The study of the normal function of living organisms and the means by which it is achieved.

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Calling for Pressure pictures about Right and Left atrium

I am trying to understand the partially patent foramen ovale in patients with right-side heart failure. I am interested how the pressure in right and left atrium change in normal case in abnormal ...
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2answers
51 views

Is Sinus node conduction necessary for heart beating?

Assume a patient with previous cardial infaction which SA node not possible to activate action potential anymore. However, SA trying to beat unsuccessfully repeatedly waisting energy. Therefore, I ...
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20 views

Laser surgery to stop damaged Sinus node from beating

I am trying to find any publication about laser surgery to stop the damaged sinus node which cannot anymore beat. I could only find publications which modifies SA node function. I am not sure if it ...
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1answer
112 views

Why mosquito bite is confined to a certain shape?

I think this problem should be asked in a physiology forum rather than biology@ stackex but I'll give it a try. So my question is simple - why a mosquito bite is usually confined to a certain shape ...
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1answer
66 views

Do people with gout live longer?

Antioxidants reduce damage to tissue (by scavenging the free radicals) and thus may reduce ageing.It is known that Uric acid is a very good antioxidant. People with gout have excess accumulation of ...
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4answers
359 views

Do tall people have more cells?

Within a single species, how does the relative number of cells in the body relate to the relative size of the organism? Let's say we take two humans, one of them is 6 feet tall and the other one is 5 ...
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1answer
47 views

Normal Frequencies in Heart

I am trying to visualise possible ranges of frequencies from different structures of heart: different valves and their possible frequencies heart sounds I - IV and their normal frequencties what can ...
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0answers
32 views

How do the symptoms of Sepsis affect heart function?

I have intuition that Sepsis with infection can cause spastic functioning of heart during systole heart working spontaneously in snatches during systole atrial fibrillation first contraction of ...
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1answer
43 views

Nervous system: Pain and Pleasure?

If you have a constant pain in your body, why does a greater pain or pleasure make you not feel the original pain?
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1answer
50 views

Missing 4$H_2O$s (per glucose) in Cellular Respiration… Where can they be?

I having trouble understanding the equation of the cellular respiration. The thing that bothers me is the number of $H_2O$ molecules. Generally, cellular respiration is written thus : $C_6H_{12}O_6 + ...
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1answer
34 views

Fibrinous inflammation, exudate and scarring in monotonous movements and ageing

I have palpated many hard organs during my work and studies. I have seen many young and old people who have hard organs, like very hard shoulder - very common. I have interviewed some of them, some ...
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0answers
67 views

A day in Beijing is like smoking Only one sixth of a cigarette

This is the title of this blog post followed by this other good post. I'm particularly anti-tobacco-smoke, at the point of not always considering other pollution, and this article shows how this kind ...
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1answer
166 views

Are females more flexible than males in all mammals?

It's common that human females have a more flexible body than males, (but I don't know why, so it'd be helpful if someone answers why so as well!) but does this apply to all mammals?
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21 views

How does vasomotor and bronchomotor reactions equilibrate local blood flow to correspond local ventilation?

I am trying to find some figure(s) to explain this. There is probably better name for "bronchomotor" reaction. They seem to opposite terms and actually affecting same things (alveolar diameter/tone); ...
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1answer
49 views

What is the function of clot retraction?

I am thinking how clot retraction and fibrinolysis work together. I think that clot retraction is a process that gets clot towards fibrinolysis process. Fibrinolysis process then lyses the clot. ...
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1answer
37 views

Which chemical and hormonal effects on heart are by metabolites?

I am thinking which hormonal and chemical effects from: catecholamines thyroxin corticosteroids sex hormones prostaglandins Ca2+ Na+ K+ can be be regarded as metabolites i.e. intermediates or ...
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1answer
16 views

To characterise diameter of capillaries in organs

I know that there exist Continuous capillaries (skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, connective tissue, pulmonary circulation), Fenestrated capillaries (small intestine, renal glomerulus, exocrine ...
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1answer
24 views

What is the quality rate of intrinsic autoregulation in the heart?

Autoregulation is the maintenance of constant blood flow to an organ in spite of fluctuations in Blood pressure. It involves the relaxation of myocardium and contraction. It is local. I know that ...
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1answer
25 views

Are there any forms of heart failure where cell size decreases?

I think hypertrophy happens in most of the cases. However, I am not sure if hypertrophy always happens. I started to think about wet lungs (pulmonary reason for the left-sided heart failure). Can the ...
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1answer
44 views

What is ischaemia exactly?

I think it is decreased blood supply to organs and tissues. I also think it is the stopped circulation. However, both ones cannot be right, I think. What is ischaemia exactly?
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1answer
53 views

What is the difference between intracardiac and extracardiac reflexes in cardiac regulation?

The primary parameters of heart pumping are strength of contractility (inotropic positive; Frank-Starling relationship) rate of relaxation (lusitropic positive) heart rate (chronotropic positive) ...
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1answer
46 views

Do's and Don't's of Undergraduate Research? [closed]

I was fortunate enough to get a position as a researcher for the Mayo Clinic's SURF Program this year. My PI's lab focus is on the the immune system's role in CNS axonal and neuronal injury, ...
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2answers
135 views

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs), any health risks?

Background: An electronic cigarette (e-cig or e-cigarette) is a battery-powered device which simulates tobacco smoking patented in 1963 by Herbert A. Gilbert. It generally uses a heating element ...
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1answer
41 views

What are the physiological roles of Hydrogen sulfide?

I am thinking why hydrogen sulfide has its effects in the body. For instance, it is one Salmonella's virulence factor. I am not sure if such a balance equations holds ...
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0answers
33 views

Nearly Exhaustive List for Cholesterol Pathways

I have run across an interesting case that is similar to only two others I've encountered. What makes it interesting is the combination of undetectable (under normal testing conditions, can elaborate ...
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1answer
227 views

What are the highest and lowest possible pH, paCO2 and HCO3 in the blood of living human?

What are the highest and lowest possible values of pH, $paCO_2$, and $HCO_3$ in the (arterial or venous) blood of a living human being?
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1answer
109 views

Can too low oncotic pressure lead to Third spacing and Edema?

I know that low oncotic pressure is associated with many pathologies. I am interested how it is associated with Third spacing. My professor says that it can permit edema formation. The opposing ...
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2answers
101 views

Hypovolemia and orthostatic hypertension

What is the physiological mechanism behind the occurrence of orthostatic hypertension in the presence of hypovolemia?
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1answer
59 views

Why are new vessels more permeable in microvasculature?

I know for microvasculature New microvasculature (arterioles, venules) are always more permeable as they lack pericytes. and then I have this sentence about new blood vessels (not specific) ...
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1answer
25 views

What are the movement mechanisms of thrombus?

I am thinking how thrombus (veins, arteries and heart) can move. Secondary mechanisms come to my mind only: some enzyme which lyses it, probably adhesion mechanism. Blood circulation (flow rate) ...
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1answer
22 views

How many systemic reactions in inflammation?

I have this sentence in my notes Inflammation consists of two local reactions and one systemic reactions. which is difficult for me to accept. Two local reactions are vascular and cellular. I ...
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2answers
64 views

Why do humans circulate monosaccharides instead of disaccharides as in plants?

Plants transport food mostly in the form of disaccharides like sucrose but humans transport them in the form of a monosaccharide - glucose. What is the reason behind this ?
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3answers
318 views

Why do we exhale after we hold our breath?

I tested this out with my friends, and I find that after they hold their breath and can't hold it anymore, they exhale air, instead of inhaling air. Interestingly, they all try to inhale in as much ...
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2answers
264 views

Why there is a very high drop in pressure from arteries to arterioles?

Laplace law explains why the pressure is the same in aorta and arteries (100). I am thinking why there is so big drop in pressure when going from arteries to arterioles (40-60). Why there is a great ...
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2answers
380 views

Converting unit/mg or unit/ml into ng/ml, or vice-versa

I am working with the enzyme Cu/Zn Superoxide (SOD1) and i am quantifying them in ng/ml. However, most past studies has SOD1 quantified in unit/mg or unit/ml, and i need to compare the SOD1 level of ...
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1answer
42 views

Late control mechanisms of blood pressure (arterial) level?

I first covered the fast and moderate control mechanisms which I think are Fast control: Baroreceptive reflex (tonus), Chemoreceptive reflex (CO$_2$). Moderate control: Bicarbonate (ECF), ...
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1answer
38 views

Effect of respiration on Arterial pressure

I am trying to explain the effect of respiration on arterial pressure. I am looking preferably some visual way to show it. How can you show the effect of respiration on arterial pressure? I am ...
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4answers
163 views

Why do the humans become sleepy after meals?

I don't know about all the mankind, but I know enough people, who becomes sleepy after their meals. Also, I'm not sure, what kind of food do they consume, but I personally get sleepy almost from any ...
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1answer
124 views

What is lack in sense of smell called?

People who lack the sense of hearing, vision and speaking are called Deaf, Blind and Mute. But what is the person called if he/she lacks the sense of smell? Is there any case like that?
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2answers
42 views

Is there any format for official Physiological/Medicine answers? [closed]

Assume you have an exam which has 5 extensive questions and 60 minutes. You do not have time to cover most if you write everything in essay format. If you start to write essays, you do not really have ...
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1answer
42 views

Which processes are included in the process called cells eating themselves?

I am reading about atrophy and I am thinking to which processes the phrase cells eating themselves refer to. Cells need something to survive these difficult times. To decrease protein synthesis ...
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1answer
41 views

Does Sirtuin protein family Sir2 work in low-calorie diet mostly?

I am reading about the protein family in relation to the prolongation of cell life. It is known that Sirtuins have been implicated in influencing a wide range of cellular processes like ageing, ...
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1answer
978 views

Which processes are during the latent period of ventricular contraction?

The latent period is the time between the start of depolarisation and the start of contraction. I know that the contraction of ventricles starts after sufficient influx of Ca2+ and threshold ...
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29 views

To define the total Resistance of Systemic Blood Circulation

Some systems are in parallel so let's just call those like $R_{\text{lungs}}$. I got this formula $$R_{\text{total}}=R_A+R_a+R_c+R_V+R_v$$ where $R_c$ capillaries, $R_a$ arterioles, $R_A$ Small ...
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1answer
36 views

Sitting much, thrombosis and hypoxia

I am thinking the more reasons why sitting much lead to thrombosis i.e. clotting of blood in blood vessels and then hypoxia in the deep tissues eventually. What are the physiological mechanisms for ...
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1answer
74 views

Why does the arch of aorta coils?

My study materials use the word vesselcompression chamber of aorta to emphasize aorta's elastic property. The arch of the aorta only coils, not its straight part. I think the reason why the arch ...
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31 views

Voltage-gated Potassium channels in the action potential of cardiomyocyte?

There is one type of potassium voltage-gated channels open in Phase 1 too. Some call them early repolarization channels. I am not convinced that the channels are different in different phases: 0, 2, ...
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0answers
61 views

Why is the resting membrane potential of cardiomyocyte more stable than that of Pacemaker in Phase 4?

There must be some channels that keeps this very stable. It seems to be that the resting membrane potential of pacemaker cells is steadily increasing until the threshold voltage. I think the same must ...
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1answer
27 views

Why is Aorta sometimes called Compression chamber?

I find this statement that Aorta is called Compression Chamber in my study materials. Aorta can it keeps blood flowing it can accumulate potential energy for bumping and compression However, why ...
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1answer
66 views

Regional circulation and Cardiac output? [closed]

I am reading my study materials and think what is the systemic POV here Regional circulation Blood flow within the tissue/organs based on the functional demands of the tissue. E.g. The ...