The study of the normal function of living organisms and the means by which it is achieved.

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63 views

Antihistamine's effect on insulin secretion and tiredness

Antihistamines are known to cause tiredness. The essential hormones of the body are insulin (glucose), parathyroid hormone (calcium) and aldosterone (Na-K ATPase, sodium). I am thinking how this ...
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24 views

Few innervations to blood sugar regulation

Assume you have a case of young female where the intake of 75 grams of pure sugar leads to a rapid peak of blood glucose level (within seconds) plateau phase with very steady blood glucose level ...
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38 views

Vitamin D oral intake, transportation and absorption

Several factors affecting vitamin D and its active form absorption and storage acidity of stomach (not significant effect) cytopathic effects of viruses cytopathic effects of bacteria where the ...
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22 views

Prenatal hyperkinetic dysfunction and its effect on endurace

Do people with an hyperkinetic dysfuntion have a better endurance? Are they fitter in cause of their Dopamine-overdose or any other reason? I have a case, where someone does not do any sports, but ...
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2answers
88 views

what are the factors that control the processing speed of brain?

If we consider an analogy between a wire and a neuron there may be some resemblance between the factors controlling the data flow rate. For example the increased width of wire leads to decreased ...
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1answer
341 views

Why does it hurt more when you touch a nerve directly?

I am not a biologist nor know much about biology (so please explain in layman's terms) however I have always been curious as to why this is. What causes the difference in pain between touching an ...
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1answer
40 views

Could light/occasional smoking strengthen the lungs?

Here's my thought process, correct me where I'm wrong. It seems the human body has thresholds. Examples: You lift too much weight, and the muscles and tendons risk serious injury, but otherwise ...
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1answer
80 views

How does a pine cone open?

When a pine cone is wet, it remains closed. However, when it's dry it opens again. From the perspective of physics or biomechanics, what is the mechanism that allows a pine cone to open and close as ...
3
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1answer
192 views

what are the mechanics of sweating?

The causes of sweating aside, i.e. I'm not interested in which and how nerve signals are transmitted to sweat glands. But I would like to read a detailed account on what a sweat gland consists of, ...
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866 views

Why do we get runny noses in the cold?

The most annoying thing for me about being cold is a runny nose. Is there an advantage to having a runny nose when cold? What does having a runny nose achieve?
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1answer
23 views

Polarized epithelium and localization of ion channels

I'm trying to learn more about polarized epithelial cells of the gut. I am familiar with classic brush border transporters localized to the apical memebrane to facilitate nutrient absorption. I am ...
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1answer
15 views

To characterise diameter of capillaries in organs

I know that there exist Continuous capillaries (skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, connective tissue, pulmonary circulation), Fenestrated capillaries (small intestine, renal glomerulus, exocrine ...
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20 views

What is the quality rate of intrinsic autoregulation in the heart?

Autoregulation is the maintenance of constant blood flow to an organ in spite of fluctuations in Blood pressure. It involves the relaxation of myocardium and contraction. It is local. I know that ...
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1answer
22 views

Are there any forms of heart failure where cell size decreases?

I think hypertrophy happens in most of the cases. However, I am not sure if hypertrophy always happens. I started to think about wet lungs (pulmonary reason for the left-sided heart failure). Can the ...
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1answer
26 views

Fibrinous inflammation, exudate and scarring in monotonous movements and ageing

I have palpated many hard organs during my work and studies. I have seen many young and old people who have hard organs, like very hard shoulder - very common. I have interviewed some of them, some ...
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0answers
11 views

To increase the stretchability of the ascending aortic arch

The thread about To decrease the amount of proteins in the lymphatic drainage for short term here raised this question. This paper discusses the stretch and Cauchy-stress properties of the heart. So ...
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0answers
22 views

Why dogs are often mercurial?

I'm not a huge animal fan, but my experiences show that some (most?) of the dog breeds are active and need exceptionally lot of place to stay healthy and happy. What's the reason behind it? I know ...
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0answers
26 views

What is the nature of action potentials in autonomic nervous system?

My conjuncture is that the natures of sympathetic and parasympathetic action potentials are different. My findings propose me that sympathetic action potential is little longer lasting than ...
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1answer
535 views

Crusty eyes in the morning

Often, after waking up from a night's sleep hard, flaky, pale yellow crystals are deposited around the eyelids (which easily wash off with water). What are these? Why are they yellow? What are they ...
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1answer
29 views

Does Sympaticus and lymphatic circulation cause feeling of thirsty after short shower?

I have been reading blogs, Guyton and Pocock about what triggers the feeling of thirsty. I am not convinced that is the fact of warm water time is short so not much water lost Assume that the ...
3
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1answer
62 views

How does regurgitated food go to the 3rd stomach chamber instead of going to the 1st?

Ruminants are known for their regurgitation of food; the food goes through the 1st and 2nd stomach chambers, then returns to the oral cavity in cuds. The cuds then come back into the stomach, but this ...
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1answer
43 views

Advantage of cup-like shape of blood cells, spores?

Mold spores sometimes have the same shape as platelets in blood. If I were designing a spore it would probably be spherical. Is there any advantage to this cup-like shape? Maybe there is some ...
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3answers
129 views

Is it possible to have life in vacuum?

I just got struck by curiosity now: Intuition says no, but I've never had confirmation of it.
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1answer
37 views

Effect of respiration on Arterial pressure

I am trying to explain the effect of respiration on arterial pressure. I am looking preferably some visual way to show it. How can you show the effect of respiration on arterial pressure? I am ...
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26 views

Are there naturally occurring Biological Pacemakers?

There are artificial biological pacemakers which express funny channels. I am thinking if it is possible to have also naturally occurring (only in recovery cases and in silent tissues) biological ...
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2answers
147 views

Can the body of any organism on Earth live without impairment both in vacuum, and within Earth's atmosphere?

I know from reading that a human in vacuum needs a space-suit to survive. Is the body of any organism on Earth capable of living equally in vacuum, and on/below Earth's surface within the ...
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10 views

Mechanisms to start simultaneous depolarisation of two Pacemakers?

I am thinking the biochemical mechanisms of the simultaneous depolarisations of two pacemakers. My intuition Funny channels (but not alone) No autonomic nervous system (my conjencture) What are ...
5
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1answer
78 views

Task-dependent “reversed” handedness: why use left hand for some tasks? How is it controlled by the brain?

I am right-handed. Which means that when I hammer down a nail, I hold the nail in my left hand, with which I can hold it straight and at a controlled position. This is true in situations where the ...
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1answer
69 views

Why mosquito bite is confined to a certain shape?

I think this problem should be asked in a physiology forum rather than biology@ stackex but I'll give it a try. So my question is simple - why a mosquito bite is usually confined to a certain shape ...
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4answers
139 views

Why do the humans become sleepy after meals?

I don't know about all the mankind, but I know enough people, who becomes sleepy after their meals. Also, I'm not sure, what kind of food do they consume, but I personally get sleepy almost from any ...
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1answer
46 views

Missing 4$H_2O$s (per glucose) in Cellular Respiration… Where can they be?

I having trouble understanding the equation of the cellular respiration. The thing that bothers me is the number of $H_2O$ molecules. Generally, cellular respiration is written thus : $C_6H_{12}O_6 + ...
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1answer
40 views

Earwax versus Mucus

Something I have wondered for a while is why have two different primary defense mediums, ie earwax and mucus, that perform the same function? As far as I know, mucus and earwax are both part of the ...
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0answers
11 views

What are the mechanisms of disabling extrinsic control of heart?

I started this thread by thinking this question but I developed it further below What is the mechanism maintaining refractory period of pacemakers? My conjuncture is that the mechanism is the ...
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0answers
18 views

Which reflex arcs work in Heart with extrasystoles?

I am researching what is triggering the extrasystoles - initial idea from this thread about Which ionic channels of Pacemakers can work in very low frequencies in extrasystole? I am interested in the ...
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1answer
14 views

Which ionic channels of Pacemakers can work in very low frequencies in extrasystole?

At frequency 0-3 Hz. Like computer processors which can work at low frequencies and controlling under- and overvoltage. Normal most significant channels are Ca2+ and K+ that are changing. However, I ...
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2answers
35 views

Is Sinus node conduction necessary for heart beating?

Assume a patient with previous cardial infaction which SA node not possible to activate action potential anymore. However, SA trying to beat unsuccessfully repeatedly waisting energy. Therefore, I ...
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0answers
13 views

Calling for Pressure pictures about Right and Left atrium

I am trying to understand the partially patent foramen ovale in patients with right-side heart failure. I am interested how the pressure in right and left atrium change in normal case in abnormal ...
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0answers
18 views

Laser surgery to stop damaged Sinus node from beating

I am trying to find any publication about laser surgery to stop the damaged sinus node which cannot anymore beat. I could only find publications which modifies SA node function. I am not sure if it ...
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1answer
251 views

Why is membrane potential not zero at equilibrium?

For the squid giant axon, the membrane potential computed by the Goldman equation is -60mV. And the Nernst potentials are (the differences between the K+ and the Na+'s Nernst potential and the ...
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1answer
60 views

Do people with gout live longer?

Antioxidants reduce damage to tissue (by scavenging the free radicals) and thus may reduce ageing.It is known that Uric acid is a very good antioxidant. People with gout have excess accumulation of ...
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27 views

Normal Frequencies in Heart

I am trying to visualise possible ranges of frequencies from different structures of heart: different valves and their possible frequencies heart sounds I - IV and their normal frequencties what can ...
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29 views

How do the symptoms of Sepsis affect heart function?

I have intuition that Sepsis with infection can cause spastic functioning of heart during systole heart working spontaneously in snatches during systole atrial fibrillation first contraction of ...
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1answer
38 views

Nervous system: Pain and Pleasure?

If you have a constant pain in your body, why does a greater pain or pleasure make you not feel the original pain?
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1answer
64 views

Difference in reptile inner ear and otosclerosis

In reptiles, the sound is conducted from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear by a single bone. In the disease otosclerosis the stapes of humans become fused to the other middle ear bones( or to ...
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1answer
22 views

How many systemic reactions in inflammation?

I have this sentence in my notes Inflammation consists of two local reactions and one systemic reactions. which is difficult for me to accept. Two local reactions are vascular and cellular. I ...
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1answer
99 views

Are females more flexible than males in all mammals?

It's common that human females have a more flexible body than males, (but I don't know why, so it'd be helpful if someone answers why so as well!) but does this apply to all mammals?
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171 views

What use a pair of lips?

Pardon my ignorance ... A lip is apparently a very sensitive tactile device - as it at-least serves to warn it's owner they may just be about to consume something that could cause injury. Primates ...
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0answers
61 views

A day in Beijing is like smoking Only one sixth of a cigarette

This is the title of this blog post followed by this other good post. I'm particularly anti-tobacco-smoke, at the point of not always considering other pollution, and this article shows how this kind ...
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0answers
19 views

How does vasomotor and bronchomotor reactions equilibrate local blood flow to correspond local ventilation?

I am trying to find some figure(s) to explain this. There is probably better name for "bronchomotor" reaction. They seem to opposite terms and actually affecting same things (alveolar diameter/tone); ...
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1answer
38 views

What are the physiological roles of Hydrogen sulfide?

I am thinking why hydrogen sulfide has its effects in the body. For instance, it is one Salmonella's virulence factor. I am not sure if such a balance equations holds ...