Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function

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Do SSRIs downregulate or upregulate the 5-HT3 receptor?

What effect do SSRIs have on the expression of the ligand-gated ion channel, the 5-HT3 receptor?
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16 views

What is the most common way of administering loop diuretics and what is their time course of action?

I am reviewing some material on loop diuretics, and I am curious to know how these drugs are administered. Also, I am interested in knowing their time course of action once they are administered into ...
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How does Sodium Valproate cause neural plasticity

I have been reading a fascinating paper: Valproate reopens critical-period learning of absolute pitch 18 individuals were given Sodium Valproate (VPA) for a fortnight during which they trained on a ...
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90 views

Do mammals develop tolerance to anticholinergics?

I know that first generation H1 antagonists, commonly known as antihistamines have anticholinergic effects. Their sedative side effects go away due to tolerance, but as for their anticholinergic side ...
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50 views

Does DHA increase the effects of clarithromycin?

I've read on this publication that every drug that induces CYP3A can reduce the effectiveness of clarithromycin. Clarithromycin inhibits CYP3A. But it does not say anything about the opposite ...
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53 views

Does a mydriatic drug neutralize the action of a miotic?

If a person were administered a mydriatic, would the subsequent application of a miotic neutralize the action of the former? If the sequence were reversed would a mydriatic neutralize the effect of a ...
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108 views

If D1 receptors stimulate adenylate cyclase (through GPCRs) and D2 receptors inhibit it, then why do mutations in both have similar effects?

D1 and D2 both refer to specific types of dopamine receptors. I'm sure it has something to do with the fact that the D1 receptors are in regions different from D2 receptors. I know that adenylate ...
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69 views

What's the Mechanism of Paradoxical Excitatory Effects with Sedating Antihistamines?

I've been reading the British National Formulary 65 (BNF-65) and it mentioned that in some, especially at higher dosages, sedating (first-generation) antihistamines, can produce paradoxical excitatory ...
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46 views

Can ingestion of B6 cause gastrointestinal disturbance?

Can the ingestion of vitamin B6 upset the stomach, and if so by what mechanism?
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73 views

How is ammonia removed from the colon?

“Lactulose is also used to reduce the amount of ammonia in the blood of patients with liver disease. It works by drawing ammonia from the blood into the colon where it is removed from the body.” ...
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70 views

Is there a Pharmacology Textbook that Satisfies the Conditions listed in the Body of this Question?

The conditions are: As extensive and explanatory as Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Twelfth Edition With additional extensive and thoroughly explanatory information ...
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51 views

What's the Efficacy of Ampakines in the Treatment for ADHD?

What's the Efficacy of Ampakines in the Treatment for ADHD? Ampakines are a class of drugs that serve as potentiators of the AMPA glutamate receptor. By so doing they serve as nootropic, anxiolytics ...
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42 views

What is the best way to orally administer a water insoluble powdered drug to macaque monkeys?

They typically need to be given ~150mg, once a day, and it'll last for two weeks. The drug is very water insoluble, becomes almost like a paste, not suitable for tube feeding. And yes, this is for for ...
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87 views

Why can't sodium butyrate be delivered orally in humans and other mammals?

I think I know why -- bioavailability problems but since I have no firm evidence to support this theory I thought I would ask the biology stackexchange community for their input. I'd like some firm ...
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1k views

What are potential side effects of myostatin inhibitors?

Myostatin inhibitors, which are being developed to treat muscle wasting diseases like muscular dystrophy, are likely to be abused by athletes. What are the potential long-term side-effects of taking a ...
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36 views

Do antidepressants with their BDNF expression-increasing effects display disease-modifying effects in Alzheimer's disease?

I ask this question because I've looked everywhere I can think of and not one mention of this even though it definitely makes sense based on the finding that antidepressants increase brain-derived ...
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58 views

Are there any examples where 'magic bullet' drugs have worked?

Magic bullets are drugs that can be administered on a micro local scale near the tumour by exploiting the different surface antigens that cancers expose. The drug attaches via an mAb (attached to the ...
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25 views

What are the conditions that must be satisfied in order for drugs to be deliverable via the epidural route?

I ask this because I've read that while pentazocine is approved by the FDA for the treatment of labour pain, epidural administration is not listed as one of its means of administration (which thing I ...
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41 views

What's the mechanism of action of Levomepromazine's analgesic effects?

I have absolutely no idea as to how Levomepromazine elicits its analgesic effects so please do direct me to journal articles and other credible sources with you, the answerer, making a summary of ...
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147 views

How does Tianeptine work to elicit its therapeutic effects?

Tianeptine is an antidepressant and anxiolytic that has some additional analgesic properties that's used in some European countries, and the theories I've heard about how it works include the ...
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26 views

Can Opioids Attenuate some of the symptoms of Psychosis?

Can Opioids Attenuate some of the symptoms of Psychosis? I ask because there's a dead link on the Wikipedia page http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opioid_dependence#Causes that's meant to support the ...
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23 views

Which Enzymes Degrade Dynorphins and what drugs are there available to inhibit said enzymes?

Which Enzymes Degrade Dynorphins and what drugs are there available to inhibit said enzymes?
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15 views

Which classes of drugs (filed by their pharmacology) induce a release of beta-endorphin?

Which classes of drugs (filed by their binding sites) induce a release of $\beta$-endorphin? I know of agonists of the nAChRs and 5-HT1A and ethanol. Are there any others? Please cite journal ...
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295 views

How do Opioids Stimulate a Histamine Release?

Histamine is a neurotransmitter that also has peripheral functions such as the regulation of gastric acid secretions, allergic responses, etc. I know that opioids stimulate a release of histamine but ...
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31 views

Which mixed opioid agonist/antagonist are approved for Human Use in Europe and/or the USA?

Which mixed opioid agonist/antagonist are approved for Human Use in Europe and/or the USA? I know of: Buprenorphine Butorphanol Nalbuphine Pentazocine Are there any others? If so I would like you ...
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6 views

Ephedrine or pseudoephedrine indirectly central alpha2 mimetic?

I started to think this problem by first thinking if the alpha2 mimetism is possible in either case. It seems to be indirectly in either one. Ephedrine seems to have more prominent effect in CNS. ...
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10 views

Is Norepinephrine beta2 adrenomimetic?

I know that it has alpha1, alpha2 and beta1 effects. It has beta2 receptor where epinephrine can effect. However, to say that it is beta adrenomimetic, I am not sure. That is ligand binding beta2 ...
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5 views

Can choline-receptor stimulatants block cholinesterase inhibition?

I am thinking what are the possible options of terminating suxamethonium i.e. succinylcholine activity. Succinylcholine is enzymatically hydrolyzed by plasma cholinesterase. Can choline-receptor ...
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20 views

Quetiapine tolerance

I've researched quetiapine for quite some time now and I've found some references to tolerance, but nothing conclusive. My question is whether quetiapine use builds tolerance to the drug and if so, ...
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17 views

Why is drug clearance not affected by blood flow in case of low extraction ratios?

Background information: 1) Variation of organ blood flow: a) for drugs with low extraction ratio (<0.3): the venous drug concentration is virtually identical to the arterial concentration ...
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18 views

Is there a known glucosepane cross-link breaker?

I read the following on wikipedia: There is, however, no agent known that can break down the most common AGE, glucosepane, which appears 10 to 1,000 times more common in human tissue than any ...
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21 views

Thermochemistry of gabapentin

So I am taking a new class at my institution called Theoretic Nuclear Thermochemical Pharmacology, (I know big name, it's an elective from a real pioneering fronteirsman in our department :P) and I am ...
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19 views

Is there a definitive theory of how general anesthesia works?

Is it true that the method of action of general anesthesia is not exactly known? In other words, is there no conclusive theory of how it works?
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28 views

What is the distribution of agent on plasma proteins in ECF?

I am studying Montelukast here: Montelukast is more than 99% bound to plasma proteins. The steady state volume of distribution of montelukast averages 8 to 11 liters. Studies in rats with ...
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42 views

Sleep: a tale of two morning stimulants

According to "common knowledge", morning/afternoon exercise is "good" for sleep (in the long run) and caffeine is bad (less so in the morning). However, both of these stimulate the brain; exercise ...
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21 views

Why is it that alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists haven't been tried, in clinical trials, as an adjunct to PDE4 inhibitors?

Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors such as rolipram and piclamilast have demonstrated a number of potential therapeutic effects in preclinical studies and even the odd clinical study, but their ...
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67 views

Which receptor in particular does, “MUSCARINIC CHOLINERGIC” refer to in Goodman and Gilman?

On pg. 410 of Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 12th Edition the term "MUSCARINIC CHOLINERGIC" is used (in the context of side effects of antidepressant agents) with ...