Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function

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How does having an empty stomach affect absorption of compounds?

From personal experience, compounds such as nicotine, caffeine and alchohol appear to absorb much quicker into the blood on an 'empty' stomach', or after extended periods of fasting. If this is the ...
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44 views

Enzyme Inhibition in relation to Aspirin

I've been trying to learn a bit more about pharmacology, so bear with my ignorance. In short, I see that aspirin (in part) works by inhibiting cycloxygenase isoenzymes and that this inhibiting is ...
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262 views

Why is dopamine or a dopamine-receptor agonist not pumped into the brain of Parkinson patients?

I am aware that dopamine cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, but can't it be pumped inside the cerebrospinal fluid via some permanent tube implant? Wouldn't Parkinson patients chose that over ...
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What constitutes FDA's First in Class designation for New Molecular Entities?

What constitutes a First in Class designation for new molecular entities? I've seen this term on FDA documents, as well as in databases (Chembl for example), but I was curious if there are any set ...
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60 views

what is the formula to establish ec50 reproducibility with respect to dose response curves for some drug

The EC50 is determined by fitting a standard curve to the experimentally obtained control values for each dose response curve using some software that does trial and comparison until satisfactory(...
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How do drugs enter synapses?

Many psychopharmaceutical drugs change synapse chemistry or directly agonize neuroreceptors in the brain. For example, cabergoline is a D2 agonist. How do these compounds enter the physical synapses? ...
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Do pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the drug in animals are the same as in human?

I'm trying to understand the purpose of different clinical trial phases, and the following question comes into my mind : Do pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the drug in animals are the ...
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Is Valerian extract a diuretic or an antidiuretic?

I am trying to determine if valepotriates (valerian extract) is a diuretic or an antidiuretic. Some individuals take valerian as an herbal supplement for anxiety disorders. Some individuals claim that ...
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27 views

How do macromolecules (large drugs) in the eye reach the bloodstream and what are the relative significances of these pathways?

I am considering the elimination pathways for antibodies (50-150 kDa) from the vitreous humour to the blood stream. My overarching question is what is the most significant route such antibodies could ...
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calculate elimination rate constant [duplicate]

A patient diagnosed with cancer takes antiproliferative drugs. Suppose the intake of drug(dose) is 250mg and excreted amount 125 mg. Amount of excreted drug as metabolites 1 and 2 are 75mg and 50mg. ...
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70 views

Is QIAPI 1 a scam?

I find it strange that there isn't a wikipedia article on a drug that allegedly modulates human photosynthesis. I thought I might get a virus from some of the sites selling it, but others seemed ...
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86 views

Is there a biological explanation for perceived deeper cognition whilst on cannabis?

Cannabis has been associated with literature, arts, and culture for centuries. There are a few features of the drugs affect on the human mind that account for this, however it remains illegal in most ...
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87 views

Why does azithromycin not affect human mitochondria?

Drugs like tetracyclines, macrolides and aminoglycosides bind to prokaryotic ribosomes. It is interesting that our body too having mitochondria, which have prokaryotic ribosomes, there is little(?) ...
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Why are vaccines for polio taken orally while vaccines for TB needs to be injected?

My thoughts are that maybe the TB antigens necessary to produce an immune response are proteins; therefore they can be digested in the stomach and small intestine. But I may be wrong though. I am ...
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1answer
35 views

Why do some drugs require you to take them in an “upright position”?

A friend of mine was taking the supplement Metamucil and on the container it says to take in an "upright position." Why would this be necessary? Doesn't your digestive system push food/liquid ...
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26 views

How do organoarsenics improve digestion efficiency in poultry?

It struck me as very surprising that these organoarsenic compound with structure looking not very compatible with living system is widely used as food additive to increase weight gain and improve food ...
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Repeating assays assessing drug synergy by Chou and Talalay method

I have been using MTT cell viability assays to test compounds, both as single agents and in combination, in a constant ratio. From these assays I have been able to plot the median effect plot to get ...
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16 views

Biological difference in drugs vs drugs labeled as analytic standard?

I'm scaling up a project that uses ribavirin. Previously, I only had a need for small quantities, so I was prepared to pay a couple hundred dollars for ~50mg of pure chemical (Sigma - R9644). However,...
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44 views

What does “generalisation” mean?

I am trying to understand a paper about ethanol: "Generalisation of ethanol with drug mixtures containing a positive modulator of the GABAA receptor and an NMDA antagonist" (Stolerman & Olufsen, ...
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111 views

What Effect would Cannabinoids have on the Acute Porphyrias?

I should be clear in saying that this question is NOT intended for personal medical advice. Rather what I am looking for is journal articles and/or books that touch on this subject because I think it ...
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12 views

iPSC in drug discovery

Pluripotent stem cells are very popular and lots of research has been conducted to use these cells as a tool for drug discovery. My question is how many years would it theoretically safe is we could ...
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116 views

Does caffeine actually enhance cognition?

I have heard, respectively: Caffeine measurably enhances cognitive function. Caffeine does not measurably enhance cognitive function in any significant way. Caffeine enhances cognitive function, but ...
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1answer
41 views

Is 5-HTP a SSRI?

Can 5-Hydroxytryptophan (oxitriptan) be categorized as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)? Since they both act on the serotonin pathway and are used to treat depression and other mood ...
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Is receptor antagonism just long-term binding?

By my understanding, a substance that binds to a receptor and activates it is called an agonist, while a substance that binds to a receptor without activating it is called an antagonist. (Wiki) What ...
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How to determine sensitivity in a dose-response curve?

In a dose-response curve the % inhibition can be plotted against concentration antagonist. In our case, the effect of the antagonist is tested in different genetic variants of a microbe. When trying ...
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83 views

Why is alcohol such a weak drug?

Most day to day drugs such as caffeine and paracetamol require a dosage in milligrams to have the desired effect. Why then, does it take many tens of grams of alcohol to have a tangible/noticeable ...
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327 views

Is there a known glucosepane cross-link breaker?

I read the following on wikipedia: There is, however, no agent known that can break down the most common AGE, glucosepane, which appears 10 to 1,000 times more common in human tissue than any ...
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How does glucose delivered intraperitoneal (i.p.) get into the peripheral circulation?

Intraperitoneal delivery of drugs or fluids is something that occurs much more frequently in veterinary medicine than clinical medicine. In veterinary medicine or scientific studies using animals, ...
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Why are there so many medicinal plants?

Question Quite a few plant species can be used for medicinal purposes wiki. As an example, Filipendula ulmaria is rich in acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). An allele that produces a substance which is ...
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51 views

What is the effect of sodium chloride on head lice?

There are a lot of products that claim to kill lice and eggs. The main ingredient is sodium chloride. How does it work? I wonder if it has something to do with osmotic effects?
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68 views

What do proton pump inhibitors do?

I know that sodium azide and 2,4-DNPH inhibit proton pumps. The azide is called an inhibitor and 2,4-DNP is called uncoupler. I want to know what's the difference between the mechanisms of action of ...
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Why would diffusion be faster across a non-specialised tissue?

The standard protocol for a person experiencing chest pains is to chew a 300mg aspirin tablet, the argument being that chewing rather than swallowing the tablet results in the aspirin entering the ...
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1answer
64 views

Which enzymes degrade dynorphins and what drugs inhibit these enzymes?

Which enzymes degrade dynorphins and what drugs are there available to inhibit said enzymes?
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46 views

Aspirin - does it inhibit enzyme of thromboxane?

This is a diagram a friend showed me about the drug aspirin, where we were arguing which enzyme it prevents. Aspirin is known to inhibit the production of prostaglandins. However, it also serves ...
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Does medication make the body dependent? [closed]

First of, I know of course that certain medication can cause an addiction if incorrectly used. But as far as I understand it, drugs prone to cause addiction have some agent in it, that makes them ...
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84 views

Relationship between toxicity of drugs and negative effects on brain

Are psychoactive drugs with lower lethal doses more neurotoxic (more damaging to the brain)? For example, tetrahydrocannabinol (one of the active components of cannabis) has a much higher lethal dose ...
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231 views

Do mammals develop tolerance to anticholinergics?

I know that first generation H1 antagonists, commonly known as antihistamines have anticholinergic effects. Their sedative side effects go away due to tolerance, but as for their anticholinergic side ...
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55 views

How are drug metabolism and detection related?

If someone is taking treatment for a psychiatric disorder (e.g. diazepine), then would traces of the metabolized drug be detectable in their sweat or saliva? Any links to resources regarding this, ...
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472 views

How is ammonia removed from the colon?

“Lactulose is also used to reduce the amount of ammonia in the blood of patients with liver disease. It works by drawing ammonia from the blood into the colon where it is removed from the body.” (...
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69k views

Why do vaccines cause your arm to hurt?

When you get a shot for a vaccine (for example, the annual flu vaccine), the nurse frequently indicates that your arm will ache for a day or two, maybe more. This ache is typically not just a pain ...
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1answer
321 views

How does paracetamol work?

Hinz et al. 2008 found that COX-2 may be inhibited by paracetamol, and this is attributed to it's analgesic and antipyretic properties. However there are other more recent claims from Andersson et al.,...
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Why does Penicillin only affect bacterial cell walls

I was quite fascinated by the feature Should Science Pull the Trigger on Antiviral Drugs—That Can Blast the Common Cold? in this month's Wired magazine. They explain that Penicillin is effective at ...
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Can the liver prioritize it's metabolizing potential?

Let's assume we have two toxins - one of which is routinely metabolized by the liver, and the other is new to the organism (consider for example alcohol in a heavy drinker and any other drug that is ...
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348 views

What are the characteristics of a promising drug?

Generally speaking, what makes a good drug for research?
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125 views

Blood draw from the elderly or those with tiny veins

A lot of people have very small veins making it next to impossible to draw blood. Would a nitroglycerin tablet (or some other vasodilator) before drawing blood help to enlarge veins?
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What are necessary parameters for a tissue scaffold to be biodegradable?`

I am a mechanical engineer with little biological experience, but I have recently been looking at tissue scaffoldings. My current understanding is as follows, but may be flawed. I would appreciate ...
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Homeopathy is placebo, but isn't placebo good?

I never considered homeopathy as a serious and scientific medicine, and now we have plenty of evidence supporting this (http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/mar/12/no-scientific-case-...
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Infection of urinary tract if the pH of urine is made alkaline

It is very well known that drugs like phenobarbiton,morphine are unionized, lipid soluble.So,in case if there is toxicity due to these drugs,the only way to save the patient is make the pH of urine ...
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32 views

Genotype-Phenotype databases?

Beyond the Stanford HIV database, what other databases out there provide a dataset linking virus/bacterial genotype to quantitative phenotype? I'm looking for high quality datasets to test machine ...
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129 views

How do antibiotics create drug-resistant strains

I've heard for years that low-level use of antibiotics causes the spread of drug-resistant strains of bacteria, but the explanations always fall short. I understand mutations and natural selection, ...