Enzyme that catalyzes the serial addition of monomers to synthesize a polymeric biomolecule. This term usually applies to DNA/RNA polymerases which synthesize these nucleic acid polymers from mononucleotides.

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Stop codons and exons?

If we had a hypotheical gene called gene exampleGene and this gene had 5 exons, labeled A, B, C, D, and E in that order on the chromosome, could it be the case that the stop codon for this gene be on ...
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1answer
62 views

Why do some bacteria have most genes on the leading strand of the genome?

Genes in the (+) strand are black and genes in the (-)strand are red. The gene distribution in E. coli genome is somewhat expected: transcribed regions would tend to alternate with non transcribed ...
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1answer
61 views

How can E. coli proliferate so rapidly?

The E. coli has a genome with approximately 5×106 bp. The main DNA polymerase involved in its chromosome duplication (DNA pol III , the one with highest processivity) can polymerize ~103 nucleotides ...
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1answer
38 views

Are there U-rich transcriptional pause sites?

I've heard a statement in a talk that U-rich sequences cause transcriptional pausing. The intuitive explanation for this was that the UTP concentration is lower in the cell than the ATP concentration. ...
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1answer
79 views

A question about IPTG induction

I have found the information: `In the absence of lactose, the lac repressor binds to the operator sequence on DNA and bends the DNA by 40 degrees. This blocks access of T7 RNA polymerase to the ...
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1answer
172 views

First RNA polymerase-mRNA

We know that RNA polymerase produces mRNA by reading DNA strand. Which enzyme produces the first RNA polymerase if other RNA polymerases are synthesized in the same way like other enzymes(proteins) ?
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1answer
622 views

How is the transcription direction of RNA polymerase determined?

When transcription factors attach to the DNA strand - How do they know in which direction they have to initialize the transcription by rna polymerase? Is it always read in the same direction anyway? ...
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3answers
181 views

Why do we need deep sequencing?

Why do we need deep sequencing? Why cannot the sequencing technologies read all the nucleotides correctly at the first read? Sorry since this question is too trivial, I don't have a biological ...
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1answer
127 views

DNA Replication

I just wanted to understand the basic steps behind the replication of the lagging strand of DNA: Have helicase unwind it first DNA Primase lays down RNA primers in fragments, called Okazaki ...
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1answer
427 views

Where does Taq polymerase migrate during electrophoresis?

Assuming a 1% Agarose gel with TAE. Follow up questions: Is there a way to stain for it? Could the polymerase be captured and reused?
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0answers
151 views

Has anyone ever sucessfully translated xRNA or yRNA? [closed]

I've recently been researching the subject of size-expanded nucleobases in alternative genetic sets. Many papers describe the, at least, partial success in replicating xDNA and yDNA, as well as ...
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1answer
214 views

How are DNA polymerase error rates measured?

It is well known that the first DNA polymerase, Taq, is quite error prone. Newer generation commercial enzymes that have either been isolated from different thermophile species or have been improved ...
3
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1answer
619 views

Open protocol for Ligase Independent Cloning

Ligase Independent Cloning is a protocol that allow an insert to be integrated into a vector without ligation. It uses T4 DNA polymerase with only ATP to first chew back from blunt ends to create ...
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1answer
84 views

number of RNA pol II molecules in a given human nucleus?

Does anybody have any estimate on the number of RNA pol II molecules in the nucleus of a given human cell? For example, how many RNA polymerase type II protein complexes would there be on average at a ...
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4answers
66k views

Why is DNA replication performed in the 5' to 3' direction?

DNA replication goes in the 5' to 3' direction because DNA polymerase acts on the 3'-OH of the existing strand for adding free nucleotides. Is there any biochemical reason why all organisms evolved to ...