The study of the normal function of living organisms and the means by which it is achieved.

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Is stereo olfactory ability restricted to humans?

Most animals I see around seem to have two nostrils - humans, snakes, birds, fish .. and so on. From reading online I see that 2 nostrils provide a stereo olfactory effect. This stereo effect is ...
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23 views

how food moves in horizontal coils of small intestines [duplicate]

This is a very very basic question, and I am looking at it more from point of view of physics. The small intestine is a highly coiled structure, which means it has horizontal coils as well. I can ...
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25 views

Would blue light be effective to help average people when sunsets come much earlier in the day?

I know people with SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder) benefit from blue light in the winter as night-time comes much earlier (in the UK, sunset is around 4pm in December, compared to 9pm in June). ...
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73 views

Is there a known glucosepane cross-link breaker?

I read the following on wikipedia: There is, however, no agent known that can break down the most common AGE, glucosepane, which appears 10 to 1,000 times more common in human tissue than any ...
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13 views

What biological processes are affected by dietary fiber besides peristalsis?

Dietary fiber affects the rate of peristalsis, but what other effects does it have? Does fiber affect signal transduction, hydration, the autonomic nervous system, organ function, other biological ...
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33 views

Can non-carbonated energy drinks boost alcohol intoxication?

I just read news article about banning caffeine in alcohol drinks and about that energy drinks increase the urge to drink alcohol. Energy drinks cause sugar intoxication - answer about it here ...
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44 views

Vitamin D oral intake, transportation and absorption

Several factors affecting vitamin D and its active form absorption and storage acidity of stomach (not significant effect) cytopathic effects of viruses cytopathic effects of bacteria where the ...
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71 views

What is the nature of action potentials in autonomic nervous system?

My conjecture is that the natures of sympathetic and parasympathetic action potentials are different. My findings propose me that sympathetic action potential is little longer lasting than ...
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34 views

What are the mechanisms of disabling extrinsic control of heart?

I started this thread by thinking this question but I developed it further below What is the mechanism maintaining refractory period of pacemakers? My conjecture is that the mechanism is the ...
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36 views

How do the symptoms of Sepsis affect heart function?

I have intuition that Sepsis with infection can cause spastic functioning of heart during systole heart working spontaneously in snatches during systole atrial fibrillation first contraction of ...
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37 views

Nearly Exhaustive List for Cholesterol Pathways

I have run across an interesting case that is similar to only two others I've encountered. What makes it interesting is the combination of undetectable (under normal testing conditions, can elaborate ...
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58 views

To define the total Resistance of Systemic Blood Circulation

Some systems are in parallel. For instance, the resistance of lungs $R_{\text{lungs}}$. Assume here for simplicity that these parallel systems can be handled linearly. We also consider only Total ...
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103 views

Is end-systolic volume (ESV) the same as residual volume?

I am reading this site and my study materials. The end-systolic volume (ESV), 50-60 ml, is the volume of blood found in ventricles after systole and contraction of ventricles. I think ESV is the same ...
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572 views

Why do we exhale after we hold our breath?

I tested this out with my friends, and I find that after they hold their breath and can't hold it anymore, they exhale air, instead of inhaling air. Interestingly, they all try to inhale in as much ...
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2answers
71 views

Can you disconnect sensation from the brain without destroying muscle functions?

I want to know if it would be possible for a surgeon to "shut off" a person's senses without causing paralysis of any kind. The person would have to maintain their ability to speak and move, but not ...
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50 views

Normal Frequencies in Heart

I am trying to visualise possible ranges of frequencies from different structures of heart: different valves and their possible frequencies heart sounds I - IV and their normal frequencties what can ...
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44 views

Is there any format for official Physiological/Medicine answers? [closed]

Assume you have an exam which has 5 extensive questions and 60 minutes. You do not have time to cover most if you write everything in essay format. If you start to write essays, you do not really have ...
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84 views

Death because of no radio waves [closed]

I read somewhere that a man dies if he is isolated from natural electromagnetic fields and waves. (I imply fields of radio frequencies and below.) Is it true?
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57 views

Which fish will have more developed gills?

A fish lives at the depth of 1000-2000m and another at the depth of 200-700m. Which of them would have a more developed gill system ?
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117 views

Is there any evolutionary/physiological advantage to multi-lateral symmetry?

Just wondering ; I get the impression a large number of multicellular organisms are multi-lateral in their physical structure. Why would evolution/mutation have retained multi-lateral symmetry in an ...
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30 views

How is oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange mediated by hemoglobin? [closed]

Oxygen is transferred by hemoglobin from the lungs to tissues, while carbon dioxide is transferred by hemoglobin from tissues to lungs. How is this regulated bidirectional transfer mediated?
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40 views

How can succinylcholine cause myorelaxation?

I first thought that this is because of prolonged depolarisations. However, I am not sure anymore, because after reading PubChem, the only possible pathways are are Choline agonist. So I would say ...
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31 views

Does vitamin D form crystals in the blood with calcium and magnesium?

I read on a vitamin-D product (2000NE) that I should not use calcium and magnesium with it, because it can result crystal formation in the blood. I googled, but find anything about this. Is it true? ...
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35 views

What is the difference between the basal membrane and the basal lamina?

I'm researching about the basal lamina in lung tissue and I'm not sure if the basal membrane is the same. What is the difference between them?
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43 views

Can lymph be in peripheral blood?

I read an argument that 1-3% of lymph is in peripheral blood. However, I am not sure if this lymph is about lymphocytes in peripheral blood; not lymph itself. Lymph gets exchanged between capillaries ...
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62 views

Is Sinus node conduction necessary for heart beating?

Assume a patient with previous cardial infaction which SA node not possible to activate action potential anymore. However, SA trying to beat unsuccessfully repeatedly waisting energy. Therefore, I ...
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181 views

Can too low oncotic pressure lead to Third spacing and Edema?

I know that low oncotic pressure is associated with many pathologies. I am interested how it is associated with Third spacing. My professor says that it can permit edema formation. The opposing ...
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90 views

Regional circulation and Cardiac output? [closed]

I am reading my study materials and think what is the systemic POV here Regional circulation Blood flow within the tissue/organs based on the functional demands of the tissue. E.g. The ...
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34 views

To understand Second messenger signalling in I/c and E/c

I found this picture in my study materials. I think it is too schematic and ignores the big pictures. I think the thing connected to the hormone is receptor. The second messanger is then connected ...
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113 views

Can you approximate Cardiac Output by Ohm's law?

I found this sentence from my notes which I cannot understand PR < CO, CO $\uparrow$, PR > CO $\downarrow$ where ...
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179 views

Why can CO₂ be transported dissolved in plasma?

Is it because CO2 is more soluble in water or has it got to do with the alkaline pH of plasma ?I here mean only aqueous CO2 transport from body cells to lungs.
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111 views

cellular respiration

What are the effects of addition of these chemicals to actively respiring cells ? Which of them would lead to INHIBITION of aerobic respiration ? Would cytochromes be actually taken up by cells ? ...
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175 views

Is the resting state of the forearm in the pronated or supinated position?

It seems to me that my forearm is naturally in a more pronated position than the anatomic (supinated) position and that it actually takes work to make it hold the supinated position. Anyone an expert ...
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116 views

Why do bats huddle during late fall?

In the late fall, bats hibernate in clusters with many bats pressed together and holding on to one another. Which of the following supposed advantages of huddling behavior is, in reality, not true? ...
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30 views

Deeper Learning in Physiology? [closed]

I am a Pharmacology and Toxicology major at a large state school. I was only required to take physics I and II. (algebra based) At first I thought that was fine, but I soon began to realize that I ...
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43 views

Does repolarization of muscle fibers mean that the muscle bundle is relaxed?

If I flex my bicep and continue to contract it does it mean that the muscle cells are in depolarizing state and not repolarizing?
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107 views

Mechanism of antiperistalsis

What is the mechanism of antiperistalsis that occurs during vomiting? Why the peristaltic waves normally don't propagate in anal to oral direction? Please give logical explanation with authentic ...
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45 views

Does Sympaticus and lymphatic circulation cause feeling of thirsty after short shower?

I have been reading blogs, Guyton and Pocock about what triggers the feeling of thirsty. I am not convinced that is the fact of warm water time is short so not much water lost Assume that the ...
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259 views

Are females more flexible than males in all mammals?

It's common that human females have a more flexible body than males, (but I don't know why, so it'd be helpful if someone answers why so as well!) but does this apply to all mammals?
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77 views

What is the function of clot retraction?

I am thinking how clot retraction and fibrinolysis work together. I think that clot retraction is a process that gets clot towards fibrinolysis process. Fibrinolysis process then lyses the clot. ...
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77 views

What is the difference between intracardiac and extracardiac reflexes in cardiac regulation?

The primary parameters of heart pumping are strength of contractility (inotropic positive; Frank-Starling relationship) rate of relaxation (lusitropic positive) heart rate (chronotropic positive) ...
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51 views

Do's and Don't's of Undergraduate Research? [closed]

I was fortunate enough to get a position as a researcher for the Mayo Clinic's SURF Program this year. My PI's lab focus is on the the immune system's role in CNS axonal and neuronal injury, ...
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22 views

How many systemic reactions in inflammation?

I have this sentence in my notes Inflammation consists of two local reactions and one systemic reactions. which is difficult for me to accept. Two local reactions are vascular and cellular. I ...
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2answers
413 views

Converting unit/mg or unit/ml into ng/ml, or vice-versa

I am working with the enzyme Cu/Zn Superoxide (SOD1) and i am quantifying them in ng/ml. However, most past studies has SOD1 quantified in unit/mg or unit/ml, and i need to compare the SOD1 level of ...
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1answer
44 views

Which processes are included in the process called cells eating themselves?

I am reading about atrophy and I am thinking to which processes the phrase cells eating themselves refer to. Cells need something to survive these difficult times. To decrease protein synthesis ...
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41 views

Why is Aorta sometimes called Compression chamber?

I find this statement that Aorta is called Compression Chamber in my study materials. Aorta can it keeps blood flowing it can accumulate potential energy for bumping and compression However, why ...
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20 views

Order of events in hibernation

Arrange this in sequence : i. Heat loss exceeds heat production. ii.As body temperature falls, heat loss decreases. iii.Body temperature equals environmental temperature. ...
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130 views

All or none phenomenon

Let's say that the threshold potential of a neuron is +40 mV to make a muscle twitch. Now suppose we have two signals of +20 mV. So, this signal will cause the twitch in muscle because it has reached ...
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61 views

What is a good review article source for Physiology?

I am looking review articles for Physiology. For instance, Physiological explanation of steps of measurement of the metabolism by Douglas-Haldane. There is no section for Physiology or metabolism in ...
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103 views

Are humans more aggressive during a full moon? [closed]

Is it true that we are more agressive during the night when there is a full moon? If true, could this be a remnant from times where we needed to hunt for our food and so could see more at night when ...