Study of the normal functioning of plants and plant cells

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Why are there more stomatal openings on the lower surface of a dicot leaf?

This causes more transpiration to occur from lower leaf surface. What's the exact reason for why are there more stomatal openings on the lower surface of a dicot leaf?
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Solidification of coconut water

At first, the coconut is filled with liquid endosperm. Later when it ripens, the outer layers form brown fibrous covering, and the inner solid layer turns brown and hardens. Within that, a white layer ...
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1answer
59 views

About validation process of phenological study

I have recently done a phenological study using remote sensing techniques. Now I need to validate my results and my methods, that is, to determine if the phenology estimated from remote sensing is ...
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2answers
348 views

What determines the autumn leaf color?

It is autumn out there. Green, brown, red, yellow, and mixed-colored leaves drop from the trees to the ground. What determines the colors of the leaves? Wikipedia tells me Leaf senescence is the ...
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1answer
87 views

How does CO₂ concentration affect photosynthesis?

I have heard the theory that with the increase of CO2 in the air, the speed of the photosynthesis would increase, thereby limiting the increase of CO2 levels. What is currently the rate limiting ...
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150 views

What metabolic processes do dormant and ungerminated seeds carry out?

What metabolic processes does a dormant embryo in a seed carry out? Seeds will not germinate, either because of a lack of favourable conditions, seed hibernation, or because of a genetically ...
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What chemicals and structures control the *direction* of plant growth in leaves, stems and roots?

If you want a specific plant, let's say the snap peas I am growing that I bought at Agway. I noticed that they grow towards the light source through the nearby window. Also I think roots work the same ...
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39 views

Why is translocation of food in the phloem still a debate?

I currently take tertiary-high school biology and I am taught that translocation of food in the phloem occurs by the pressure flow hypothesis. I would like to ask why it is still a hypothesis, and ...
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55 views

How many cells are there in the apical meristematic tissue?

How many cells are there in the apical meristematic tissue? Looking at this picture... , I would tend to think that there are few hundreds cells in the meristem tissue. But I guess this is a ...
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298 views

Why is it harder to sequence plant genomes than animal genomes?

Plants seem to be less complex organisms than animals, but despite that there are less plant genomes sequenced. Is that because plant genomes are more complex, for example in terms of regulatory ...
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Do plants produce any heat?

Many plants (e.g. roses, palms) can be protected from frost during the winter if shielded with an appropriate coat that can be bought in garden shops. Do plants produce any heat that can be kept ...
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Is there a fundamental reason that plants cannot fix their own nitrogen?

Plants must have nitrogen to grow. According to the answer to this question, there are no plants can fix their own nitrogen (without the help of bacteria). Plants get their nitrogen in the form of ...
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Do plant-animal cross races exist?

Plants and animals have the following distinct properties: Plants live from solar energy by photosynthesis, they use solar energy to make sugar and oxygen out of carbon dioxide, which gives them ...
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Why did the sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica) evolve its leaf-closing mechanism?

Why did the sensitive plant, Mimosa pudica, evolve its leaf closing mechanism? Does it help in a heavy storm? Does it scare off whatever animals might think it a good meal?
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1answer
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Is Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) isohydric or anisohydric species?

Question from a thesis defense list ask me this. But I can't find the exact answer on the internet or in books. In my thesis, I described isohydric plants, for example maize, lupin, pea, poplar. This ...
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43 views

why plants cannot use atmospheric nitrogen? [duplicate]

Earth's atmosphere constitutes 78% of Nitrogen, then why do plants need to absorb Nitrogen from the soil. Why couldn't it possible for them to absorb the atmospheric Nitrogen like they do in the case ...
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73 views

What are the white spots?

What are these white spots? It's like Braille writing or something. How is the appearance encoded in the plant? (which I think is a Pine, though I am not sure).
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132 views

Do all sources supply all sinks on a plant?

Sources include any exporting organs, typically mature leaves, that are capable of producing photosynthete in excess of their own needs. Sinks include any nonphotosynthetic organs of the ...
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1answer
314 views

What are the requirements for a stable carbon cycle in sealed “bottle gardens”`?

The most famous example of a sealed bottle garden is David Latimer's bottle with a Spiderworth plant, pictured below, which has been sealed for 40 years. My own attempt at a bottle garden is failing ...
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38 views

What is the fruit of Café marron (Ramosmania rodriguesi) like? [closed]

I have read the article about Ramosmania rodriguesi (Café marron) and I've grown intrigued about what the fruit of this specie tastes like? Moreover, is it edible or "brew-able"? The only pictures ...
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2answers
135 views

How to preserve leaves between sampling (collection) and analysis?

Suppose I spend a day in a forest, collecting different kinds of leaves, which I would like to analyze under a compound microscope. Now, obviously, measures should be taken to preserve the leaves some ...
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2answers
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Why animals can move and plants cannot in general?

To clarify, I think the answer should be able to explain: What are animals? What are plants? What's the difference between animals and plants (How do biologists differentiate them, if they ...
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19 views

How to study the number of herbivores per type of tree and time of day?

Suppose I want to find out the number of herbivores in different kinds of trees, and also compare the numbers between day and night. How would this kind of study be run in practice? It easy to think ...
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143 views

Would a plant need light if the chemicals gained by photosynthesis were given through the roots or as a foliar spray?

If you took the chemicals a plant gains through photosynthesis and put it through the plants' roots or by injection, or used as a foliar application for intake through the stomata, would the plant ...
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Which biosynthetic pathways take place in the plastid and were are they located?

I know that the isoprenoid, jasmonate, glucosinolate, fatty acids, chlorophyll, starch, and aromatic amino acid syntheses are located in the plastid. But I don't know if they are located in the ...
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1answer
107 views

Gender and age-specific mutation rate in plants

Background General concept According to Cochran and Harpending (2013), mothers transmits on average a number $x$ of new mutations to their offspring. This number $x$ is independent of the age of the ...
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1answer
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What equipment is needed to perform simple plant electrophysiology?

What is the minimum needed equipment to perform simple plant electrophysiology? I am looking for some simple experiments that I could run at home for learning. Ideally, I would transfer the skills to ...
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53 views

How to measure chemical elements in soil? [closed]

What sort of equipment would one need to ensure that plant soil contains the right concentration of the 13 mineral nutrients necessary for plant growth? As far I understand, it's vital that all the ...
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46 views

Is there any tree or other plant that produces a new crop in fast cycles? [closed]

Is there any tree or other plant that produces a new crop in fast cycles? By fast I would mean something much more often than once or twice a year, like every month or every few weeks. What is the ...
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1answer
597 views

Sporophyte and gametophyte

My textbook says that in both groups of seedless plants (vascular plants, non-vascular plants) the gametophyte is a free-living plant, independent of the sporophyte. I don't understand this statement ...
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1answer
32 views

Plant dependence on CO₂ levels

I was wondering which kind of plants would survive longest without CO2 : plants with fatty, thick leaves or plants with thinner, less fatty leaves? And can we conclude that the plant species that are ...
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1answer
42 views

What controls Fructose regulation in plants?

Sugars are found ubiquitously in plants and are regulated. For sucrose it's pretty straightforward - it's basically kept at a low ish level, and put into storage or other intermediate compounds. ...
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3answers
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Is there any kind of immortality in plants?

I asked a question about immortality of hydra and learned good things about senescence. Now I would like to know about immortality in plants, if there is some kind of immortality in plants and how ...
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699 views

What does “chlorophyll photosynthesis peak” mean in relation to photon wavelength?

When reading about how green / leafy plants work, I saw that they have chlorophyll A & B, which allow the plant to use the energy from light by capturing and transforming. When reading about ...
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Why do Sorghum Bicolor leaves roll up?

In A level Bio today we talked about abcesic acid as a stress hormone, and its ability to reduce osmotic potential around guard cells to close stomata. My question is, is abscesic acid in sorghum ...
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Can different strains of Rhizobium share an infection thread or symbiosome?

Rhizobium infection can be triggered at root hairs of legumes, creating infection threads. Can these infections threads be colonized by more than one type of Rhizobium (e.g. Fixing and non-fixing)? ...
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74 views

Among xerophyte plants, which one grow faster and consume water the least? [closed]

In an effort to select for the most suitable plants to possibly colonise desert and stop its expansion, what would be the xerophyte plants that grow the faster and expand on surface, while using the ...
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5answers
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Is it possible to genetically modify a plant at home?

Would I be able to genetically modify a plant at home? What equipment will be necessary? I think it might be a fun change from the 'norm' of regular hybridisation, to try some inter-family gene ...
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1answer
50 views

Somatic Mutations in meristem tissue in plants

In angiosperm, in which layer of the meristem does a new mitotic mutation occurring has chance to be found in a pollen grain or in an ovule? I also welcome some insights about non-angiosperm plants.
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1answer
423 views

Independence of Light independent reaction in photosynthesis?

Inspired by a question asked to me by a classmate, I have the following question about Light-independent (dark phase) reactions in photosynthesis:- Let us suppose an algae sample was exposed to ...
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Does Sansevieria trifasciata really absorb Carbon Dioxide at night?

There's a claim that Sansevieria trifasciata (Mother-in-law’s Tongue) generates oxygen from carbon dioxide during the night. This seems surprising to me: that process requires energy; plants generate ...
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233 views

Plants without bacteria? is it theoretically possible?

I know from school, that all live on the Earth need bacteria as low-level "machines" that break down/extract/convert/produce chemical elements and combinations, other high-level organisms needed. But ...
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How will rising carbon dioxide levels in the troposphere affect photosynthetic producers?

Much discussion has been had about the affects of climate change on plantlife, but how will rising carbon dioxide concentrations affect the photosynthetic process itself? Since CO₂ is a reagent in ...
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120 views

Clarification on Hatch and slack pathway

The following is a minor clarification that I want to make, since it is rarely addressed directly in most of the texts I have gone through. In C₄ pathway, the chloroplasts are dimorphic, that is, ...
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1answer
107 views

H₂S as a source of electrons for plants

The first electron source for plants was H2S, but now most modern plants use H2O as an electron source. What is the advantage of using H2O instead of H2S?
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2answers
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Is chloroplasts per cell indicative of the photosynthetic power of a plant?

Plant-A has on average N chloroplasts per cell. Plant-B has on average M chloroplasts per cell. If N > M, is plant-A more efficient in turning carbon dioxide into oxygen? Also, is it possible to see ...
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66 views

Can Galactose be synthesized with photosynthesis?

I know that galactose can be found in sugar beets and some gums so I thought plants could synthesize galactose but in my book the answer to the question "Which of these can be synthesized with ...
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recolonize earth desert with plants : which plants first?

if willing to recolonize earth desert , let's say sahara or any dehydrated and sterile land, without intensive human intervention, what would be the first plants / algae / fungi /bacteria to grow ? ...
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How do trees lift water higher than 10 meters?

The atmosphere pressure is 10 meters of water (approx). This means that it is impossible to lift water higher than 10 meters with vacuum or сapillary action (on Earth, under normal conditions). There ...
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If I graft two trees together while young, will they grow as one plant?

If I were to graft two apple saplings together, by bending the tops toward each other and lashing them together, will the plants grow as one and benefit from one another, or will they be fighting each ...