Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function

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What's the mechanism of action of Levomepromazine's analgesic effects?

I have absolutely no idea as to how Levomepromazine elicits its analgesic effects so please do direct me to journal articles and other credible sources with you, the answerer, making a summary of ...
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64 views

Which enzymes degrade dynorphins and what drugs inhibit these enzymes?

Which enzymes degrade dynorphins and what drugs are there available to inhibit said enzymes?
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29 views

How long does it take for the Opioids listed in the Description to induce Analgesia when Administered via IV?

How long does it take for the Opioids listed in the Description to induce Analgesia when Administered via IV? Now I don't mean how long it takes for euphoria to come on but analgesia. The opioids I ...
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229 views

What's the therapeutic index of Pethidine (Meperidine in the US)?

What's the therapeutic index $\left(\frac{LD_{50}}{ED_{50}}\right)$ of Pethidine (Meperidine in the US) via the intravenous route for humans or whatever species you can find? The therapeutic window $\...
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131 views

Do serotonergic (5-HT2A-mediated) psychedelics elicit stimulant effects?

I know that 5-HT2A partial agonism is the key mechanism of action of serotonergic psychedelics but I also know that some research (e.g. the selective (no activity on any other known receptor sites) 5-...
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42 views

How does glucose delivered intraperitoneal (i.p.) get into the peripheral circulation?

Intraperitoneal delivery of drugs or fluids is something that occurs much more frequently in veterinary medicine than clinical medicine. In veterinary medicine or scientific studies using animals, ...
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19 views

What are necessary parameters for a tissue scaffold to be biodegradable?`

I am a mechanical engineer with little biological experience, but I have recently been looking at tissue scaffoldings. My current understanding is as follows, but may be flawed. I would appreciate ...
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312 views

What's the Mechanism of Paradoxical Excitatory Effects with Sedating Antihistamines? [closed]

I've been reading the British National Formulary 65 (BNF-65) and it mentioned that in some, especially at higher dosages, sedating (first-generation) antihistamines, can produce paradoxical excitatory ...
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53 views

Can ingestion of B6 cause gastrointestinal disturbance? [closed]

Can the ingestion of vitamin B6 upset the stomach, and if so by what mechanism?
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95 views

Assays during drug discovery

After researching the definition of Assay, I am left with the idea that an assay refers to scientific screening. It could be of chemicals, microbes, etc. I understand that during drug-discovery ...
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2answers
877 views

Name of scientist who discovered lifesaving drug and chose not to patent it?

I recall reading about a 20th century scientist who made a life-saving drug that could have patented it and made millions. He chose not to and saved the lives of millions around the globe. I thought ...
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42 views

What Role Antagonists Play in the Study of Drugs?

I am pretty unfamiliar to pharmacology. I'm doing a research on drug abuse, particularly opioids' mechanism of action. I encountered several times evidences that come from studies using antagonists ...
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112 views

Blood draw from the elderly or those with tiny veins

A lot of people have very small veins making it next to impossible to draw blood. Would a nitroglycerin tablet (or some other vasodilator) before drawing blood help to enlarge veins?
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395 views

What is “theae folium”?

I wanted to buy black tea at a pharmacy and the pharmacist told me that russian tea is actually black tea so I bought it instead.It's made out of theae folium leaves and for some reason I can't find ...
2
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1answer
135 views

Do drugs' levo isomers have a better interaction with the receptors in our body than dextro isomers?

Examples of levo drugs include levothyroxine, levocitrizine, and levodopa. Is there any specific reason why the receptors in our body exhibit this stereoisomerism and hold a high preference for the ...
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2answers
188 views

Can a fungus become resistant to a chemical such as Potassium Permanganate?

A friend used potassium permanganate solution to treat tinea on the hands/feet but after some initial success, the tinea seems to be making a comeback. Could the fungus develop resistance to potassium ...
2
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1answer
65 views

How is it decided that one drug is better than others by X times?

I read in Tortora and Derrickson that : Enkephelins are 200 times powerful than morphine in their analgesic effects. I wonder how exactly researchers arrive at a number (like 200 here). I also ...
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3answers
92 views

Homeopathy is placebo, but isn't placebo good?

I never considered homeopathy as a serious and scientific medicine, and now we have plenty of evidence supporting this (http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/mar/12/no-scientific-case-...
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219 views

Defining Resistance and Sensitivity Thresholds for IC50

I have a dataset containing IC50 data for each of my cell lines and up to 80 drugs. Basically for each drug I want to be able to define an IC50 threshold where if a cell line has an IC50 above that ...
2
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1answer
650 views

What is LD50 for 25i (25I-NBOMe)?

Firstly I would like to apologise if this is not correct place to ask this question, as it can be seen more as chemistry and not biology question. I was looking around for data on psychedelic ...
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1answer
102 views

Can cerebrospinal fluid deliver nutrients/drugs to neurons during sleep?

I'm looking at this article on the possible mechanism of detoxifying brain during sleep using cerebrospinal fluid. It states that at night, the space between neurons may allow better (up to 20x) ...
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1answer
338 views

What are the characteristics of a promising drug?

Generally speaking, what makes a good drug for research?
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94 views

Confusion related to a term probe-by-background interaction

I was reading a paper related to bioinformatics where it uses the drug response on the cancer cells and the gene expression of the individual cells are studied to find any useful insights. Specially, ...
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1answer
166 views

Are inflammation and anxiety connected?

I've been reading a curious paper about the use of cannabis, and one of the passages piqued my interest: There’s also been a lot of work done on another constituent of marijuana, cannabinoid, ...
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301 views

Have webs woven by LSD-intoxicated spiders ever been studied for their efficiency in fly catching?

I ask, because I have a different interpretation of the experiments performed on web-weaving spiders. The famous Robert Pirsig maintains that LSD is somehow helpful to web-weaving spiders, because it ...
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1answer
90 views

Do both Carbamazepinum and Lamotriginum increase glutamate threshold?

I have in my notes that: Carbamazepinum increases threshold for glutamate Lamotriginum delays release of glutamic acid I would like to simplify these sentences into a single line. I would like to ...
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67 views

Concentration of caffeine in physiologically relevant setting

Caffeine is known to overcome G2/M (and possibly other types of) cell cycle arrest through its effects on DNA repair machinery and is used as a positive control in studies of cell cycle arrest. In ...
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122 views

Mesoporous silica particles as anti cancer drug delivery method

If this question is a little off topic for Biology, I'm sorry. I've recently read a lot about mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a promising drug delivery method. The huge range of customizability of ...
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3answers
2k views

Why is it that drinking caffeinated tea does not help one to stay awake?

I have never felt after drinking tea that I can have the power of being able to work late at night. Neither have I felt that it helps me to be awake while working or keeping eyes opened while I am not ...
2
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1answer
157 views

Are there any examples where 'magic bullet' drugs have worked in cancer treatment?

Magic bullets are drugs that can be administered on a micro local scale. In this context administration/binding would occur in or near the tumour by exploiting the different surface antigens that ...
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2answers
631 views

What's a good and reliable database on the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data of drugs both approved and unapproved?

What's a good and reliable database for the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data of drugs both approved (in the US and elsewhere) and unapproved?
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147 views

What are the effects of combining rapamycin with dietary restriction?

Are the effects additive or subadditive? In many ways, rapamycin acts like a CR mimetic, but even CR can only go so far.
2
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1answer
31 views

Question about Enzyme Inhibition in relation to Aspirin

I've been trying to learn a bit more about pharmacology, so bear with my ignorance. In short, I see that aspirin (in part) works by inhibiting cycloxygenase isoenzymes and that this inhibiting is ...
2
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1answer
297 views

How to define drug-resistant or -sensitive cell line when knowing the IC50 values?

I have got the IC50 data for a drug on different cell lines. How to define if the cell line is sensitive or resistant towards this drug? Could anyone tell me how to define this?
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1answer
76 views

How does steroid dependence occur?

I have seen on the internet that prolonged steriod treatment can result in the development of steroid drug tolerance leading to decreased hormone secretion. In turn this may lead to drug dependence, ...
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45 views

Function of an VEGF inhibitor in the treatment of macular degeneration

I'm working on a short presentation of treatments of macular degeneration for a biomedical optics seminar on macular degeneration. Since I don't have any relevant medical or biological background (B....
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1answer
234 views

How do you average Ki values?

It's embarrassing for me to ask this but well such is life. NIMH Psychoactive Drug Screening Program (PDSP) Ki Database is mentioned as the source of the average binding affinity (Ki) values given in ...
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1answer
183 views

Do SSRIs downregulate or upregulate the 5-HT3 receptor?

What effect do SSRIs have on the expression of the ligand-gated ion channel, the 5-HT3 receptor?
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26 views

How do organoarsenics improve digestion efficiency in poultry?

It struck me as very surprising that these organoarsenic compound with structure looking not very compatible with living system is widely used as food additive to increase weight gain and improve food ...
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40 views

Does medication make the body dependent? [closed]

First of, I know of course that certain medication can cause an addiction if incorrectly used. But as far as I understand it, drugs prone to cause addiction have some agent in it, that makes them ...
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1answer
541 views

Which is the tissue damaging agent in krokodil (street desomorphine)

I've just read about krokodil and saw some quite hideous pictures about what it does to the human body. I guess just desomorphine alone wouldn't have this effect. Which ingredient(s) causes the ...
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2k views

What are potential side effects of myostatin inhibitors?

Myostatin inhibitors, which are being developed to treat muscle wasting diseases like muscular dystrophy, are likely to be abused by athletes. What are the potential long-term side-effects of taking a ...
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2answers
9k views

What is a pA(2) value?

I saw this article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16710314 and it mentioned pA(2) values and I had no idea what they were. What are they? What do they mean? If possible it'd be just dandy if you ...
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131 views

Is there a Pharmacology Textbook that Satisfies the Conditions listed in the Body of this Question?

The conditions are: As extensive and explanatory as Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Twelfth Edition With additional extensive and thoroughly explanatory information ...
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74 views

What's the Efficacy of Ampakines in the Treatment for ADHD?

What's the Efficacy of Ampakines in the Treatment for ADHD? Ampakines are a class of drugs that serve as potentiators of the AMPA glutamate receptor. By so doing they serve as nootropic, anxiolytics ...
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62 views

Can Opioids Attenuate some of the symptoms of Psychosis?

Can Opioids Attenuate some of the symptoms of Psychosis? I ask because there's a dead link on the Wikipedia page that's meant to support the notion that opioids attenuate some of the symptoms of ...
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534 views

Epinephrine vs. Adrenaline

Both names are widely used, with what appears to me as a slight prevalence of “epinephrine” in scientific literature and an overwhelming prevalence of “adrenaline” in popular media. Are there any ...
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1answer
107 views

Does homeopathic or herbal treatment of cancer have any scientific recognition?

Even though we have a very high tech society, cancer is still a serious issue. We humans still are not entirely capable of fighting cancer. Radiation and chemotherapy are still considered the best ...
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33 views

Could super-caffeinating somebody's bloodstream be dangerous?

I'm currently planning out an RPG based on Misfits. Basically young offenders get super powers. I want one of the villains to have a really lame power that they use to become incredibly dangerous. I ...
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69 views

Consuming animals by slaughtering vs injecting barbiturates?

In "Least painful way to die" we get an answer ... Companion animals (e.g., dogs and cats): injected barbiturates are recommended Laboratory animals (e.g., mice and rats): injected ...