The study of the normal function of living organisms and the means by which it is achieved.

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Does creatine-phosphate (CP) supplementation regenerate NADH?

I have the following facts: It is possible to convert ATP <-> creatine vice-versa. (ref - non scientific) CP supplementation protects against metabolic syndrome. ref1 ref2 Fructose digestion ...
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0answers
54 views

Why are the palms of hand salty? [on hold]

I know that palms and soles have the highest sweat gland density. I am wondering if that is the only reason the palms and fingers on the flexor side get salty. Generally people wash their hand many ...
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1answer
43 views

Does breathing air containing 3% carbon dioxide gives you a headache?

As far as I know, breathing air containing relatively high levels of CO2 may get you a headache. I also know that CO2 level in the fruit bodies of peppers can reach levels as high as 3% at certain ...
2
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2answers
53 views

Difference between facilitated diffusion and secondary active transport in cells

Specifically, what is the difference between facilitated diffusion carrier processes (passive transport) and secondary active transport co-transport processes (active transport)? They seem to be the ...
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23 views

How is ATP involved in muscle contraction?

The sliding filament mechanism as explained by my text does not elaborate on how ATP is involved in the cross bridge binding and contraction process. How does muscle contraction utilize ATP? In my ...
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1answer
89 views

Why should or shouldn't we allow the human body to take its natural course? [closed]

For example, when you are sick but don't feel thirsty, this could be due to baroreceptor reflex that is attempting to readjust salt and water balancing. Why shouldn't a patient be left thirsty and ...
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0answers
26 views

Brain Damage from Injury? [closed]

I have a little brother (he is about 5 years old) who slipped in washroom (restroom) and got hurt on his head. His head was bleeding. We took him to the hospital and he got stapled on his head (metal ...
3
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1answer
83 views

Question about epinephrine

In my class we were told that adrenaline (or epinephrine) causes vasoconstriction. My question was I had always thought that people took this via an EpiPen when they were having an allergic reaction. ...
3
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1answer
96 views

Why do people in the scientific community use terminology such as renal, hepatic, cardiac instead of kidney, liver and heart? [closed]

Why is there the need to map these everyday words into another set of words, it seems to complicate matters. Is it done mostly out of tradition or is there some logical basis to it?
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12 views

What is the difference between specific and nonspecific stress response?

My book states that given any stressor, the body will response by providing a specific response to that stressor and a non-specific response that is triggered no matter what the stressor is (fear, ...
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0answers
17 views

Can you feel cortisol release?

Cortisol release is pretty well studied but I am curious as to why there are so many pulses throughout the day but yet I do not feel any of it. More curious is that I experience focus and energy at ...
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2answers
45 views

When glucose production is low, the brain turns into keto acid as an energy source, how does this work?

Can someone very generally describe how the brain consumes keto acid when blood sugar has been completely depleted?
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1answer
22 views

What is the so called “hepatic glucose production”

I came across this term in my readings but I do not understand how this works. Can someone direct me to some reference as to what this "hepatic" glucose production is all about?
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1answer
26 views

Given an EC50 value, how do I reproduce the sigmoidal curve from which this was calculated?

All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) is a potent ligand for a nuclear receptor called retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARa). The concentration of atRA at which RARa is half maximal is 19nM. The dose-response ...
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0answers
12 views

Liver - Regeneration in Cirrhosis

Liver is the most resilient of the human organ (on par with or next to skin). A very interesting experiment on liver regeneration is here. Even if two-thirds of the liver is removed, the remaining ...
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0answers
26 views

Case Study and speculations of Edward Mordake

I am very interested in the case of the man named Edward Mordake who lived in the 19th century. In particular, he had two faces. If you have not heard of this man, please, search this up as there are ...
3
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0answers
22 views

Blood as newtonian flow and Poiseuille law [closed]

For a prep exam: A healtly pacient has a carotid with the following characteristics: intern ratio: ๐‘…= 2.8 mm, ๐‘ƒ2 = 89 ๐‘š๐‘š๐ป๐‘”, ๐‘ƒ1 = 90 ๐‘š๐‘š๐ป๐‘”, ๐œ‡blood = 3.5 cp, ๐ฟ=10.0 cm. Using the ...
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1answer
30 views

How to define drug-resistant or -sensitive cell line when knowing the IC50 values?

I have got the IC50 data for a drug on different cell lines. How to define if the cell line is sensitive or resistant towards this drug? Could anyone tell me how to define this?
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1answer
18 views

How is circadian rhythm of gastric acid secretion regulated?

Gastric acid secretion shows a circadian rhythm where acid production in the morning is minimal and it reaches a maximum towards the evening. How is this process regulated?
2
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2answers
27 views

What is the difference between meristem and bud?

Keep reading both terms quite frequently while studying plant physiology. I did some research trying to establish their differences and I learnt that meristems are undifferentiated cells that can ...
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2answers
351 views

Why can newborns swim?

I am wondering for someone to discuss the phenomena that newborn babies (humans) are able to submerge underwater up until a few months where that ability is lost again? What is the explanation for ...
3
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1answer
59 views

What is the impact of stress on the human body?

Can stress trigger any changes in the human body? I'd like to know more about things less commonly known than, for example: sweating and tiredness. What are the long term risks of chronic stress? Do ...
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2answers
125 views

Should we induce fever to assist healing?

I am currently reading "The Fundamentals of Anatomy Physiology" 10th edition, and have found it an incredibly interesting book. I have just been reading about the lymphatic system, and the various ...
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1answer
78 views

Similarity between a heart attack and a spasm

When someone is having a heart attack, could it be considered , in some situations, a spasm? Below, I have written how I believe the process may work. The heart is basically a muscle working ...
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5answers
77 views

Is the amount of blood that flows through every vein and artery per minute really a constant?

I was listening lectures from Mark Saltzman via Open Yale Courses. Now, if I did not understand him wrong, he said that the amount of blood that travels through every vein and artery in our bodies per ...
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1answer
53 views

Is hands-only CPR as effective as traditional CPR?

Is hands-only CPR as effective as traditional CPR ? Wouldn't 30 chest compressions + 2 rescue breaths be more effective if the person doesn't have a pulse AND not breathing? From my understanding ...
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2answers
117 views

What physiological processes within a muscle cause the latent period in a muscle fiber?

This is a lab question I cant find the answer in the lab manual or in the text book. What physiological processes in a muscle cause the latent period in a muscle fiber? Please help. Edit: The latent ...
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1answer
35 views

Is Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) isohydric or anisohydric species?

Question from a thesis defense list ask me this. But I can't find the exact answer on the internet or in books. In my thesis, I described isohydric plants, for example maize, lupin, pea, poplar. This ...
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0answers
26 views

how food moves in horizontal coils of small intestines [duplicate]

This is a very very basic question, and I am looking at it more from point of view of physics. The small intestine is a highly coiled structure, which means it has horizontal coils as well. I can ...
2
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1answer
38 views

Detailed mechanism of the cause of diabetes mellitus type 1?

I have read in some texts that diabetes mellitus type 1 is caused by degeneration of beta cells due to our body's own immune reaction.Is it true? Can you explain further how are such types of immune ...
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1answer
38 views

How does ANF increase GFR?

ANF as we know reduce the Na+ uptake and K+ removal in the distal tubules and it also functions as a Vasodialator (?) But again it says that ANF increases the Glomerular filtrate ? But if it is acting ...
3
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0answers
28 views

Normal ECG/EKG Measurement?

I'm getting started using ECG using a 3 lead system by iWorx. I have place the leads on my two wrists and the ground on my ankle and have recorded some data into the provided LabScribe 3 software ...
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3answers
89 views

Does the necessary Carbon Dioxide need to be in the atmosphere for mammals?

In the answers to this question, we've learnt that carbon dioxide is necessary for mammalian life, but is it necessary in the atmosphere/to breathe it in? Or does the act of respiration give a ...
2
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1answer
45 views

Genetic abscence of backpain among teen girls? [closed]

I heard a study somewhere (I can't remember where) that claimed that teenage girls are genetically absent to experience high degrees of backpain, specifically from rigorous exercise. Strangely, of ...
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1answer
62 views

Why can good music raise goosebumps?

Listening to really good music right now, I was wondering why it raises goosebumps. Is there any physiological reason for this reaction to specific wavelengths or something? EDIT: Due sometimes ...
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1answer
167 views

Relationship between nerves and axons

I just wanted to get a realistic viewpoint of our nervous system. I understand arteries and veins, but I wanted to know how similar our nervous system is to that? I understand we have neurons ...
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0answers
79 views

What's Incomplete atrioventricular heart block (AV)? [closed]

This is unclear for me and I can not understand differences between complete and incomplete atrioventricular heart block.also I want an electrocardiograph of incomplete atrioventricular heart block.
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2answers
184 views

Why do we urinate more when we are nervous?

This question is a result of my personal experience... But I guess that is common for many of us. My school timing is 8:00 am to 1:30 pm (usually). During normal school days I typically urinate one ...
2
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1answer
61 views

Biphasic T wave caused by digitalis toxicity

Digitalis is a drug that can be used during coronary insufficiency to increase the strength of cardiac muscle contraction. But when overdosages of digitalis are given, depolarization duration ...
2
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1answer
71 views

What happens to our umbilical cord internally as we age?

I was always curious as to if or how much of the internal structure or workings of the umbilical cord are still in existence as we age. What happens to it over time? The wikipedia article naval ...
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1answer
74 views

Why is pericardium muscle repolarizated earlier than endocardium? [closed]

I was reading about heat muscle contraction and I read: The endocardium depolarization happens earlier than pericardium , but pericarduim repolarization happens earlier, therefore the T wave in ...
6
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1answer
76 views

Do people that don't feel pain shiver in the cold?

There are a few diseases that cause an insensitivity to pain. This question asks about the relationship between the cold and pain, which got me thinking: Is shivering a response driven by the ...
2
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1answer
35 views

Why is the resting potential of a neuron so close to the equilibrium potential of Kโบ?

I know this has something to do with the K+ leak channel. I just don't understand how. I know that 3 Na+ are pumped out for every 2 K+ pumped in. This makes the cell interior net negative. I know ...
4
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3answers
162 views

How does vasoconstriction/vasodilation change blood pressure?

Background: I am coming at this question from an electrical engineering background, and I feel like I am missing certain assumptions that are going into the statement found in my physiology textbook, ...
3
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1answer
97 views

Whatโ€™s the reason for isovolumic contraction and isovolumic relaxation?

During cardiac cycle, there are two periods in which the heart volume doesnโ€™t change, but there is a change in tension/pressure. It takes about 0.25-0.35 second to achieve this change. I searched in ...
3
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2answers
102 views

Why can't we defibrillate the heart within 1 minute after ventricular fibrillation by electroshock?

We mostly can defibrillate the heart before 1 min of ventricular fibrillation by electroshock.Then we often can't do defibrillate it with electroshock. What's the reason and What's the best way to ...
3
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1answer
45 views

Why do the size of the phase 1 notch vary among cardiac cells?

The size of the phase 1 notch varies among cardiac cells. It is prominent in myocytes in the epicardial and midmyocardial regions of the left ventricular wall and in ventricular Purkinje fibers. ...
4
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1answer
120 views

How can we measure cardiac output?

I could find a way which could find it by body oxygen consumption and there is another way to measure it by injecting drugs โ€” measuring cardiac output by the so-called โ€œindicator dilution method,โ€ a ...
4
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2answers
145 views

Why do skin and nail go blue in cyanosis?

I have learned that Cyanosis presents with blue skin and nails. What is the reason for the blue coloration of the skin and nails? Why wont the skin and nails turn another color in the visible spectrum ...
9
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1answer
223 views

Why doesn't HDL cause diseases like LDL? [duplicate]

LDL particles pose a risk for cardiovascular disease when they invade the endothelium and become oxidized, since the oxidized forms are more easily retained by the proteoglycans. A complex set of ...