Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function

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Source of journals collecting titles of scientific publications regarding clinical trials with dogs fed medicinal herbs

After some time researching on the web, you can find a lot of websites telling you that some herbs may have or have specific properties(unfortunately most seem to be "advertised" as if they were ...
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How does drug-induced photosensitivity work?

Some drugs (tetracyclines, for instance) can cause photosensitivity reactions—that is, some patients become extremely sensitive to the sun, developing rashes or inflammation after spending time ...
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Why is dopamine or a dopamine-receptor agonist not pumped into the brain of Parkinson patients?

I am aware that dopamine cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, but can't it be pumped inside the cerebrospinal fluid via some permanent tube implant? Wouldn't Parkinson patients chose that over ...
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How much penicillinase is needed to deactivate 125mg of amoxicillin?

How much penicillinase is needed to deactivate 125mg of amoxicillin? Penicillinase in penase concentrate from CPC. 20,000 Levy Units/ml/min I need IU of 125 mg of amoxicillin. Please note that the ...
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47 views

Which enzymes degrade dynorphins and what drugs inhibit these enzymes?

Which enzymes degrade dynorphins and what drugs are there available to inhibit said enzymes?
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271 views

How do you design a drug to be delivered to the CNS?

I have just started reading up on structure-based methods for drug design (this is completely not my field so apologies for stupid questions that will be coming along!) Clearly, some drugs are ...
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202 views

Have webs woven by LSD-intoxicated spiders ever been studied for their efficiency in fly catching?

I ask, because I have a different interpretation of the experiments performed on web-weaving spiders. The famous Robert Pirsig maintains that LSD is somehow helpful to web-weaving spiders, because it ...
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10 views

What is the permeability of proteins across the hyaloid membrane of vitreous to retina?

Does anyone know of any experimental work to test the permeability of the hyaloid membrane between the vitreous humour of the eye to the retina to proteins? Currently the largest molecule I can find ...
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33 views

Metabolism priority in poisonings

Let's assume we have two toxins - one of which is routinely metabolized by the liver, and the other is new to the organism (consider for example alcohol in a heavy drinker and any other drug that is ...
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345 views

Why do different pain killers have different effects on people?

I've noticed some pain killers working great for me, while others have no effect. Works for me Aspirin APC † Naproxen Doesn't work for me Paracetamol Diclofenac Tramadol I doubt there ...
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43 views

If a blocker prevents repolarization, will the neuron be stuck in a depolarized state forever?

Potassium channels help to repolarize the cell after depolarization. But if the potassium channels are blocked, potassium ions cannot flow out of the cell to increase the membrane potential. Thus, one ...
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What's the relationship between Drugbank drugs and SMPDB pathways?

In the 'pathway browse' panel SMPDB pathways and their corresponding Drugbank drugs are listed. What are the relationships between the drugs and the pathways? Some listed drugs are not in the ...
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1answer
41 views

Why doesn't Manipulated Virus for Cancer Cure Work [closed]

I'm not a biologist but I have an idea for a cure for cancer and it is very simple and probably has flaws (if it worked it probrably wouldn't be a cure for all) or is not possible but ... I'm still ...
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How do drugs (or other molecules) move between the vitreous humour and aqueous humour of the eye? [duplicate]

My question is regarding the biological nature of the separation between the vitreous humour and aqueous humour of the human (or mammal) eye. What connects the two in terms of the passive transport of ...
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1answer
47 views

Why is Benzylpenicillin better in Bacterial Meningitis than Amoxicillin?

Both are beta lactams. However, benzylpenicillin, which is also called penicillin G i.e. narrow group antibiotic. I have now in both the following as a mechanism of action Binds to PBP in ...
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33 views

Can I explain the kinetics of a ligand looking at the ligand-protein co-structure?

Can I explain the kinetics of a ligand binding to a target protein (association and dissociation rates) by looking at the protein-ligand co-structure? Editing my question after a few comments: I ...
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2answers
247 views

Epinephrine vs. Adrenaline

Both names are widely used, with what appears to me as a slight prevalence of “epinephrine” in scientific literature and an overwhelming prevalence of “adrenaline” in popular media. Are there any ...
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58 views

IC50 and area under the curve

I was hoping to get some clarification on how drug response data (i.e. IC50) are presented. On publicly available datasets like Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer, area under the curve (AUC) ...
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49 views

Defining Resistance and Sensitivity Thresholds for IC50

I have a dataset containing IC50 data for each of my cell lines and up to 80 drugs. Basically for each drug I want to be able to define an IC50 threshold where if a cell line has an IC50 above that ...
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126 views

Can a fungus become resistant to a chemical such as Potassium Permanganate?

A friend used potassium permanganate solution to treat tinea on the hands/feet but after some initial success, the tinea seems to be making a comeback. Could the fungus develop resistance to potassium ...
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Is it possible to measure Secondary Bile Acid Kinetics?

Is it possible to measure secondary bile acid kinetic and flux measurements in vivo? Anyone have any experience with this sort of technique?
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124 views

How is ammonia removed from the colon?

“Lactulose is also used to reduce the amount of ammonia in the blood of patients with liver disease. It works by drawing ammonia from the blood into the colon where it is removed from the body.” ...
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65 views

Why is cisplatin a very potent antineoplastic for testicular cancer, but not necessarily for other cancers?

Cisplatin (structure below) is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent which is very effective in the treatment of some cancers. Its introduction was responsible for improving the cure rate for ...
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1answer
89 views

How can succinylcholine cause myorelaxation?

I first thought that this is because of prolonged depolarisations. However, I am not sure anymore, because after reading PubChem, the only possible pathways are are Choline agonist. So I would say ...
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122 views

What are the psychedelic effects of (star) anise and how many people are affected?

Backstory: My girlfriend reacts heavily to chocolate and drinks containing stellar anise, in a way that seems comparable to psychedelic drugs. After consuming it, it takes approximately five minutes ...
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57 views

Can Opioids Attenuate some of the symptoms of Psychosis?

Can Opioids Attenuate some of the symptoms of Psychosis? I ask because there's a dead link on the Wikipedia page that's meant to support the notion that opioids attenuate some of the symptoms of ...
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586 views

Does inhaling glue (glue sniffing) reduce appetite?

I have heard from many homeless people that they sniff glue just to reduce appetite, as it comes cheap and is more affordable than actual food. Is this true, and if yes, why? This is totally opposite ...
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44 views

How does amiodarone act as an alpha and beta blocker?

Amiodarone is potassium channel blocker but also voltage-gated Na+ channel blocker according to Pubchem. However, upon reading my notes I discovered Amiodarone blocks potassium channels and block ...
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Doxorubicin's intercalant and topoisomerase inhibition in leukemia?

I am thinking the role of doxorubicin's pathways in cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma: topoisomerase inhibitor and inhibit DNA activity intercalant - intercalant DNA bases and inhibit DNA ...
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1answer
22 views

Is dinoprost PGF2-alpha or PGE2?

In many places it says PGF2-alpha. Now, I am thinking PGE2 is a substype of PGF2-alpha. However, I am not sure. Is dinoprost PGE2?
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7 views

Imidazoline receptor agonist in clonidine?

I am thinking which pathway is more important in hypertension, ADHD and withdrawal of clonidine: alpha-2 agonist imidazoline receptor agonist (maybe) Alpha-2 is the classical one. Pubchem starts ...
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1answer
60 views

Do both Carbamazepinum and Lamotriginum increase glutamate threshold?

I have in my notes that: Carbamazepinum increases threshold for glutamate Lamotriginum delays release of glutamic acid I would like to simplify these sentences into a single line. I would like to ...
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2answers
101 views

Why does caffeine give you so much energy, while being so low on calories?

There's definitely something I'm missing here. Since calories is a unit of measurement for energy, and caffeine seemingly gives you a lot, how can the labels on caffeinated products have such a low ...
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1answer
56 views

Why is Electrical Cardioversion contraindicated in AF and Digitalis Poisoning?

I am thinking why electrical cardioversion is contraindicated in atrial fibrillation with digitalis toxicity/poisoning. Cardiac digitalis is also called digoxin and cardiac glycoside. It is ...
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81 views

What is “theae folium”?

I wanted to buy black tea at a pharmacy and the pharmacist told me that russian tea is actually black tea so I bought it instead.It's made out of theae folium leaves and for some reason I can't find ...
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402 views

Looking for a cancer drug target database to guide sequencing of patient tumor DNA

I have a question I would like to pose to the community. I have recently received access to a bench-top ion torrent DNA sequencer. Our idea is to use this machine to sequence the DNA from patient’s ...
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2answers
63 views

Classify chemotherapy drugs?

I'm studying a TCGA dataset trying to find correlations between gene expression and clinical data which might shed light on some pathways. One column of the clinical data provides a list of ...
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1answer
55 views

Consuming animals by slaughtering vs injecting barbiturates?

In "Least painful way to die" we get an answer ... Companion animals (e.g., dogs and cats): injected barbiturates are recommended Laboratory animals (e.g., mice and rats): injected ...
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How does Sodium Valproate cause neural plasticity

I have been reading a fascinating paper: Valproate reopens critical-period learning of absolute pitch 18 individuals were given Sodium Valproate (VPA) for a fortnight during which they trained on a ...
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1answer
80 views

Does homeopathic or herbal treatment of cancer have any scientific recognition?

Even though we have a very high tech society, cancer is still a serious issue. We humans still are not entirely capable of fighting cancer. Radiation and chemotherapy are still considered the best ...
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Relationship between toxicity of drugs and negative effects on brain

Are psychoactive drugs with lower lethal doses more neurotoxic (more damaging to the brain)? For example, tetrahydrocannabinol (one of the active components of cannabis) has a much higher lethal dose ...
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The effect on the efficacy and potency of a non-competetive antagonist binding to the active site of the receptor (dose-response curve)

According to the book "Principles of Pharmacology: The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy" by Golan et al, non-competetive antagonists can bind to both the allosteric site and the active site. I ...
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160 views

Is there a known glucosepane cross-link breaker?

I read the following on wikipedia: There is, however, no agent known that can break down the most common AGE, glucosepane, which appears 10 to 1,000 times more common in human tissue than any ...
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46 views

Why are pharmacology studies so experimental?

I am a medicine student, and as far as I see from our pharmacology lectures, pharmacologists work almost completely experimental. Quite typically they take a substance (e.g., from nature), they add, ...
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69 views

Given an EC50 value, how do I reproduce the sigmoidal curve from which this was calculated?

All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) is a potent ligand for a nuclear receptor called retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARa). The concentration of atRA at which RARa is half maximal is 19nM. The dose-response ...
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Why is there only adrenoreceptors and no active adrenergic innervation in bronchus and uterus?

Our bronchus and uterus has beta adrenoreceptors, but they have no active sympathetic nervous system innervation in these organs. Was there a sympathetic innervation in trachea and uterus, earlier, ...
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1answer
91 views

How to define drug-resistant or -sensitive cell line when knowing the IC50 values?

I have got the IC50 data for a drug on different cell lines. How to define if the cell line is sensitive or resistant towards this drug? Could anyone tell me how to define this?
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What is a pA(2) value?

I saw this article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16710314 and it mentioned pA(2) values and I had no idea what they were. What are they? What do they mean? If possible it'd be just dandy if you ...
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By what mechanism does Risperidone swell breast tissue?

There has been much talk of the anti-psychotic drug Rispeirdone causing un-natural breast tissue growth as well as galactorhea (milk production). Especially in young men and boys. What is the ...
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Is there a specific mechanism for the delivery of pain medication?

For example, when one takes aspirin or ibuprofen does the chemical get dispersed to all pain receptor? My question really is, how does the chemical know where to target in the body? I figure wherever ...