Tag for questions related to interaction between two different species living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both.

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Do clients of cleaner fish queue up?

I can't remember if I saw it in a cartoon, a documentary, or both, but the notion is that the clients of cleaner fish wait in line to be cleaned. "Clients" means the fish (or other aquatic animals) ...
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Can galls be formed from mutualistic relationships?

According to Wikipedia, galls (cecidia) are formed by parasitic insects and mites like gall wasps (Neuroterus albipes). At some metamorphic stage, these organisms alter cell division processes in ...
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Plant symbiosis, alternative regulation pathways to AON and miRNA399?

I am currently studying systemic repression of both arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixing bacteria in legumes. I know of the AON pathway (which works through CLE and NARK). I also know of ...
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How does symbiogenesis explain reproduction of organelles along with the cell?

Symbiogenesis is an evolutionary theory that says that prokaryotes eventually evolved into eukaryotes (having multiple organelles and better structure) by forming symbiotic relationships with other ...
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Why only mitochondria and plastids?

Why are there only two unique semi-independent organelles? Why are there no others, symbiogenesis seems like it should be a relatively common thing. So do most organelles just lose all their DNA? Or ...
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Do adult humans exchange beneficial bacteria? If so, how?

Recently there has been increasing interest and research into symbiotic bacteria present in humans and human gut. I'm aware of two new discoveries: humans are surrounded by a unique cloud of ...