RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a biological macromolecule made of nucleotides used in cells to convey genetic information to protein. RNA also plays a role in catalyzing certain biological reactions as well as carrying genetic material in some viruses.

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What is mRNA expression level?

I cannot find clear explanation of what is mRNA expression level, and how to measure it. I would appreciate if someone explained it or gave a reference. Thanks!
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How can a continuous RNA be transcribed in the lac operon?

The lac operon has 3 genes: lacZ , lacY and lacA. I have seen that the m-RNA transcript of these genes has stop codons in between. So, how can the RNA be made continuously? Won't the RNA Pol detach if ...
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What are the distinctive structural features of single- or double-stranded xRNA, or where can I find them?

I am interested in the structural differences caused by benzopurines and benzopyrimidines at the oligonucleotide level between RNA and xRNA, both in single-stranded and double-stranded form. I am ...
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Determining sequence of oligoribonucleotide

Oligoribonucleotide X was treated with phosphatase (for removal of 3' and 5' - terminal phosphates), then with RNAase T1, which cleaves all phosphodiester bonds located in a 3' position of ...
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Are there known 3- or 4-nucleotide RNA linkers with no RE sites?

Question is rather self-explanatory. I'm looking for a non-cleavable RNA sequence to act as an RNA linker. I mention 3- or 4-nucleotides only, but making such a sequence with 2 nucleotides is rather ...
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How does GTP help in the step of codon recognition?

The anticodon of an incoming tRNA base pairs with the complementary mRNA codon in the A site.Hydrolysis of GTP increases the efficiency and accuracy of this step. How does GTP do so ?
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RNA isolation from Drosophila head

I need to isolate RNA from Drosophila head. I basically chop the head off and first homogenize it with a homogenizer (similar to this: ...
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Are there any strictly chloroplast/mitochondrion-residing ribozymes?

A simple question that had occurred to me. Considering the small doubt of transcribed genes in both organelles, I would doubt it, but are there any known ribozymes strictly found in either ...
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Mouse meta-globin mRNA problem

This is an mRNA strand of mouse meta-globin: 5'-ccccagauacggaauucgaau-3' A) Which small RNA (below) is most likely to regulate expression of meta-globin? ...
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Gel electrophoresis after RNAse treatment

I do not understand how to solve this question. I know that RNAse will cut smaller pieces of RNA. The answer given is A
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Mutation in pre-mRNA sequence

Has there any mutations been recorded which cause harmful effects due to change in the part of pre-mRNA responsible for proper m-RNA splicing ?
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Dilution question about RNA

I have a basic and probably silly question. I am isolating RNA with TRIzol. I have performed the basic steps and dissolved the pellet in 50 uL water. I ve measured the concentration and it was 3313 ...
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2 types of telomerases?

As telomerase works by adding new nucleotides complementary to the RNA it contains, it cannot work for the complementary strand. Say telomerase X has RNA complementary to the 5' to 3' strand it ...
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In vitro transcription, contamination problem

I am using a RNA which is in vitro transcripted before I started my project. It turned out it is not prepared properly and has DNA contamination. Instead of perform the in vitro transcription again, ...
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Why use DNA polymerase in making cDNA?

RT is capable of synthesizing a complementary dna strand ( as in HIV life cycle.) Then why is DNA pol used when cDNA (synthesizing the second strand of it ) has to be synthesized from mRNA ( For eg.to ...
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explanation of conjugation experiment in bacteria

In this paper (On the expression of a structural gene) I am confused about what is being plotted in Figure 6. The x-axis contains the fraction of radioactive day and y-axis contains the enzyme ...
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Number of introns in a genome

Humans have approximately 21000 genes but they probably make more proteins than that. This has been explained by many mechanisms like alternative RNA splicing. My question is - If what we call as ...
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How to deduce if RNA virus infection or DNA virus infection

Is there any general rule to say this must be RNA virus infection and the other one DNA virus infection? Example of a case: 5 children develop a bright red rash on the face and turns violet after a ...
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DNA Replication

I just wanted to understand the basic steps behind the replication of the lagging strand of DNA: Have helicase unwind it first DNA Primase lays down RNA primers in fragments, called Okazaki ...
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Transcription takes place from the 5’ to the 3’ end of the m-RNA. Why?

Only one side of the DNA ladder is copied (the sense side). The sense side starts with a 3’ end. This means the corresponding mRNA will have to assemble starting from the 5’ end. This is my initial ...
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Visualizing secondary RNA structure binding to target

I am designing synthetic ribozymes, and need to see the secondary structure that arises from its flanking arms binding to a target mRNA. I've used Mfold as well as IDT's OligoAnalyzer (Hairpin), but ...
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Low RNA yield, low 260/230 ratio

I extracted total RNA from animal tissue using the Qiagen RNeasy kit, however my RNA yield was extremely low and the 260/230 ratio was around 0.3. This is the protocol I followed: The animal ...
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How to determine the actual flux in the human metabolic model of a cell line?

The problem to be solved is to determine what the flux values are for the different reactions in the human metabolic model. As far as I understand, a good way to do that would be to use gene ...
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How do amino acids become attached to tRNA?

Is there a protein that catalyzes this or does it happen spontaneously? In which part of the cell does this happen?
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RNase and EtOH issue

I work with RNA and I have some RNase issues. For example I am using RNeasy mini kit and at one step I use 100% EtOH. It does not say it is RNase free or not. Does absolute EtOH inhibits or removes ...
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How does a prophage leave the host cell's genome?

I understand that, unlike a prophage, a provirus never leaves the genome, but I don't understand how the prophage "leaves".
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Does biotin affect downstream experiments, such as RT-qPCR?

I have two biotins--one of which is binding my RNA with cleavable bonds, and the other with irreversible bonds. Does biotin have an effect if it keeps its bonds with RNA? If it does, why is this the ...
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RNA integrity and RNA fragmentation

After RNA isolation and before following experiments, I know that RNA quality so called RNA integrity is so important. So why there is a RNA fragmentation kit? Do we need RNA intact or fragmented? ...
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A basic example of the interactions of 2 or more non-identical alleles leading to an advantageous outcome for an individual organism

Could someone help me out with a basic example of the interactions of 2 or more non-identical alleles leading to an advantageous outcome for an individual organism? Based on empirical research OR on a ...