Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function

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363 views

How does toluene inhalation damage the brain?

We just had a discussion about toluene abuse. It is known, that people inhaling toluene for a long time have significant brain damage, including decreased intelligence. I found that toluene is a ...
3
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1answer
24 views

Do Penicillin based antibiotics affect birth control?

I wasn't sure whether to ask this question on Biology or Chemistry Stack Exchange, since it is really biochemisty, but this is something that's been puzzling me. Most pharmacists (all that I've ...
4
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1answer
40 views

What microscope/magnification would I need to observe P. Acnes bacteria?

I am currently attempting to grow a culture of P. Acnes bacteria. Right now, my only hope in identifying colonies of the bacteria in the culture is to use a black light to find colonies that glow ...
3
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2answers
306 views

Why are there so many medicinal plants?

Here is wikipedia page containing a list of plants used in herbal medicine. One might first want to argue that many of them actually do not have any medicinal/beneficial effect on heatlth. I think we ...
0
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0answers
29 views

Can chlorella live in human stomach? [on hold]

Chlorella lives in symbiosis with cows and it produces vitamin B12. Living chlorella is normally sold as B12 suplement - so this question is pretty important.
4
votes
1answer
66 views

What is the best way to orally administer a water insoluble powdered drug to macaque monkeys?

They typically need to be given ~150mg, once a day, and it'll last for two weeks. The drug is very water insoluble, becomes almost like a paste, not suitable for tube feeding. And yes, this is for for ...
35
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1answer
18k views

Why Does Salt Water Help Sore Throats?

I am having some trouble understanding how salt water, a simple solution, could so effectively remove the pains of a sore throat. I do believe that the answer is closely related to hypo/hyper-tonic ...
1
vote
1answer
73 views

Is there a known glucosepane cross-link breaker?

I read the following on wikipedia: There is, however, no agent known that can break down the most common AGE, glucosepane, which appears 10 to 1,000 times more common in human tissue than any ...
0
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1answer
40 views

How can succinylcholine cause myorelaxation?

I first thought that this is because of prolonged depolarisations. However, I am not sure anymore, because after reading PubChem, the only possible pathways are are Choline agonist. So I would say ...
6
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1answer
87 views

Does a mydriatic drug neutralize the action of a miotic?

If a person were administered a mydriatic, would the subsequent application of a miotic neutralize the action of the former? If the sequence were reversed would a mydriatic neutralize the effect of a ...
25
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1answer
15k views

How does laughing gas (N₂O) work?

Laughing gas (N2O), well, makes people laugh. How does just a gas make us do that, there has to be some hormones at work... So, I wanted to know how this works? What is the mechanism?
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0answers
23 views

negatively charged albumin as major carrier of acidic/negative charged drugs in blood

I reading that orsomucoid (alpha-1-acid glycoprotein) is the major carrier of positively charged (basic) drugs in the blood, while albumin carries negatively charged (acidic) and drugs with neutral ...
2
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1answer
46 views

How does steroid dependence occur?

I have seen on the internet that prolonged steriod treatment can result in the development of steroid drug tolerance leading to decreased hormone secretion. In turn this may lead to drug dependence, ...
3
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1answer
102 views

Elevated position effect on recovery times from upper respiratory infections at rest?

In nursing school, they advice for people with upper respiratory infections to be in a slightly elevated position at the head region when sleeping. My intuition of the reason is that the lymphatic ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Spironolactone's role with adrenergic agents in heart failure?

I am studying the treatment plan of adrenergic agents for heart failure. Then, in the group discussion, spironolactone was included. But I cannot understand how it is relevant when considering ...
-9
votes
1answer
46 views

Reason why sedative drugs stem from eastern countries and stimulating drugs from western ones [closed]

I was wondering if there's a linkage between the geographic distribution of drugs and their effects. There's nicotine, caffeine and cocaine, all originating from south-america and all of them have ...
1
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1answer
84 views

Are there any examples where 'magic bullet' drugs have worked in cancer treatment?

Magic bullets are drugs that can be administered on a micro local scale. In this context administration/binding would occur in or near the tumour by exploiting the different surface antigens that ...
3
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1answer
51 views

What's the mechanism of action of Levomepromazine's analgesic effects?

I have absolutely no idea as to how Levomepromazine elicits its analgesic effects so please do direct me to journal articles and other credible sources with you, the answerer, making a summary of ...
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0answers
20 views

Which classes of drugs (filed by their pharmacology) induce a release of β-endorphin?

Which classes of drugs (filed by their binding sites) induce a release of β-endorphin? I know of agonists of the nAChRs and 5-HT1A and ethanol. Are there any others? Please cite journal articles ...
1
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1answer
35 views

Clonidine's adrenonergic nature?

I am little confused here. I used the term adrenoagonist and sympatholytic to describe the compound. However, my teacher says that the correct term here is adrenomimetic -term. My understanding of ...
1
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1answer
41 views

Anesthetics, specifically inhaled anesthetics

I have had a look at previous inhaled anesthetics and many of them appear to be fluorocarbons. What could be the mechanism behind fluorine's anesthetic properties? Is it the specific bonding pattern ...
0
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0answers
41 views

Are ipratropium and tolterodine parasympatholytic?

They are nonselective cholinoblockers and antimuscarinic. Other cholinoblockers of parasympaticus, which I know, are parasympatholytic such as atropine, butylscopolamine, trihexyphenidyl, titropium ...
0
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1answer
27 views

Differentiation of norepinephrine and epinephrine in indications

Norepinephrine is less beta2 adrenomimetic than epinephrine so more selective so less bronchospasm so may be therofore better in treatment of cardiac failure and different shocks. However, I am not ...
0
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1answer
18 views

How can Pyridostigmine have the indication of Myasthenia?

I am thinking how pyridostigmine can be used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis. Its similar compound (neostigmine) is also anticholine esterase. This compound has the indication of myasthenia ...
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1answer
46 views

To understand side-effects for nebivolol's beta1 selective pathway in PubChem? [closed]

Assume you have a drug nebivolol. When nebivolol is used as beta1 selective drug, beta2 is mostly for side effects, but this is not clear from PubChem. I do not know any cases where nebivolol is used ...
3
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1answer
45 views

What is the mechanism of action of lithium-induced polyuria?

I was reading in my pharmacology textbook on lithium in treating bipolar disorder, and I was curious to know if there was any specific action lithium takes to produce symptoms such as polyuria and ...
2
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1answer
107 views

Do SSRIs downregulate or upregulate the 5-HT3 receptor?

What effect do SSRIs have on the expression of the ligand-gated ion channel, the 5-HT3 receptor?
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0answers
18 views

To Study Interactions of two molecules in PubChem

Assume you have two substances Diosminum / Hesperidinum. The former strengthens vascular walls. The latter has role in some glycoside biosynthesis. From Biochemistry, I recall that glycodises have ...
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1answer
29 views

Is Norepinephrine beta2 adrenomimetic?

I know that it has alpha1, alpha2 and beta1 effects. It has beta2 receptor where epinephrine can effect. However, to say that it is beta adrenomimetic, I am not sure. That is ligand binding beta2 ...
1
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1answer
29 views

Salbutamol's Pathways of Interaction and Classification

Salbutamol is a very commonly used direct-acting β2-agonist. This suggests me that it is sympatholytic. However, it has sympathomimetic pathways, see PubChem for Sympathomimetic. I am trying to ...
0
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1answer
20 views

Ephedrine or pseudoephedrine indirectly central alpha2 mimetic?

I started to think this problem by first thinking if the alpha2 mimetism is possible in either case. It seems to be indirectly in either one. Ephedrine seems to have more prominent effect in CNS. ...
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0answers
24 views

Quetiapine tolerance

I've researched quetiapine for quite some time now and I've found some references to tolerance, but nothing conclusive. My question is whether quetiapine use builds tolerance to the drug and if so, ...
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0answers
21 views

Why is drug clearance not affected by blood flow in case of low extraction ratios?

Background information: 1) Variation of organ blood flow: a) for drugs with low extraction ratio (<0.3): the venous drug concentration is virtually identical to the arterial concentration ...
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1answer
21 views

What is the most common way of administering loop diuretics and what is their time course of action?

I am reviewing some material on loop diuretics, and I am curious to know how these drugs are administered. Also, I am interested in knowing their time course of action once they are administered into ...
0
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1answer
31 views

Does vitamin D form crystals in the blood with calcium and magnesium?

I read on a vitamin-D product (2000NE) that I should not use calcium and magnesium with it, because it can result crystal formation in the blood. I googled, but find anything about this. Is it true? ...
5
votes
1answer
102 views

What are the psychedelic effects of (stellar) anise and how many people are affected?

Backstory: My girlfriend reacts heavily to chocolate and drinks containing stellar anise, in a way that seems comparable to psychedelic drugs. After consuming it, it takes approximately five minutes ...
4
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2answers
75 views

Why does caffeine give you so much energy, while being so low on calories?

There's definitely something I'm missing here. Since calories is a unit of measurement for energy, and caffeine seemingly gives you a lot, how can the labels on caffeinated products have such a low ...
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1answer
28 views

What are the reactions in the body that triggers dizziness after cigar(nicotine) smoking in non-smokers?

Suppose there is a person that has never used nicotine in any form in his/her life. Why does the person get dizzy after a few "shots" from a cigar(nicotine)? What's the difference between using other ...
1
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1answer
14 views

What enables azacitidine to incorporate into both DNA and RNA?

I did a mini-project on the drug azacitidine for my pharmacology class, and I learned that azacitidine has the ability to incorporate into both DNA and RNA. I think this is really unique because a ...
2
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1answer
32 views

Concentration of caffeine in physiologically relevant setting

Caffeine is known to overcome G2/M (and possibly other types of) cell cycle arrest through its effects on DNA repair machinery and is used as a positive control in studies of cell cycle arrest. In ...
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1answer
42 views

Difference between medicinal caffeine and regular caffeine

There are some OTC paracetamol tablets, some with caffeine. Is this caffeine the same as the regular caffeine (found in a coffee)? Does it perform better than it in any way?
1
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1answer
61 views

Which immunosuppression caused by long-term usage of these antibiotics in untreated celiac disease?

These antibiotics include amoxicillin + acidum clavulanicum (beta-lactam, inhibit cell wall synthesis, broad specturm, 3rd gen aminopenicillin) / last part preventing the resistance ceftriaxone (3rd ...
8
votes
1answer
261 views

How do the pharmacodynamics of the NSAIDs differ and are there “resistant” COX phenotypes?

I know that the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen) affect the enzymes cyclooxygenase (types I and II). Is there any difference in the degree to which these ...
5
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2answers
191 views

Why do different pain killers have different effects on people?

I've noticed some pain killers working great for me, while other having no effect. Works for me Aspirin APC † Naproxen Doesn't work for me Paracetamol Diclofenac Tramadol I doubt there ...
0
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1answer
9 views

What studies are there showing the effectiveness of any substance on canine hypertension?

Searching on http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov I could only find the article titled as "Telmisartan Treatment of Refractory Proteinuria in a Dog".
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1answer
34 views

How does fluorouracil inhibit pyrimidine synthesis?

I was reading in my pharmacology textbook about fluorouracil, and my book mentioned that fluorouracil is an antimetabolite whose function is to inhibit pyrimidine synthesis. However, I was curious to ...
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0answers
31 views

Thermochemistry of gabapentin

So I am taking a new class at my institution called Theoretic Nuclear Thermochemical Pharmacology, (I know big name, it's an elective from a real pioneering fronteirsman in our department :P) and I am ...
3
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1answer
21 views

Meta-analysis of fruits in blocking Cytochrome family

My professor says that some drugs cannot be used with grapefruit. I am trying to search a list of cytochromes and their effect to block members in the cytochrome family. Some in Cyt P450. What is ...
3
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2answers
1k views

Why is Paracetamol so great?

Every time I get ill (cold, flu etc) I take a couple of these wonderful tablets for up to 4 times a day and I, eventually, get better. What exactly is paracetamol? Why is it so effective and is it ...
3
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1answer
43 views

Drugs metabolism and detection

If someone is taking treatment for a psychiatric disorder, for example diazepine, would traces of the metabolized drug show in their sweat or saliva? Would it be chemically detectable?Any links to ...