Study of the normal functioning of plants and plant cells

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Why is it harder to sequence plant genomes than animal genomes?

Plants seem to be less complex organisms than animals, but despite that there are less plant genomes sequenced. Is that because plant genomes are more complex, for example in terms of regulatory ...
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733 views

How does water move throughout plants?

I haven't yet found a decent explanation for how water moves throughout plants. It does seem to travel more efficiently upward than out or down. Why is that? How does it travel through the plant?
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104 views

What controls the southern range of willows?

Many willows (Salix spp.) grow in northern states but do not grow in southern states, for example Salix viminalis. What mechanisms control the southern range of temperate hardwoods such as willow? Is ...
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How would a plant sprout and grow in a zero gravity environment?

Have any experiments been carried out involving sprouting and growing plants in a zero gravity environment? If so, what was the outcome? How did the plants sprout out of the soil without gravity? Did ...
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107 views

Viruses selected by evolution

First let me apologize in advance for I know almost nothing about biology. I had a conversation today with a family member who is a bio-computer-scientist and he talked to me about what his colleagues ...
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232 views

Can plants live forever? [duplicate]

I know that some plants die for old age like a lettuce. But there are trees like Baobabs or larger Ficus in the tropics of whom we don't know their age. And trees like spruce reaching 9950 years old, ...
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62 views

How did the introduction of artificial light changed the life cycle of a plant?

Plants in urbanized areas are constantly exposed to artificial light after sunset. In their natural habitat there is a more distinct day and night cycle. Since light is an important factor in a plant ...
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3k views

Why do organisms excrete nitrogenous wastes?

All plants and animals excrete nitrogenous wastes in the form of urea, uric acid or ammonia. But isn't that a bit of a waste? I mean, there is a shortage of biologically available oxygen in the ...
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269 views

How do plants intake minerals through their leaves?

How do plants intake the fertilizer when it is sprayed all over the leaf surface as a foliar feed?
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72 views

Is there a model perennial plant species?

Most of plant science is conducted on small annual species with short life cycles; predominantly Arabidopsis thaliana, but also a handful of others like Oryza sativa and Medicago truncatula etc. Is ...
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1k views

Regulation in plants bearing cleistogamous and chasmogamous flowers

In most plants bearing cleistogamous flowers, chasmogamous flowers are also borne by the plants. For example, Viola, Oxalis and Commelina contain both these kinds of flowers.( I am unaware of a ...
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406 views

How is photosynthesis observed?

How is photosynthesis observed? Say I have plants A and B, and I want to find how fast they are able to turn carbon dioxide into oxygen. How would I experiment this? Say I have one plant A, which ...
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350 views

What determines the autumn leaf color?

It is autumn out there. Green, brown, red, yellow, and mixed-colored leaves drop from the trees to the ground. What determines the colors of the leaves? Wikipedia tells me Leaf senescence is the ...
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117 views

What could cause spiral tree growth?

While hiking through one of the areas burned in the 1988 Yellowstone fires, I noticed that some of the trees appeared to have grown in spiral patterns. Most downed trees have crack patterns that ...
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4answers
1k views

Photosynthesis: What Powers the Splitting of Water?

The splitting of water is an endergonic (non-spontaneous) reaction, and thus would require energy (chemical work to be done) in order to happen. In Photosystem II, an enzyme catalyzes this splitting, ...
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541 views

Do all plants photosynthesize with equal efficiency?

Just what the title states. Given identical, necessary and favourable conditions (Probably nutrients, humidity, and light but what I mean is all necessary requirements are fulfilled) - Is ...
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89 views

How does CO₂ concentration affect photosynthesis?

I have heard the theory that with the increase of CO2 in the air, the speed of the photosynthesis would increase, thereby limiting the increase of CO2 levels. What is currently the rate limiting ...
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808 views

What types of light can't a plant photosynthesize in?

I have a plant on my desk, and it got me to wondering: Can my plant use the light from my monitors to photosynthesize? If so, what light (apart from green light, to a degree) can't plants use to ...
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158 views

Can you tell the sex of a white willow when it's not flowering?

Can you tell whether a salix alba tree will produce male flowers or female flowers by looking at it, touching it or generally using your unaided senses? If not, is there any way to do that without ...
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252 views

Why dont “growing degree days” have units of degrees Celsius (or do they)?

From Wikipedia: Growing degree days (GDD), also called growing degree units (GDUs), are a heuristic tool in phenology. GDD are a measure of heat accumulation used by horticulturists, gardeners, ...
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282 views

How does Pothos grow in only water?

The popular potted plant, Pothos aureus (or Epipremnum aureum) is happy to grow in a jar, with only water, for years. How is this possible when other plants need at least Nitrogen, Phosphorus and ...
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132 views

What happens if we continuously stimulate a mimosa plant?

I know there is some mechanism in humans by which we start to ignore a certain stimuli if it persists for a long time (e.g., we don't feel our shoes all the time !). Can the same thing happen in ...
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103 views

Photosynthesis regulation

I read about the regulation of Calvin cycle by thioredoxin which activates key enzymes essentially by converting disulphide linkages on inactive enzymes into sulfhydryls. Another regulatory mechanism ...
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68 views

Total dark deprivation at day-neutral plants

First of all, I am not a biologist. Almost for a week, a question has come to my mind: "Is it harmful ceaselessly exposing a plant to light?" (I mean with natural & artificial light with ...
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279 views

Why plants (eg. parsley) can keep vitamin C despite all the sun?

I have read that vitamin C is highly sensitive to light. So, how could parsley, for instance keep its vitamin C as it's flooded with sunlight?
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436 views

Measuring algae growth or death

My daughter (10th grade) is doing a science fair project on the toxicity of triclosan for the algae Selenastrum capricornutum. She is wondering the best way to measure the effect, given the limited ...
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73 views

Why do we need to put phosphate fertilizers along with rhizobium?

Isn't phosphorous a macro nutrient? So it should be present in the soil in sufficient quantities... but still we add phosphate. Why?
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830 views

Why does wood become darker when it ages?

I have lots of pieces of pine furniture which have different colours depending on how old they are. So, I just wondered why that is. I guess it has something to do with structures and chemical ...
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81 views

Why are some plants frost tender?

Why do some plants have the ability to stand frost, while others can't? Does it have to do with the size of the water vacuoles in the plant cells?
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72 views

How does a garlic clove thrive inside a closed refrigerator?

A garlic clove has been growing very well inside a closed refrigerator. It has developed beautiful green stalks, which I think are the equivalent of leafs. Since they are green, I assume they ...
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93 views

Why it seems that principles of chemistry are not being applied in this biochemical process? [closed]

According to an answer in this question, my concept used below does not apply: In the non-cyclic photophosphorylation, consider splitting of two water molecules, then 4 e- (electrons) and 4 H+ (...
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2answers
178 views

Is chloroplasts per cell indicative of the photosynthetic power of a plant?

Plant-A has on average N chloroplasts per cell. Plant-B has on average M chloroplasts per cell. If N > M, is plant-A more efficient in turning carbon dioxide into oxygen? Also, is it possible to see ...
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1answer
617 views

Sporophyte and gametophyte

My textbook says that in both groups of seedless plants (vascular plants, non-vascular plants) the gametophyte is a free-living plant, independent of the sporophyte. I don't understand this statement ...
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50 views

Do flowers transpire?

I have googled this out but no where found a satisfactory answer. The definition of transpiration states that it is the evaporative loss of water from the aerial surfaces of the plant but I am really ...
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Online course on Plant Taxonomy and Physiology

After following a course in Permaculture, I realised that if I want to get serious about it, I need to be able to distinguish plants. So I am looking for an online Video course on Plant Taxonomy and ...
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5k views

Why did the sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica) evolve its leaf-closing mechanism?

Why did the sensitive plant, Mimosa pudica, evolve its leaf closing mechanism? Does it help in a heavy storm? Does it scare off whatever animals might think it a good meal?
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68 views

Determine which seed will germinate first

I recently studied about plant physiology for a test. Strangely, there was this question which I had no idea how to approach. The question is, Which seed will germinate first? a) Castor b) Wheat c)...
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30 views

Accuracy of best plant growth models?

Given a plant $P$, predict its height $H$ at time $t$ since planting given some environmental variables $E_1, \dots, E_n$. How accurate are the state-of-the-art models for such thing? What data is ...
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179 views

Can carnivores survive on a (processed) vegetarian diet? Why or why not?

There are many differences in for example the digestive system between carnivores, herbivores and omnivores. It seems that in certain kinds of species adaptability with respect to diet is possible. ...
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3k views

Which are mobile and immobile elements in plants?

I am confused with this element or nutrient classification in the plants, since some authors set elements like $\ce{S}$ and $\ce{Ni}$ as mobile and other as immobile elements (Citation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). ...
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135 views

Measuring sugar content of a tree

I would like to grow mushrooms on oak trees I can harvest from my property. I've read that the best results will be when the sap is rising but the tree hasn't budded yet. The mycelium feeds on the ...
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655 views

How does a plant cutting develop roots?

Please correct me if my understanding is incorrect; I understand branch/stem, and root are composed of different types of cells. Yet in some plants (e.g. rose, bougainvillea) a cutting from the stem ...
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85 views

Does a plant have to have leaves to produce fruit?

Is it possible that a plant can still produce fruit, even though it may not have leaves? Are there any plant species that can produce fruit without leaves?
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154 views

Is the water transpired by plants pure H₂O, or does it contain trace minerals?

I'm considering the idea of drinking water that I trap from what is transpired by trees. Interestingly, is this water a fairly (or maybe even extraordinarily) pure form of H₂O, a remarkably pure by-...
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107 views

H₂S as a source of electrons for plants

The first electron source for plants was H2S, but now most modern plants use H2O as an electron source. What is the advantage of using H2O instead of H2S?
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421 views

How do roots obtain nutrition?

I have a city garden (see picture below) and yesterday I was nurturing it and I pulled up a small plant. I saw its root system and laid it in the sun to dry a bit and then scraped of the rest of the ...
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1answer
98 views

How can GMO contaminate biologic plants?

Let consider two use cases : I am the only farmer within a 200km radius. I first grow GMO plants. A few cycles later I decide to grow bio plants, so I uproot all of the GMO plants and plant fresh ...
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2answers
736 views

What does “chlorophyll photosynthesis peak” mean in relation to photon wavelength?

When reading about how green / leafy plants work, I saw that they have chlorophyll A & B, which allow the plant to use the energy from light by capturing and transforming. When reading about ...
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68 views

Where is ATP used in Phosphorylation?

In the section describing the Calvin Cycle, under the subheading "Reduction", my textbook states that: The steps involve utilisation of 2 molecules of ATP for Phosphorylation... I could not get ...
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Why are there more stomatal openings on the lower surface of a dicot leaf?

This causes more transpiration to occur from lower leaf surface. What's the exact reason for why are there more stomatal openings on the lower surface of a dicot leaf?