The study of the normal function of living organisms and the means by which it is achieved.

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What causes swelling after impact?

Why does the head swell after getting hit by something hard? What is the liquid that forms after impact?
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14 views

Glycoprotein hormones metabolism

Why do the carbohydrate groups in glycoprotein hormones decrease the rate of metabolism? And increase the half-life?
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2answers
20 views

How does hypocalcaemia have an effect on the excitability of cell [on hold]

Hypocalcemia increases sodium influx by leak channels. Why does this elevate the resting membrane potential and increase excitability?
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1answer
37 views

Does food continue to stay sequential once it is inside my body?

I may be very off on many scientific details here, but I'm always all ears. As far as I understand, any food that is eaten goes to the stomach, gets broke down even further into smaller food ...
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1answer
48 views

Are the cells (structures) of deep sea fish different? And can they survive in shallow water?

In the deep oceans the pressure is enormous. But still there are fish living. But are the cells of them different from fish who just live at the surface of waters? For example, are the cells smaller ...
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15 views

Can one eye affect the other eye's low-light adaption?

This previous question addresses how long eyes need to adapt to darkness and reach full contrast. My question is how does one eye affect the "transition" and/or efficacy of this "night vision" of the ...
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19 views

Determination of Ageing by ECG inclusions/exclusions?

I am studying ageing and considering ECG signal because of its high sensitivity in theory (escardio). Some factors Sensitivity Gender Medical treatment ... Benchmark: RTG dental + wrist ...
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1answer
113 views

What is the maximum altitude where humans can survive?

What is the highest altitude that a human can survive without being pressurized? Let's assume that oxygen and heat/insulation are not the limiting factors? Why I asked.
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90 views

Why do I see different hues of colors between each of my eyes?

Frequently, I see colors with a slightly different hue when looking through my eyes individually. The right eye is more red-tinted ('warmer' hued) and the left is typically more blue-tinted ('cooler' ...
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1answer
67 views

When was the last common ancestor of pig and human?

Some religions regard pigs as unclean on the grounds that pig flesh is closest in composition to human flesh. I don't believe this for one instant, but it got me thinking, just how close is pig and ...
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59 views

How do cellular waste products enter arterial blood?

I recently learned that blood in renal arteries contains waste materials, which is filtered via nephrons in the kidneys. My question is, how are these waste materials getting into the arterial ...
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1answer
82 views

Why are some human injections intraperitoneal?

In humans, what benefit do intraperitoneal (IP) injections(old/cheap rabies vaccines, or cancer related injections) offer versus traditional intramuscular injections? For example, where I live, the ...
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46 views

How body loses more fat in CO2 form than in sweating form? [closed]

Yesterday, I saw TV Game Show. There is question like this: Body loses more fat in which form? It gave 4 options: 1) CO2 2) sweating 3) xxx 4) xyz sorry i didn't remember 3 & 4 options. ...
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403 views

Why does a fetus drinks and urinates into the amniotic fluid?

I was reading this website saying that fetuses urinate into the amniotic fluid. It also mentioned that, because we drink the amniotic fluid, we’ve been drinking our urine for months. However, why do ...
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1answer
59 views

How can hyperthyroidism induce osteoporosis?

It says in my physiology notes that hyperthyroidism can cause osteoporosis. I've been trying to figure out how this could be possible for a little more than an hour now. Every article that I look at ...
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1answer
52 views

How are isovolumetric contraction and afterload related in the cardiac cycle?

In the cardiac cycle isovolumetric contraction occurs and causes a pressure gradient. The "afterload" is the pressure exerted on the ventricle from the artery. Is the afterload the cause of ...
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1answer
42 views

How much is local blood non-Newtonian in Pathophysiology?

I am studying the Barus effect / Merrington effect / die swell / extrudate swell, which is a characteristic of non-Newtonian viscoelastic liquids (Introduction to the phenomenon in this video) i.e. ...
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1answer
107 views

Why are plants classified in living things? [closed]

@Volunteers Beware that I am none of the biological magnates. Nor a philosopher. This is just a sign of curiosity. And, I want only an intuition that enables me to see the difference. As far as I ...
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1answer
40 views

Unable to identify a muscle of the anterior thorax

I was watching an YouTube Anatomy Video which goes over the major muscles of the anterior superficial thorax. There is a structure present throughout the video which goes unmentioned, and I can't seem ...
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1answer
67 views

What is enantiostasis?

I have searched around and read my textbook but I am failing to understand how enantiostasis is different to homeostasis. For reference, Wikipedia definition is as follows: Enantiostasis is the ...
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24 views

Why doesn't EMG data for triceps show a clear relationship?

In a surface electromyography (EMG) experiment of the triceps muscle where a person lifts weights, I found the value for maximum amplitude of EMG signal to be rather similar for all loads of 0-10kg. ...
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1answer
84 views

Is it true that cats can drink sea (salted) water?

Found somewhere in the Net, that cats can drink sea (salted) water. This fact seems to me as being urban legend, not true (because the purpose of water in body apparently implies it should be clear). ...
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0answers
16 views

How to use the law of diffusion in the presence of electric forces?

Isn't the movement of ions affected by the electric field as well? For instance, when a sodium channel in a cell's membrane opens, the sodium ions are said to diffuse into the cell, from higher ...
3
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1answer
74 views

Loss of appetite during fever

It is a well-known phenomenon that sickness like the common flu is often accompanied by reduced appetite. Why do sick people stop eating?
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1answer
92 views

Why do mice have a higher metabolism?

Mice and other small animals have higher metabolic rate than humans. How does that happen on cellular level, if we look on one cell in the mouse body? What is it in this cell that will be ...
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1answer
36 views

Wheatgrass in thalassaemia

In local newspapers there was a not so recent story about wheatgrass juice being "curative" in thalassaemia. Although I do not take the article at face value, it would be enlightening to know if there ...
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1answer
90 views

Why do animal cells lack a contractile vacuole?

I was asked why animal cells do not have contractile vacuoles. Other than the lack of need, I don't know what else to say.
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1answer
27 views

Determining the osmolarity and tonicity of a cell

Consider a cell with urea concentration inside being 2mmol/L and outside being 2.5mmol/L. The cell itself is permeable to both urea and water. Ignoring the effect of other osmolytes, A) Urea flows ...
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24 views

What are the molecular/cellular basis of pruritus ?

Could someone please explain the cells and molecules involved in the clinical phenomenon of pruritus ? I'm interested in a general view about the subject, but detailed answers will be appreciated. ...
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1answer
58 views

What is the effect of reduced gravity on human height?

There has been talk recently of building a base on either the Moon or Mars. What I'm wondering is, if you are born and grow to adulthood on the Moon, where the gravity is a tenth of the Earth's, would ...
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66 views

Is there a lower temperature limit, below which we cannot sense a difference in temperature?

At work I have to handle samples stored at -20 and -70 degrees Celsius, and they don't feel that different to me.
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1answer
45 views

What differences in effect does fast repetitive exercise have compared to slower muscle-building exercise?

As a drummer who likes to play high-energy music (fast, aggressive metal) it's safe to say I burn a fair amount of calories when doing so. But I've been drumming for over a decade and despite the ...
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1answer
69 views

Which is more susceptible to dehydration — extracellular and intracellular fluid?

I want to ask in human body, there is intracellular and extracellular fluid that makes up the total body water of our body, which is drained first when we do activities? extra or intra? if I want to ...
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0answers
35 views

Which Lactobacillales (Lactic acid bacteria — LAB) strains are capable of degrading starch?

I've been researching bacteria strains but am having trouble finding amylolytic LAB strains with amylolytic and lactic acid producing character. The only species I've found, that are capable of ...
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29 views

Is lung size/shape a factor in long-continuous running of animals?

Apart from other factors, does lung shape/structure/size play any role in long-continuous running animals. Is there any similarity in lung structure between different long-continuous running species? ...
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2answers
89 views

Why we have to damage our muscles to build them?

I know that new muscle cells are made when actin fibers are disrupted. My hypothesis is that muscle mass is limited, from birth, and that nutrients (protein) are only directed to grow muscle when ...
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1answer
56 views

which organelle produce glycogen phosphorylase and why

I know that Glycogen phosphorylase doesn't produce from rough endoplasmic reticulum in liver cell. But almost every proteins such as insulin receptor, serum albumin, and lysosomal enzyme have to ...
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0answers
48 views

What is a common body composition in mammals?

The Physiology Of The Racing Greyhound states that most species have about a 40% muscle mass to body mass ratio. Understanding Body Composition puts "optimal fitness" in humans at 16-25% body fat for ...
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2answers
4k views

Are there any non-mammalian species known that lactate?

Are there any non-mammalian animals that produce milk to feed their young, or are milk-producing animals always mammals?
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77 views

What causes goose bumps?

What is the actual process and reflexes that cause the goose bumps? Why is it an evolutionary advantage to have goose bumps in the first place?
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151 views

Is there nutrient absorption in the large intestine of hindgut fermenters?

In hindgut fermenters, plants are digested in the caecum by microbes. I want to know whether hindgut fermenters can absorb the nutrients obtained from the digestion in the large intestine because the ...
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1answer
71 views

Does exercise really reduce stress in the biological meaning?

It is a very widespread claim, that movement in general helps body to get out stress hormones. It is used as a warning for long sitting at the computer and I also heard it as a pro-vegan argument (We ...
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1answer
82 views

What causes inhalation during breathing?

I have read here that the two major inhalation muscles are the (1) diaphragm and the (2) external intercostals. Additionally, inhalation can also be caused by (1) expansion of the abdominal cavity, ...
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66 views

What is the essence of difference of how different chemicals affect the same receptor?

It is known that various chemicals can bind to the same receptor type, producing different effects. Be these chemicals agonists or antagonists, there are more variations in how they influence the ...
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1answer
69 views

Is blood pressure in the aorta and brachial artery the same or different?

Does the blood pressure at the root of aorta equal the blood pressure in the brachial artery? I've heard it does, but it doesn't quite seem to make sense as I'd think the blood pressure would be ...
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1answer
246 views

If a human is stranded with beer but no water, should they drink it? [duplicate]

TL;DR: At what percent (if any) will alcohol dehydrate you more/faster than drinking nothing? Let's contrive a situation for dramatic effect... A human goes out on a boat for a nice sail in the sea. ...
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69 views

Root etiology of non-pituitary low T4 and low TSH

Please note: I'd like to preface this question by stating that this is neither homework nor me seeking medical advice. I am simply trying to understand the biological, physiological root etiology ...
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1answer
39 views

does phagocytosis dependent on opsonization?

does phagocytotic activity of macrophages and neutrophils depends on opsonization by IGg (antibody) and C3 complex,if it does, so then why macrophages and neutrophils are categorized in Innate immune ...
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1answer
336 views

Is the swimming pool water harmful to frogs who jump in? If so, how?

Here is an odd question: Frogs have permeable skin. Indeed, via capillary action, frogs absorb water through their skin. Chlorine is in principle a harmful substance. I am sure what percentage of ...
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1answer
113 views

Drinking soda triggers tingling on a tiny spot on my upper back… but how? [closed]

The title pretty much says it all. Yes, I know it doesn't make sense. That's why I'm baffled. For the past week or two, I've noticed that drinking soda seems to cause a tingling/stinging sensation ...