The study of the normal function of living organisms and the means by which it is achieved.

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2answers
89 views

Why does anxiety cause diarrhea or constipation?

Anxiety sometimes cause diarrhea, sometimes constipation, and sometimes both. It's interesting because it seems their underlying neurophysiology is somehow different. What are underlying physiological ...
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1answer
39 views

Does pupil size affect image focus in persons with no lens?

If an individual has no lens like Claude Monet (who had them removed). They should be able to still focus the images they see in a well light area if they shrink their pupils to a very small size ...
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1answer
27 views

Amphibian blood circulation

In an amphibian blood entering the right atrium shows higher levels of oxygenation than that in left atrium when : A.It is hyperactivated B.it is hibernating C.it is submerged D.it is in the ...
4
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0answers
101 views

Dimensionless number for blood volume

Comments from the question How is the blood volume of a living organism measured without killing it? by @Nico discussed that the time of blood recirculation scales with the size of the organism. I was ...
3
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0answers
32 views

Which organs in the body are responsible for measuring temperature?

As an instrumentation engineer, I have designed temperature control systems capable of measuring and controlling temperature with a precision of 0.001K over a wide temperature range. I have always ...
3
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0answers
25 views

How many cells are there in the apical meristematic tissue?

How many cells are there in the apical meristematic tissue? Looking at this picture... , I would tend to think that there are few hundreds cells in the meristem tissue. But I guess this is a ...
3
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0answers
46 views

Are small CO₂ concentrations devastating to certain cognitive tasks?

A new study shows strong effects of what should be a negligible CO2 concentration. The paper "Is CO2 an Indoor Pollutant? Direct Effects of Low-to-Moderate CO2 Concentrations on Human Decision-Making ...
3
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0answers
70 views

A day in Beijing is like smoking Only one sixth of a cigarette

This is the title of this blog post followed by this other good post. I'm particularly anti-tobacco-smoke, at the point of not always considering other pollution, and this article shows how this kind ...
3
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0answers
89 views

What are the physiological effects of wine?

I have read that alcohol in general and wine in particular can have advantageous as well as detrimental effects on human health. Is this true? What are the physiological effects of consuming wine in ...
3
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0answers
49 views

Patch-Clamping Neurons Resources

Are there any lectures available on Patch-Clamping? Were can I find a mathematical model of Patch-Clamp? (that can be easily implemented in matlab). I have found some step-by-step protocols on ...
3
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0answers
55 views

Physiological or molecular difference before and after sleep?

I know that the details of the process of sleep aren't entirely known, but have always wondered why I feel rested after sleep. Biologically, what differences can be directly observed in the human ...
2
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0answers
36 views

Biology Experiment Data (Hodgkin-Huxley)

I'm doing research into the Hodgkin-Huxley Model from an electronics/mathematics perspective and I'm looking to find actual numerical results from experiments on squid axons. I want to compare the ...
2
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0answers
46 views

Relationship between mN and mg in vessel contraction studies?

What is the relationship between mN and mg as the units involved to measure the changes in contraction? A tool most widely used is an instrument called myograph. In these exoeriments, either units of ...
2
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0answers
27 views

What does salt do to styes?

Styes formed in the eyes are cured by dabbing at them with lukewarm water(I saw this being done many a times as a home remedy.) At times, common salt is added to the water before dabbing. My mother ...
2
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0answers
47 views

How well do we notice asynchronicity?

I'm stopped at a stoplight and, with nothing to do, my thoughts wander to the timed don't-walk sign that governs any pedestrians who might wish to cross the street I'm driving along. I can see two ...
2
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0answers
81 views

Size of classical liver lobule across species

A classical liver lobule is made up of a central vein and the portal triads. A typical human liver weighs around 3 lbs. , while a typical bovine liver weighs around 12 lbs. I was wondering if anyone ...
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0answers
27 views

What specific sensory nerves act as receptors for “pins and needles” (neuropathy)?

According to this excellent answer, the difference between "pain" and "pins and needles" (neuropathy) is that different receptors (sensory nerves) trigger in reaction to different stimuli. Different ...
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0answers
29 views

Can non-carbonated energy drinks boost alcohol intoxication?

I just read news article about banning caffeine in alcohol drinks and about that energy drinks increase the urge to drink alcohol. Energy drinks cause sugar intoxication - answer about it here ...
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0answers
42 views

Vitamin D oral intake, transportation and absorption

Several factors affecting vitamin D and its active form absorption and storage acidity of stomach (not significant effect) cytopathic effects of viruses cytopathic effects of bacteria where the ...
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0answers
58 views

What is the nature of action potentials in autonomic nervous system?

My conjuncture is that the natures of sympathetic and parasympathetic action potentials are different. My findings propose me that sympathetic action potential is little longer lasting than ...
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0answers
34 views

How do the symptoms of Sepsis affect heart function?

I have intuition that Sepsis with infection can cause spastic functioning of heart during systole heart working spontaneously in snatches during systole atrial fibrillation first contraction of ...
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0answers
37 views

Nearly Exhaustive List for Cholesterol Pathways

I have run across an interesting case that is similar to only two others I've encountered. What makes it interesting is the combination of undetectable (under normal testing conditions, can elaborate ...
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0answers
53 views

To define the total Resistance of Systemic Blood Circulation

Some systems are in parallel. For instance, the resistance of lungs $R_{\text{lungs}}$. Assume here for simplicity that these parallel systems can be handled linearly. We also consider only Total ...
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0answers
31 views

Voltage-gated Potassium channels in the action potential of cardiomyocyte?

There is one type of potassium voltage-gated channels open in Phase 1 too. Some call them early repolarization channels. I am not convinced that the channels are different in different phases: 0, 2, ...
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0answers
67 views

Calcium levels and nerve hyperexcitation

Why does lower blood calcium levels (or lower calcium levels in ECF) cause nervous hyperexcitaton? Why does it cause over stimulation of nerves and muscles and spasmic contractions of muscles? This is ...
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0answers
1k views

What are potential side effects of myostatin inhibitors?

Myostatin inhibitors, which are being developed to treat muscle wasting diseases like muscular dystrophy, are likely to be abused by athletes. What are the potential long-term side-effects of taking a ...
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0answers
88 views

Why do ion concentrations change with different secretion rates in pancreatic juice?

Why is it that when secretory rate increases in the pancreas the concentration of chloride ions decreases, and the concentration of bicarbonate increases in the production of isotonic NaCl secretion? ...
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0answers
16 views

Would blue light be effective to help average people when sunsets come much earlier in the day?

I know people with SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder) benefit from blue light in the winter as night-time comes much earlier (in the UK, sunset is around 4pm in December, compared to 9pm in June). ...
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0answers
24 views

How do you accurately measure anguiliform (eel) locomotion?

In one of my courses, we were discussing a paper by Muller and van Leeuwen (2006) which made a lot of comparisons the differences between carangiform (mullet) and anguilliform (eel) locomotion. While ...
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0answers
7 views

Does transplanted heart have full sympaticus without medication?

I am reading this and this where I am considering this sentence [N]o baseline parasympathetic innervation [in transplanted heart]. Does this sentence imply that ...
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0answers
22 views

How can succinylcholine cause myorelaxation?

I first thought that this is because of prolonged depolarisations. However, I am not sure anymore, because after reading PubChem, the only possible pathways are are Choline agonist. So I would say ...
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0answers
21 views

Physiology of benign eye twitching?

About four times in my life I have experienced the feeling of my eyelid fluttering for a few minutes by itself, and then it stops. I have talked to other people who have had the same experience so I ...
0
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0answers
29 views

Is there a known glucosepane cross-link breaker?

I read the following on wikipedia: There is, however, no agent known that can break down the most common AGE, glucosepane, which appears 10 to 1,000 times more common in human tissue than any ...
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0answers
12 views

What biological processes are affected by dietary fiber besides peristalsis?

Dietary fiber affects the rate of peristalsis, but what other effects does it have? Does fiber affect signal transduction, hydration, the autonomic nervous system, organ function, other biological ...
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0answers
18 views

How Calcium regulated in myocardic AP and plateau phase?

The plateau phase is maintained by influx of calcium and outflux of potassium in the second stage: My conjuncture is that calcium transforms between two phases ionated phase (free calcium from ...
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0answers
31 views

Few innervations to blood sugar regulation

Assume you have a case of young female where the intake of 75 grams of pure sugar leads to a rapid peak of blood glucose level (within seconds) plateau phase with very steady blood glucose level ...
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0answers
22 views

Prenatal hyperkinetic dysfunction and its effect on endurace

Do people with an hyperkinetic dysfuntion have a better endurance? Are they fitter in cause of their Dopamine-overdose or any other reason? I have a case, where someone does not do any sports, but ...
0
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0answers
14 views

To increase the stretchability of the ascending aortic arch

The thread about To decrease the amount of proteins in the lymphatic drainage for short term here raised this question. This paper discusses the stretch and Cauchy-stress properties of the heart. So ...
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0answers
10 views

Mechanisms to start simultaneous depolarisation of two Pacemakers?

I am thinking the biochemical mechanisms of the simultaneous depolarisations of two pacemakers. My intuition Funny channels (but not alone) No autonomic nervous system (my conjencture) What are ...
0
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0answers
25 views

What are the mechanisms of disabling extrinsic control of heart?

I started this thread by thinking this question but I developed it further below What is the mechanism maintaining refractory period of pacemakers? My conjuncture is that the mechanism is the ...
0
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0answers
27 views

Which reflex arcs work in Heart with extrasystoles?

I am researching what is triggering the extrasystoles - initial idea from this thread about Which ionic channels of Pacemakers can work in very low frequencies in extrasystole? I am interested in the ...
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0answers
18 views

Calling for Pressure pictures about Right and Left atrium

I am trying to understand the partially patent foramen ovale in patients with right-side heart failure. I am interested how the pressure in right and left atrium change in normal case in abnormal ...
0
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0answers
21 views

Laser surgery to stop damaged Sinus node from beating

I am trying to find any publication about laser surgery to stop the damaged sinus node which cannot anymore beat. I could only find publications which modifies SA node function. I am not sure if it ...
0
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0answers
22 views

How does vasomotor and bronchomotor reactions equilibrate local blood flow to correspond local ventilation?

I am trying to find some figure(s) to explain this. There is probably better name for "bronchomotor" reaction. They seem to opposite terms and actually affecting same things (alveolar diameter/tone); ...
0
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0answers
73 views

Why is the resting membrane potential of cardiomyocyte more stable than that of Pacemaker in Phase 4?

There must be some channels that keeps this very stable. It seems to be that the resting membrane potential of pacemaker cells is steadily increasing until the threshold voltage. I think the same must ...
0
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0answers
49 views

ADH Synthesis in Supraoptic and Paraventricular Nuclei of the Hypothalamus

I have this sentence in my notes: Neurons paraventricularis and supraorbitus check the situation and secrete ADH in the nuclei, which by axonal transport → neurohypophysis, where storage take ...