Study of the normal functioning of plants and plant cells

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Why do halophytes have pneumatophores?

The following is a excerpt from Studies in Botany The problem of respiration is a matter of difficulty in the soil which is saline, water logged and rich in putrefying organic bodies-hence poor in ...
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anabolism in plants

The question is as following: Which substance has the greatest contribution to the anabolism of glucose in plants. A- Oxygen (O2). B- Water (H2O). C- carbon dioxide (CO2). The official answer given ...
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Can plants grow without photosynthesis?

Animals can survive without eating if nutrition is injected directly into their blood. Can the equivalent be done with plants? By injecting carbohydrate rich nutrient solution, either without ...
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Year 11 Seed Germination EEI ideas

I am doing an EEI on the effect of salinity on the germination of seeds (mung beans) and I need another element to increase the experiment difficulty. Would someone be able to assist me in adding this ...
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Is this in vivo or ex vivo?

This question has probably been asked a few times but I get the concept I just dont know how to apply it for this paticular experiment I aim to use cherry tomatoes and determine its glutamate content ...
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What is the molecule responsible of the yellow color of the Agave americana?

Does anybody know what is the molecule responsible of the yellow color at the edges of this plant? I noticed also that the new forming yellow part at the begging stage is soft green until it is ...
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“CO2 is plant food” - What is the actual effect of increased CO2 on plant growth?

A frequent talking point by global warming deniers is that CO2 in the atmosphere is actually beneficial because "CO2 is plant food". I'm a non biologist trying to figure out under what circumstances ...
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23 views

What's the highest temperature that algae can survive at?

I know there are a lot of different species of algae and that each one has different environmental tolerances. I've seen data on different species: brown alga Sargassum echinocarpum J. Agardh - ...
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117 views

Does a plant have to have leaves to produce fruit?

Is it possible that a plant can still produce fruit, even though it may not have leaves? Are there any plant species that can produce fruit without leaves?
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Is Valerian extract a diuretic or an antidiuretic?

I am trying to determine if valepotriates (valerian extract) is a diuretic or an antidiuretic. Some individuals take valerian as an herbal supplement for anxiety disorders. Some individuals claim that ...
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58 views

Do flowers transpire?

I have googled this out but no where found a satisfactory answer. The definition of transpiration states that it is the evaporative loss of water from the aerial surfaces of the plant but I am really ...
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Explain a transpiration graph

The solution is A, but I think both A and C are correct. For choice C, stomata that protected by hairs will have a greater amount of water vapour around them, hence lower water potential gradient. ...
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54 views

Photosynthesis and its subtopics [closed]

Which of the following statements about photosynthesis is true? a. Photosynthesis is an energy consuming process b. The light-dependent reactions produce the energy-rich compounds that are used up ...
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How does an increase in CO2 concentration affect Photosynthesis and Transpiration

I noticed a strange thing in my book. At one place it says that an increase in CO$_2$ concentration in the outside air decreases the rate of transpiration but at the other place it says that an ...
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What is the genetic difference between two cone branches?

As we can see on this larch, male and female cones are sometimes directed to grow on the opposite side of the branch. We were told in school that this mechanism works against self-fertilization. Also ...
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Where do plants obtain the metal ions needed for biological processes?

Enzymes employ metal ions (e.g. Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) for catalysing certain reactions. Let's consider planting a seed. Where will it obtain these metal ions from? Just from water?
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What are the theoretical and actual (measured) minimum water potentials in plants?

I'm a plant physiology researcher, but water potentials are not really my thing, so I don't have a great grasp on the literature. I'm dealing with water potential data right now though, and it seems ...
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28 views

Mechanism by which water flows through xylem

I was doing a Cambridge iGCSE past paper when I came across the question: Describe the mechanism by which water flows through the xylem I thought the correct answer would revolve around the ...
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Do trees have genes for stopping the grow?

Do trees have genetically encoded to stop growing at some height, to keep dividing the cells only to a certain amount, or to pump nutritions only till it's advantageous because they've already ...
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What tell a plant to have one/a lot of flower(s)? [closed]

some plants just have one flower and some have more. This is the question. please simply tell me how? which genes or pathways control this in various plants?
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How can plants be grown in hydroponics, and yet not handle too much water in soil?

It's pretty much common knowledge that plants planted in pots or soil that doesn't have good drainage can't be watered too much, or they'll "drown". Regardless of what actually happens, experience ...
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Moss Transportation System

In my biology textbook, it says that mosses are avasculer and do not have xylem like spermatophytes. So by what means do mosses transport nutrients ?
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Plasmolysis vs Flaccidity in cells

When is a cell said to be flaccid and when is it called plasmolysed? So far I found that there is a specific relation to osmosis.
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24 views

Are there any (chemical) processes occuring inside a seed while it's in a dormant state?

If a seed were in a glass jar without a chance of germination, are there any (chemical) processes occurring inside the seed while it sits there? My intuition tells me no since my understanding of ...
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What is a rough estimate of CO₂ saturation for high-yield or high growth rate plants?

Naturally, plants have individual photosynthesis capacities, but it would still be interesting to get a general picture of CO2 saturation levels for some common cultures. Where lies the optimal yield, ...
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Can plant roots absorb dissolved oxygen from water, or do they require actual bubbles in the water?

Plant roots generally require some exposure to air. Deep water culture is a form of hydroponics where plants' roots are left to soak in water. To keep the roots from "suffocating", most online ...
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Is it possible and how could it possible for plant to survive in naked space

I heard that there are fungi could survive on space station in the naked space. I want to know if any plant could be able to do the same How many limitation of plant differ from fungi And could it ...
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Plant symbiosis, alternative regulation pathways to AON and miRNA399?

I am currently studying systemic repression of both arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixing bacteria in legumes. I know of the AON pathway (which works through CLE and NARK). I also know of ...
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Phototropism or Hydrotropism is a more important factor for trees beside the lakes growing bending to the water?

I see a lot trees beside the lakes are growing bending to the water and I wonder why. After reading this I think it might be a combined effects by: Phototropism: the lake works as a mirror and ...
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Does anyone know the explanation for branches with different flower colors (see picture)?

As you can see in the below picture, there's a branch with white-colored flowers, while the rest of the tree has pink flowers. I googled a number of questions but it is a bit complicated to ...
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Do any plants grow leaves beneath the ground?

We have a pretty common California weed in our yard. When we dig in the ground, we often find small ones there, with green leaves! It's as if they form green leaves before they come to the surface. ...
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37 views

Why are amides transported via xylem vessels? Why not phloem?

There is a statement in my textbook: "since amides contain more nitrogen than amino acids, they are transported to other parts of plants via xylem vessels" I wanted to know why the book ...
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96 views

Why do fruits have to ripen?

It seems like most fruits that we consume undergo some sort of ripening process either before or after they are picked from the vine, tree, etc. I understand that sugars are released during the ...
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Current scientific theories for evolution of Cucurbita

I'm attempting to find research on scientific theories surrounding the evolution of certain plants, and am unable to find any footing with respect to a certain genus. In this case, I am researching ...
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What is the difference between the glycolate pathway and photorespiration?

I came across the definition of photorespiration as a process that forms CO2 from O2 in the presence of light. However, the CO2 is released only when the plant cell undergoes the conversion of ...
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How does the snail shells' fertilizer compare to regular fertilizers?

May I ask about the quality of the fertilizer derived from the shells and their effectiveness compared to other fertilizers on the market ?
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Relation b/w venation and transpiration

What purpose does reticulate venation in dorsiventral leaf or parallel venation in isobilateral leaf serve? Does it have any relation with unequal transpiration in dorsiventral leaf or equal ...
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Why do the vines change their spinning direction?

Look at the vines holding onto the lattice. The "vine springs" change their spinning direction in the middle. Why? And how do they achieve this? (By the way, what's the name for this plant? Is is ...
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Why it seems that principles of chemistry are not being applied in this biochemical process? [closed]

According to an answer in this question, my concept used below does not apply: In the non-cyclic photophosphorylation, consider splitting of two water molecules, then 4 e- (electrons) and 4 H+ (...
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Ions in Stomatal Opening Mechanism

When a stoma’s guard cells try to swell and open the stomata, they actively pump out protons outside of the cell. This causes a membrane potential, where the inside of the cell is negative with ...
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How can I estimate the CO₂ uptake of a plant?

I would like to make an estimation of the CO2 uptake of plants I cultivate, including, lettuce and aromatic herbs, such as thyme, basil, rosemary. What I want is to end up with a rough indicator for ...
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150 views

Why does Citric Acid occur in Citrus fruits?

Why is there so much citric acid in citrus fruits? And how did it evolve i.e. what did it come from? Is it a by-product of the ripening process? Why have citrus fruit evolved a particularly high ...
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60 views

Reason for aquatic plant roots

My question is about why aquatic plants have roots. At first they seem a bit superfluous to me because leaves of the plants could just absorb nutrients directly from the water thereby skipping a need ...
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147 views

How do CAM plants keep stomata closed by day and open at night?

I understand how plants open stomata, with the H+ ion removal and the resulting K+ ion influx in the guard cells to induce turgor (wikipedia article here), though not how this process relates to ...
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How many ATP are formed?

What is the number of ATP molecules formed during the photosynthetic processes which consume 8 molecules of $\text{H}_2\text{O}$ due to noncyclic electron transport and subsequent photophosphorylation?...
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Do plants need vitamins to grow?

I've found that some commercial off-the-shelf liquid nutrient mixtures are advertised: contains vitamins your plant needs to grow. And I started to ask myself, do plants really need vitamins to ...
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1answer
71 views

Determine which seed will germinate first

I recently studied about plant physiology for a test. Strangely, there was this question which I had no idea how to approach. The question is, Which seed will germinate first? a) Castor b) Wheat c)...
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1answer
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Is there a model perennial plant species?

Most of plant science is conducted on small annual species with short life cycles; predominantly Arabidopsis thaliana, but also a handful of others like Oryza sativa and Medicago truncatula etc. Is ...
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Why do we need to put phosphate fertilizers along with rhizobium?

Isn't phosphorous a macro nutrient? So it should be present in the soil in sufficient quantities... but still we add phosphate. Why?
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Why Isn't mineral transport in xylem multi-directional?

According to our textbook, Xylem transport is only unidirectional while transport through phloem is multi-directional. But minerals are taken up by xylem from the surrounding tissues actively, and ...