The study of the normal function of living organisms and the means by which it is achieved.

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Body size, what are the evolutionary trade-offs?

Background Considering just the "Kingdom Animalia" branch of organisms. It is clear that bigger does not necessarily mean better - there is large variation in body size... From the 94 ┬Ám long ...
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173 views

Is there a maximum pain threshold?

Is there a maximum threshold of pain a Human can experience, beyond which point there is no noticeable difference? I ask this question in part to better understand the definition of pain and its ...
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79 views

By what mechanism can hypoglycemia induce fainting?

Hypoglycemia (Low blood sugar) is said to be among the potential causes of human-faintings. I was wondering by which mechanism this happens. Google search results are abundant; there are lists of ...
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19 views

Order of events in hibernation

Arrange this in sequence : i. Heat loss exceeds heat production. ii.As body temperature falls, heat loss decreases. iii.Body temperature equals environmental temperature. ...
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68 views

(Web)app to search metabolic/signalling pathways

I'm looking for an application where you can find pathways by selecting a chemical occurring in it. So, for example, selecting 6-phosphogluconolactone brings up the pentose phosphate pathway or any ...
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20 views

Amphibian blood circulation

In an amphibian blood entering the right atrium shows higher levels of oxygenation than that in left atrium when : A.It is hyperactivated B.it is hibernating C.it is submerged D.it is in the ...
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117 views

Why can CO2 be transported dissolved in plasma?

Is it because CO2 is more soluble in water or has it got to do with the alkaline pH of plasma ?I here mean only aqueous CO2 transport from body cells to lungs.
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182 views

Why does caffeine consumption cause one to urinate more?

What is the physiological mechanism behind the diuretic effect of caffeine?
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70 views

Why does hypertension occur in obstructive sleep apnea?

What is the physiological mechanism behind systemic hypertension resulting from obstructive sleep apnea?
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64 views

What happens during a Raynauds episode?

Raynaud's phenomenon can be a serious health issue, as the blood flow to the extremities, mainly the fingers is compromised, causing fingers to blanche, and then turn blue. Severe Raynaud's can cause ...
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285 views

What is the physiological difference between snorting/swallowing cocaine

I know that mucosa inside the nose absorbs cocaine molecules when snorting cocaine, but what difference is there compared to swallowing? Also more cocaine administration equals more cocaine molecules ...
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69 views

Attachment of muscles during molting in insects

Normally, insects' muscles are attached to their exoskeleton but what happens to this attachment when they are moulting? Sorry if this is an extremely silly question but I have wondered about it for ...
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70 views

Competition for mates in sea horses

This source here ...research has shown that it is STILL the males that compete for females. says that male sea horses compete for mates but this source here Females exhibit a ...
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How does extracellular potassium ion concentration and calcium ion concentration affect the excitability of a cell?

When extracellular $K^+$ concentration increase by a certain amount, excitability of cells is higher because the resting potential shifts toward a higher equilibrium potential of $K^+$, therefore ...
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112 views

How does Humira work when injected into patients with rheumatoid arthritis?

OK, I have rheumatoid arthritis and I've been injecting Humira 2 times a month for the last 8 months. As far as I know rheumatoid arthritis is simply an immune system disorder which makes the immune ...
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59 views

Why delayed Power nap might degrade our night sleep?

Recently in the research areas we come across the term "Power Nap" which says after a nice lunch it would be nice to get a nap for 20-30 minutes which will make the body relaxed and fresh afterwards. ...
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55 views

How much can you learn about species variation from a skeleton?

I just read about the discovery of the 1.8-million-year-old human skull in Georgia, and how it suggests that early humans were all one species instead of distinct ones. Would an archaeologist ...
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2answers
260 views

Do brain cells shrink during REM sleep or a lucid dream?

In this BBC news article a study shows that during sleep brain cells shrink to open up the gaps between neurons and allow fluid to wash the brain clean. But do the cells shrink and undergo the whole ...
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54 views

Antibody production in secondary immune response

Can IgG antibodies be produced in the secondary immune response without the help of T cells? Is the affinity of antibody for antigens higher during secondary immune response?
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57 views

Alternating Ovulation

I have often heard that right and left ovaries alternate in releasing ovum. Is it always true? What controls this rhythm? Is it simply because the other ovary is unresponsive to LH or FSH? If so, ...
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39 views

What are the molecular mechanisms that make the turtle brain more resistant to hypoxia?

I know that turtle brains, particularly those of individual species that hibernate and burrow are particularly resilient to hypoxia and any tissue damage secondary to a hypoxic event. What are the ...
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3answers
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Does Darwin's Theory of Evolution refute Terence McKenna theory “Stoned Ape” theory of human evolution?

I haven't read it but I'm asking for a quick answer. As far as I know, Terence McKenna's theory of evolution in humans main concept is that a hominid has tried in their diet psilocybin mushrooms, and ...
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90 views

Need of Creatinine Phosphate

In muscle cells most of the ATP's phosphate is with creatinine phosphate. So why is the displacement of the phosphate group done ? Is it because creatinine phosphate would give it's phosphate more ...
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50 views

Effect of arteriole dilation on vein

If an arteriole leading to a capillary bed is dilated will the pressure in the vein coming out from the bed decrease ? Will the velocity of blood in the vein change ?
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349 views

Which is the tissue damaging agent in krokodil (street desomorphine)

I've just read about krokodil and saw some quite hideous pictures about what it does to the human body. I guess just desomorphine alone wouldn't have this effect. Which ingredient(s) causes the ...
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67 views

Harmful effects of radiation from cell phone towers? [closed]

As per this article - http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/mumbai-citizens-link-cancer-to-cell-phone-towers/article5139166.ece , people living adjacent to cell phone towers claim to have developed ...
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64 views

Difference in reptile inner ear and otosclerosis

In reptiles, the sound is conducted from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear by a single bone. In the disease otosclerosis the stapes of humans become fused to the other middle ear bones( or to ...
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130 views

What happens in the synapse when cocaine administration occurs in the human brain

As far as i know when you accept cocaine in your blood some cocaine molecules reach some synapses in your brain and fill some Reuptake tunnels preventing the cell to simply "do not know that fired ...