Study of the normal functioning of plants and plant cells

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Measuring algae growth or death

My daughter (10th grade) is doing a science fair project on the toxicity of triclosan for the algae Selenastrum capricornutum. She is wondering the best way to measure the effect, given the limited ...
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1k views

Why do organisms excrete nitrogenous wastes?

All plants and animals excrete nitrogenous wastes in the form of urea, uric acid or ammonia. But isn't that a bit of a waste? I mean, there is a shortage of biologically available oxygen in the ...
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213 views

How do plants intake minerals through their leaves?

How do plants intake the fertilizer when it is sprayed all over the leaf surface as a foliar feed?
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234 views

Why does wood become darker when it ages?

I have lots of pieces of pine furniture which have different colours depending on how old they are. So, I just wondered why that is. I guess it has something to do with structures and chemical ...
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61 views

Why are some plants frost tender?

Why do some plants have the ability to stand frost, while others can't? Does it have to do with the size of the water vacuoles in the plant cells?
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988 views

What is the effect of a pure-oxygen environment on a plant?

Just read What's the effect of oxygen deficit on plants? ; and wondered whether the opposite would have any effect on a plant. That is to say, if a potted plant were placed under a bell-jar and ...
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267 views

What determines the autumn leaf color?

It is autumn out there. Green, brown, red, yellow, and mixed-colored leaves drop from the trees to the ground. What determines the colors of the leaves? Wikipedia tells me Leaf senescence is the ...
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68 views

Is chloroplasts per cell indicative of the photosynthetic power of a plant?

Plant-A has on average N chloroplasts per cell. Plant-B has on average M chloroplasts per cell. If N > M, is plant-A more efficient in turning carbon dioxide into oxygen? Also, is it possible to see ...
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248 views

Sporophyte and gametophyte

My textbook says that in both groups of seedless plants (vascular plants, non-vascular plants) the gametophyte is a free-living plant, independent of the sporophyte. I don't understand this statement ...
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2k views

How would a plant sprout and grow in a zero gravity environment?

Have any experiments been carried out involving sprouting and growing plants in a zero gravity environment? If so, what was the outcome? How did the plants sprout out of the soil without gravity? Did ...
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Online course on Plant Taxonomy and Physiology

After following a course in Permaculture, I realised that if I want to get serious about it, I need to be able to distinguish plants. So I am looking for an online Video course on Plant Taxonomy and ...
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2k views

Why did the sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica) evolve its leaf-closing mechanism?

Why did the sensitive plant, Mimosa pudica, evolve its leaf closing mechanism? Does it help in a heavy storm? Does it scare off whatever animals might think it a good meal?
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151 views

Why plants (eg. parsley) can keep vitamin C despite all the sun?

I have read that vitamin C is highly sensitive to light. So, how could parsley, for instance keep its vitamin C as it's flooded with sunlight?
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87 views

Measuring sugar content of a tree

I would like to grow mushrooms on oak trees I can harvest from my property. I've read that the best results will be when the sap is rising but the tree hasn't budded yet. The mycelium feeds on the ...
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335 views

How does a plant cutting develop roots?

Please correct me if my understanding is incorrect; I understand branch/stem, and root are composed of different types of cells. Yet in some plants (e.g. rose, bougainvillea) a cutting from the stem ...
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13k views

What factors affect the rate of transpiration in plant leaves?

I'm trying to get my head around factors which affect transpiration in leaves. For example, how would applying petroleum jelly to the surface of plant leaves affect their rate of transpiration? I ...
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83 views

How does Pothos grow in only water?

The popular potted plant, Pothos aureus (or Epipremnum aureum) is happy to grow in a jar, with only water, for years. How is this possible when other plants need at least Nitrogen, Phosphorus and ...
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80 views

H₂S as a source of electrons for plants

The first electron source for plants was H2S, but now most modern plants use H2O as an electron source. What is the advantage of using H2O instead of H2S?
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86 views

How can GMO contaminate biologic plants?

Let consider two use cases : I am the only farmer within a 200km radius. I first grow GMO plants. A few cycles later I decide to grow bio plants, so I uproot all of the GMO plants and plant fresh ...
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116 views

What does “chlorophyll photosynthesis peak” mean in relation to photon wavelength?

When reading about how green / leafy plants work, I saw that they have chlorophyll A & B, which allow the plant to use the energy from light by capturing and transforming. When reading about ...
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447 views

What types of light can't a plant photosynthesize in?

I have a plant on my desk, and it got me to wondering: Can my plant use the light from my monitors to photosynthesize? If so, what light (apart from green light, to a degree) can't plants use to ...
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57 views

What is the cause of the spots on this leaf?

On a hiking trip to the Alps I found trees whose leaves showed those spots you see on the picture. I am curious about what the cause is. Higher resolution pictures of front and back side.
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34 views

Seed Dormancy and Seed Transportation

My textbook says "As the seed matures it loses water and enter dormancy". I am confused as to whether this happens before the seeds are transported or after, and as to how seeds know to become dormant ...
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456 views

When happens when pollen grains land on the a part other than the stigma of a flower of the same species?

When happens when pollen grains land on the a part other than the stigma of a flower of the same species? Would the pollen be transported to the stigma or would it just sit where it landed and nothing ...
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229 views

If only dicots have pith, what is the foam in the middle of cornstalks?

I've heard that the only plants that have pith are dicots, because of the shape of their vascular bundle. If that is true, what is the foam inside of the corn plants, which are monocots?
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recolonize earth desert with plants : which plants first?

if willing to recolonize earth desert , let's say sahara or any dehydrated and sterile land, without intensive human intervention, what would be the first plants / algae / fungi /bacteria to grow ? ...
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42 views

Is the water transpired by plants pure H₂O, or does it contain trace minerals?

I'm considering the idea of drinking water that I trap from what is transpired by trees. Interestingly, is this water a fairly (or maybe even extraordinarily) pure form of H₂O, a remarkably pure ...
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99 views

Would a plant survive if it was watered using hard-water?

Hard water is water with high mineral/salt content. I'm told that a potted plant watered with a salt solution dries out sooner or later. Is this true? If so, would a plant survive if watered using ...
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122 views

How is photosynthesis observed?

How is photosynthesis observed? Say I have plants A and B, and I want to find how fast they are able to turn carbon dioxide into oxygen. How would I experiment this? Say I have one plant A, which ...
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57 views

Confusion regarding seedless grape and the normal process of germination

In general, does seedless grape by definition contains seed or is the seed small enough that the process of ingestion creates the illusion that there is no seed? If the latter is true, is the ...
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130 views

Would a plant need light if the chemicals gained by photosynthesis were given through the roots or as a foliar spray?

If you took the chemicals a plant gains through photosynthesis and put it through the plants' roots or by injection, or used as a foliar application for intake through the stomata, would the plant ...
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30 views

How many cells are there in the apical meristematic tissue?

How many cells are there in the apical meristematic tissue? Looking at this picture... , I would tend to think that there are few hundreds cells in the meristem tissue. But I guess this is a ...
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125 views

Is there a standard definition for plant “maturity”?

Is there a species-agnostic metric for identifying plant maturity? There seems to be plenty of literature defining life-history stages for specific crops, but it is not clear if there is a generic ...
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108 views

How does a plant decide when to grow a branch? [duplicate]

As a plant grows, at some point the first branch forms. As it continues, branches grow new branches, and so on, in a seemingly random way. Is it random, or is it driven by the environment (heat or ...
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How do trees use Adhesion and Cohesion to move water against gravity?

I have an AP Bio class where I have to name 3 properties of water and I chose adhesion and cohesion for one of them. I'm having trouble finding out how exactly trees use adhesion and cohesion to move ...
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338 views

Will fruit/seed of a bonsai yield another bonsai plant/tree?

With practice one can create a bonsai; no complicated modification of the DNA in a high-end lab required. The bonsai will even beget bonsai fruit. What I am curious about is - if such bonsai fruit ...
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29 views

Do all sources supply all sinks on a plant?

Sources include any exporting organs, typically mature leaves, that are capable of producing photosynthete in excess of their own needs. Sinks include any nonphotosynthetic organs of the ...
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43 views

How to preserve leaves between sampling (collection) and analysis?

Suppose I spend a day in a forest, collecting different kinds of leaves, which I would like to analyze under a compound microscope. Now, obviously, measures should be taken to preserve the leaves some ...
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62 views

Could an annual plant be genetically modified to be a perennial?

My chives, asparagus, oregano, and rhubarb come back every year like clockwork. Suppose I want my bok choy to join the party - is there an "I'll be seeing you next year!" gene that can be modified to ...
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101 views

Is infrared photosynthesis possible?

The post-apocalyptic science fiction novel Dark Universe by Daniel F. Galouye has some plants living inside bunkers that use infrared light for photosynthesis. There are speculations that ...
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67 views

Physiological reason why leaves got twisted when treated with indole acetic acid

I want to know the physiological reasons of why the leaves of my study plant got twisted when treated for 10 days with spray of indole acetic acid. I want to treat seeds with IAA, and I'm thinking ...
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5k views

How do plant cell divide without centrioles?

Most plants do not have centrioles , so who does their function ?
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108 views

Electron transport in granal stacks

See paper for distribution of PS-I and PS-II within grana As explained in the above paper, the PS-I complex is primarily located within non-appressed thylakoid region and stroma lamella, while PS-II ...
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1answer
48 views

What's the simplest set-up to demonstrate soiless plant growth to middle school students?

I'm looking for a simple, inexpensive way to demonstrate that soil is not needed for plant growth to middle school students. I plan to germinate bean seeds in cotton, but where do I take it from ...
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30 views

Is Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) isohydric or anisohydric species?

Question from a thesis defense list ask me this. But I can't find the exact answer on the internet or in books. In my thesis, I described isohydric plants, for example maize, lupin, pea, poplar. This ...
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1answer
41 views

What equipment is needed to perform simple plant electrophysiology?

What is the minimum needed equipment to perform simple plant electrophysiology? I am looking for some simple experiments that I could run at home for learning. Ideally, I would transfer the skills to ...
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1answer
35 views

Somatic Mutations in meristem tissue in plants

In angiosperm, in which layer of the meristem does a new mitotic mutation occurring has chance to be found in a pollen grain or in an ovule? I also welcome some insights about non-angiosperm plants.
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70 views

Clarification on Hatch and slack pathway

The following is a minor clarification that I want to make, since it is rarely addressed directly in most of the texts I have gone through. In C₄ pathway, the chloroplasts are dimorphic, that is, ...
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596 views

what is the difference between early blight of potato and late blight of potato?

apart from different fungus causing these diseases in potato, how are Early Blight of potato and Late blight of potato different?
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258 views

Independence of Light independent reaction in photosynthesis?

Inspired by a question asked to me by a classmate, I have the following question about Light-independent (dark phase) reactions in photosynthesis:- Let us suppose an algae sample was exposed to ...