2
votes
1answer
28 views

What is the physiological difference between cortisone and cortisol?

There is only hydrogen bond different. Cortisol is synthesized by our body, while cortisone is given to the patient. Why you cannot give cortisol directly to the patient? I think the reason is ...
-1
votes
1answer
64 views

What organism most efficiently converts a given quantity of mass into heat?

Question I am trying to answer: In the popular film The Matrix, heat given off by humans is harvested as an energy source. I wondered, if this were possible, would humans be a good organism to ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Can non-carbonated energy drinks boost alcohol intoxication?

I just read news article about banning caffeine in alcohol drinks and about that energy drinks increase the urge to drink alcohol. Energy drinks cause sugar intoxication - answer about it here ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Is the sense for salt depending on the electrolyte level in our body?

I often noticed, after (heavy) physical activity like cycling, running, swimming or working an isotonic drink (to recover the electrolyte level) tastes less "salty" compared to when drinking it before ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

Few innervations to blood sugar regulation

Assume you have a case of young female where the intake of 75 grams of pure sugar leads to a rapid peak of blood glucose level (within seconds) plateau phase with very steady blood glucose level ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Vitamin D oral intake, transportation and absorption

Several factors affecting vitamin D and its active form absorption and storage acidity of stomach (not significant effect) cytopathic effects of viruses cytopathic effects of bacteria where the ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

To increase the stretchability of the ascending aortic arch

The thread about To decrease the amount of proteins in the lymphatic drainage for short term here raised this question. This paper discusses the stretch and Cauchy-stress properties of the heart. So ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

Missing 4$H_2O$s (per glucose) in Cellular Respiration… Where can they be?

I having trouble understanding the equation of the cellular respiration. The thing that bothers me is the number of $H_2O$ molecules. Generally, cellular respiration is written thus : $C_6H_{12}O_6 + ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

What are the physiological roles of Hydrogen sulfide?

I am thinking why hydrogen sulfide has its effects in the body. For instance, it is one Salmonella's virulence factor. I am not sure if such a balance equations holds ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Nearly Exhaustive List for Cholesterol Pathways

I have run across an interesting case that is similar to only two others I've encountered. What makes it interesting is the combination of undetectable (under normal testing conditions, can elaborate ...
3
votes
2answers
60 views

Why do humans circulate monosaccharides instead of disaccharides as in plants?

Plants transport food mostly in the form of disaccharides like sucrose but humans transport them in the form of a monosaccharide - glucose. What is the reason behind this ?
0
votes
2answers
344 views

Converting unit/mg or unit/ml into ng/ml, or vice-versa

I am working with the enzyme Cu/Zn Superoxide (SOD1) and i am quantifying them in ng/ml. However, most past studies has SOD1 quantified in unit/mg or unit/ml, and i need to compare the SOD1 level of ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

To understand synthesis of e-NOS and n-NOS with respect to Ca and calmodulin

I found this sentence in my notes interesting E-NOS and n-NOS are Ca, calmoduline dependant ferments. They are synthesized from in small conc as response to physiological signals which ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

To understand Nitric oxide, iNOS and Tumour cells

I have this figure about nitric oxide and tumor which is for schematic for me to understand it The figure should probably say that tumour cell is induced by NO or alone to go apoptosis and it ...
0
votes
2answers
24 views

To understand Second messenger signalling in I/c and E/c

I found this picture in my study materials. I think it is too schematic and ignores the big pictures. I think the thing connected to the hormone is receptor. The second messanger is then connected ...
2
votes
1answer
210 views

Excretion of various wastes and water requirement

A common fact is that Ammonia, Urea and Uric acid are the most common excreted metabolites and their removal needs varying amount of water, highest for ammonia (hence suited only for aquatic animals) ...
1
vote
1answer
68 views

(Web)app to search metabolic/signalling pathways

I'm looking for an application where you can find pathways by selecting a chemical occurring in it. So, for example, selecting 6-phosphogluconolactone brings up the pentose phosphate pathway or any ...
8
votes
1answer
89 views

Why pouring salt in the wounds is painful?

Pouring salt in the wounds is so painful. I am sure you all experienced this. whats happend there?
17
votes
3answers
822 views

Why are there no organisms with metal body parts, like weapons, bones, and armour? (Or are there?)

Reading this question, Why are there no wheeled animals?, I wondered why no organisms seem to make use of the tensile and other strengths of metal, as we do in metal tools and constructions. I am ...
7
votes
1answer
65 views

Excretion of monovalent and divalent ions in sharks

I have heard that sharks excrete $\ce{Na+}$ and $\ce{Cl-}$ by their gill surfaces but divalent ions like magnesium are excreted through feces. What could be the reason behind this?
2
votes
2answers
305 views

What exothermic reaction distinguishes warm blooded animals?

I would appreciate an answer specifically in the form of an exothermic chemical reaction. Namely, the one primarily responsible for generating heat in warm blooded animals that does not take place in ...
2
votes
2answers
155 views

What chemicals can be detected from one's sweat?

This question came to mind after reading this article. The article speaks of inducing sweating to determine by a roundabout fashion the amount of salt therein. I'm no medic but I find myself wondering ...
4
votes
1answer
137 views

How does ethanol interact with insulin?

I know that ethanol increases insulin secretion--could someone explain why? All I have found till now is experimental data analyses. I am interested in mechanism of alcohol consumption.
4
votes
1answer
904 views

Conversion rate of topical Retinol to Retinoic Acid (Tretinoin)?

I'm wondering if someone out there has more information than me. Retinoids have well known metabolic pathways in vivo, and it's usually something like: ...
5
votes
3answers
230 views

Biological Pathway of Lipid Hypothesis

I've read a lot on both sides of the debate of low carb vs low fat diets trying to make some sense of what is being proposed. The lipid hypothesis runs roughly along the lines that we have lots of ...
3
votes
1answer
149 views

Negative feedback in the fructose metabolism in liver

What happens in liver when large amount of fructose is consumed? I vaguely remember my biochemistry lecturer telling us that the enzymes that process fructose in the liver does not have negative ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

What are the units of Q10 (temperature sensitivity)?

Q10 is the increase in a rate (e.g. activity of an enzyme) observed with a 10 degree temperature increase. According to Wikipedia: It is apparent that the units of R (e.g. mol/g/s) cancel out, ...
8
votes
3answers
463 views

What triggers meiosis in gonadal cells?

What specific biochemical processes are involved in inducing meiosis rather than mitosis? Why are gonadal cells the only cells in the human body which do undergo meiosis?
17
votes
2answers
3k views

What is the mechanism behind “acquired” alcohol tolerance?

I can understand natural variation in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in a population leading to variation in rate of inebriation (after controlling for other variables -- e.g., mass, food consumption, ...