformation be useful?

I am part of a project elucidating some structures that are required for bacterial transformation. We have the opportunity to screen inhibitors of the system to stop it from functioning. I am not a ...
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252 views

Epinephrine vs. Adrenaline

Both names are widely used, with what appears to me as a slight prevalence of “epinephrine” in scientific literature and an overwhelming prevalence of “adrenaline” in popular media. Are there any ...
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41 views

Function of an VEGF inhibitor in the treatment of macular degeneration

I'm working on a short presentation of treatments of macular degeneration for a biomedical optics seminar on macular degeneration. Since I don't have any relevant medical or biological background ...
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1answer
69 views

Dimethyltryptamine and Sigma 1-type opioid receptor interaction

Where exactly do dimethyltryptamine and sigma 1-type opioid receptor interact? I read in this When the Endogenous Hallucinogenic Trace Amine N,N-Dimethyltryptamine Meets the Sigma-1 Receptor but it ...
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71 views

Does DHA increase the effects of clarithromycin?

I've read on this publication that every drug that induces CYP3A can reduce the effectiveness of clarithromycin. Clarithromycin inhibits CYP3A. But it does not say anything about the opposite ...
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1answer
436 views

Which is the tissue damaging agent in krokodil (street desomorphine)

I've just read about krokodil and saw some quite hideous pictures about what it does to the human body. I guess just desomorphine alone wouldn't have this effect. Which ingredient(s) causes the ...
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153 views

What's the Mechanism of Paradoxical Excitatory Effects with Sedating Antihistamines? [closed]

I've been reading the British National Formulary 65 (BNF-65) and it mentioned that in some, especially at higher dosages, sedating (first-generation) antihistamines, can produce paradoxical excitatory ...
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0answers
129 views

Why can't sodium butyrate be delivered orally in humans and other mammals?

I think I know why -- bioavailability problems but since I have no firm evidence to support this theory I thought I would ask the biology stackexchange community for their input. I'd like some firm ...
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2answers
36 views

What Role Antagonists Play in the Study of Drugs?

I am pretty unfamiliar to pharmacology. I'm doing a research on drug abuse, particularly opioids' mechanism of action. I encountered several times evidences that come from studies using antagonists ...
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2answers
82 views

Assays during drug discovery

After researching the definition of Assay, I am left with the idea that an assay refers to scientific screening. It could be of chemicals, microbes, etc. I understand that during drug-discovery ...
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0answers
2k views

What are potential side effects of myostatin inhibitors?

Myostatin inhibitors, which are being developed to treat muscle wasting diseases like muscular dystrophy, are likely to be abused by athletes. What are the potential long-term side-effects of taking a ...
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2answers
409 views

Why are there so many medicinal plants?

Here is wikipedia page containing a list of plants used in herbal medicine. One might first want to argue that many of them actually do not have any medicinal/beneficial effect on heatlth. I think we ...
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2answers
404 views

Are there dangers to Teflon and aluminium cookware?

I've been reading some articles on the internet about dangers of Teflon and aluminium to the body. My family say I'm just exaggerating the situation, and maybe I am, though I'm not sure because not ...
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1answer
54 views

What Effect would Cannabinoids have on the Acute Porphyrias?

I should be clear in saying that this question is NOT intended for personal medical advice. Rather what I am looking for is journal articles and/or books that touch on this subject because I think it ...
5
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1answer
90 views

Selective Androgen Receptor Agonist

I'm looking for an inducer that strongly activates the androgen receptor, but not the glucocorticoid receptor that is not DEA regulated. I know that SARMS (Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators) are ...
2
votes
2answers
4k views

What is a pA(2) value?

I saw this article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16710314 and it mentioned pA(2) values and I had no idea what they were. What are they? What do they mean? If possible it'd be just dandy if you ...
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53 views

Can ingestion of B6 cause gastrointestinal disturbance? [closed]

Can the ingestion of vitamin B6 upset the stomach, and if so by what mechanism?
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1answer
564 views

Why do antacids have a special importance when taking lactulose?

“Before taking lactulose, tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications you are taking, especially antacids, antibiotics including neomycin (Mycifradin), and other ...
3
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1answer
127 views

How is ammonia removed from the colon?

“Lactulose is also used to reduce the amount of ammonia in the blood of patients with liver disease. It works by drawing ammonia from the blood into the colon where it is removed from the body.” ...
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2answers
134 views

Inverse of dopamine reuptake inhibitor?

The wikipedia article on the dopamine transporter gives examples of some drugs whose effects are mediated by the inhibition of the dopamine transporter, such as cocaine and amphetamines. Are there ...
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1answer
219 views

What are the characteristics of a promising drug target?

When researchers are looking to start developing a drug, what characteristics do they look for in the potential proteins (assuming they already have good quality structural models)?
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1answer
117 views

Are there any examples where 'magic bullet' drugs have worked in cancer treatment?

Magic bullets are drugs that can be administered on a micro local scale. In this context administration/binding would occur in or near the tumour by exploiting the different surface antigens that ...
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1answer
63 views

What is the disadvantage of having no anticoagulation after pulmonary embolism?

Is chronic anticoagulation always given after pulmonary embolism? What are the risks or disadvantages if anticoagulation is not given? if terminated early?
2
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1answer
180 views

How do you average Ki values?

It's embarrassing for me to ask this but well such is life. NIMH Psychoactive Drug Screening Program (PDSP) Ki Database is mentioned as the source of the average binding affinity (Ki) values given in ...
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2answers
441 views

What's a good and reliable database on the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data of drugs both approved and unapproved?

What's a good and reliable database for the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data of drugs both approved (in the US and elsewhere) and unapproved?
3
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1answer
68 views

What's the mechanism of action of Levomepromazine's analgesic effects?

I have absolutely no idea as to how Levomepromazine elicits its analgesic effects so please do direct me to journal articles and other credible sources with you, the answerer, making a summary of ...
2
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1answer
89 views

Confusion related to a term probe-by-background interaction

I was reading a paper related to bioinformatics where it uses the drug response on the cancer cells and the gene expression of the individual cells are studied to find any useful insights. Specially, ...
2
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1answer
436 views

How exactly does marijuana damage brain cells?

I've heard that THC can cause permanent damage to brain cells. I've also heard this reffered to anti drug propaganda. Another theory i've read is that temporary effects reduce intelligence but long ...
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1answer
546 views

Definition of Dye- Reduction Test?

Can some one give a simple explanation or definition on what a dye-reduction test is.
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1answer
113 views

Which Enzymes Catalyse the Deacetylation of Drugs in the Human Body?

If you would like more specifics seeing how I realise that this question is very broad and may be difficult to answer in general then hopefully the following will help you out: I am particularly ...
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1answer
50 views

What does “Psychomodulatory” mean in the context of potentially psychoactive drugs?

What does "Psychomodulatory" mean in the context of potentially psychoactive drugs? That is, in this journal article http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0028390812001931 in the ...
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0answers
103 views

Is there a Pharmacology Textbook that Satisfies the Conditions listed in the Body of this Question?

The conditions are: As extensive and explanatory as Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Twelfth Edition With additional extensive and thoroughly explanatory information ...
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1answer
2k views

How does paracetamol interfere with immune system?

Paracetamol is used to reduce body temperature when it is to high. The high body temperature (fever) is known to be an indication that immune system fights against an infection. In this context I ...
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1answer
483 views

What is the biological mechanism underlying caffeine intolerance? (CYP1A2 or other?)

As far as I can tell, caffeine metabolism occurs primarily via the CYP1A2 enzyme. I am curious as to whether mutations in the CYP1A2 gene are associated with caffeine intolerance. Some site that is ...
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1answer
46 views

Does the Enzyme Monoamine Oxidase, Isoenzyme A have an allosteric modulatory site?

Does the Enzyme Monoamine Oxidase, Isoenzyme A (MAO-A) have an allosteric modulatory site? I ask because I would like to know if it is possible, in theory at least, for a positive allosteric modulator ...
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1answer
57 views

Can Opioids Attenuate some of the symptoms of Psychosis?

Can Opioids Attenuate some of the symptoms of Psychosis? I ask because there's a dead link on the Wikipedia page that's meant to support the notion that opioids attenuate some of the symptoms of ...
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1answer
47 views

Which enzymes degrade dynorphins and what drugs inhibit these enzymes?

Which enzymes degrade dynorphins and what drugs are there available to inhibit said enzymes?
3
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1answer
27 views

How long does it take for the Opioids listed in the Description to induce Analgesia when Administered via IV?

How long does it take for the Opioids listed in the Description to induce Analgesia when Administered via IV? Now I don't mean how long it takes for euphoria to come on but analgesia. The opioids I ...
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0answers
65 views

What's the Efficacy of Ampakines in the Treatment for ADHD?

What's the Efficacy of Ampakines in the Treatment for ADHD? Ampakines are a class of drugs that serve as potentiators of the AMPA glutamate receptor. By so doing they serve as nootropic, anxiolytics ...
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1answer
392 views

Where are doxycycline's anti-inflammatory properties derived from?

I have been looking at this antibiotic called doxycycline which is used mainly as an antibiotic. It has however some interesting anti-inflammatory properties. Does anyone know where these ...
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1answer
254 views

Does the NMDA antagonist, Memantine that's used to prevent Excitotoxicity cause brain damage?

Does the NMDA antagonist, Memantine that's used to prevent excitotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) cause brain damage? I know that in rodents NMDA antagonists ...
3
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1answer
188 views

What's the therapeutic index of Pethidine (Meperidine in the US)?

What's the therapeutic index $\left(\frac{LD_{50}}{ED_{50}}\right)$ of Pethidine (Meperidine in the US) via the intravenous route for humans or whatever species you can find? The therapeutic window ...
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2answers
537 views

Which range are the Therapeutic Indices of Currently-Prescribed Benzodiazepines in?

A compound's therapeutic index is defined as: $$TI = \frac{LD_{50}}{ED_{50}}$$ What range are the therapeutic indices of benzodiazepines in? For the method of administration I would prefer ...
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1answer
838 views

How do Benzodiazepines induce Rewarding (Euphoric) effects?

Benzodiazepines are a class of drugs that serve as positive allosteric modulators of the GABAA receptor by binding to their own "site" on the aforementioned receptor. By doing this they produce ...
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1answer
71 views

What Conditions must Drugs satisfy for them to be Deliverable via the Transdermal route?

What Conditions must Drugs satisfy for them to be Deliverable via the Transdermal route? I assume a high $\log{P}$ (lipophilicity) would be one, are there any others?
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23 views

Which classes of drugs (filed by their pharmacology) induce a release of β-endorphin?

Which classes of drugs (filed by their binding sites) induce a release of β-endorphin? I know of agonists of the nAChRs and 5-HT1A and ethanol. Are there any others? Please cite journal articles ...
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0answers
532 views

How do Opioids Stimulate a Histamine Release?

Histamine is a neurotransmitter that also has peripheral functions such as the regulation of gastric acid secretions, allergic responses, etc. I know that opioids stimulate a release of histamine but ...
3
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1answer
125 views

Do serotonergic (5-HT2A-mediated) psychedelics elicit stimulant effects?

I know that 5-HT2A partial agonism is the key mechanism of action of serotonergic psychedelics but I also know that some research (e.g. the selective (no activity on any other known receptor sites) ...
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1answer
52 views

How does Serotonergic (5-HT2A mediated) Psychedelia work?

How does serotonergic (5-HT2A specific) psychedelia work? I've read that there are some theories that it might involve the induction of a glutamate release in certain regions of the brain involved in ...
4
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1answer
522 views

How does the eugeroic modafinil work?

How does the drug, modafinil (Provigil), exert its eugeroic (wakefulness-promoting) effects? I've read that it works by increasing dopamine and histamine concentrations in the CNS and by serving as a ...