How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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1answer
44 views

Difference between pipette and pipettor

I've been translating a text listing some analytical laboratory equipment, and found that some fellow translators translate the Russian word "автоматическая пипетка" (avtomaticheskaya pipetka, which ...
0
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2answers
45 views

Why cancer disease is named after sun signs ? [duplicate]

I googled it, It didn't helped me a lot. So Why cancer disease is named after sun signs ?
3
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2answers
45 views

Is this in vivo or ex vivo?

This question has probably been asked a few times but I get the concept I just dont know how to apply it for this paticular experiment I aim to use cherry tomatoes and determine its glutamate content ...
0
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1answer
15 views

Enzootic vs Epizootic?

I'm studying microbiology and I see these words - epizootic and enzootic, often but there are no clear explanations for them online. Can someone help please?
0
votes
1answer
20 views

What is a cognate enhancer sequence?

What is a cognate enhancer sequence? While reading a paper (1) presented at a journal class in graduate school, I encountered this sentence: HIF-1 binds to its cognate enhancer sequence, the ...
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0answers
22 views

What is meant by clinical progression? [closed]

What do the terms 'clinical progression' and 'disease progression' mean? Are they different from each other?
4
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2answers
88 views

What's the correct name for the war of sexes in evolution?

I'm searching for the correct term for the part of the selfish gene evolution regarding sexes. In nature, this means the evolution of the traits such as the ducks' adaptation to "trap" the drakes' ...
1
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1answer
56 views

Cell cycle-regulated genes and mRNA

I am a mathematician and my knowledge about biology is close to zero. I am reading a bioinformatics paper and I would like to understand a bit more about the biology task they are talking about. I ...
5
votes
3answers
133 views

What is the difference between a predator and a parasite?

A human encountering a tiger or a malaria plasmodium is likely to suffer, and the tiger/plasmodium is likely to gain from the transaction. Not necessarily a good example, and I am aware that a ...
2
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1answer
46 views

What's the proper term for “brain waves” read from an EEG?

An EEG records the electrical activity of the brain. An EEG shows voltage differences as a function of time and shows what have become known as "brain waves". Is there a scientific/technical word/...
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2answers
42 views

Spatial dimensions for an animal

I'm reading a review paper. They say: The position of an object in head-centered coordinates (that is, relative to an animal's head) can be defined along three axes: the medio-lateral (radial) ...
0
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1answer
42 views

Is there a difference between macroevolution and group selection?

I encountered two different attitudes towards macroevolution: The first one included long-term microevolution such as the evolution of Cetacea. The second one included only macroevolution in terms ...
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1answer
50 views

What's the difference between evolution fitness and reproductive success?

What's the difference biological fitness and reproductive success in the biological terminology?
5
votes
1answer
216 views

Was Darwin aware of the difficulties behind the concept of species?

Introduction The concept of species is a very old concept that suffers from not being a natural category. There exists no single definition that would categorize living beings into groups and that ...
3
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1answer
32 views

Is curling the fingers considered digit flexion?

Is curling the fingers considered finger flexion and straightening the fingers considered finger extension? I feel like this is correct in everyday language, but I am not sure if it is correct in ...
1
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1answer
44 views

Question about radiation and how it affects biological systems

I'm doing research on the effects of radiation, and specifically UV, X-Ray and Gamma radiation, on biological systems at the cellular level and beyond. I understand that radiation types can be ...
1
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1answer
30 views

Confluency or confluence, which term is correct to describe the % area covered by cells?

I noticed that both of them are used in many scientific papers. Are these two terms, or can they be used interchangeably?
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1answer
50 views

Can we say it's hybridisation if it's the same species?

If we mixed two population of the same species into the same environment and then they reproduce together, can we say it's hybridisation? The wikipedia definition is the following: Hybridisation (...
0
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1answer
27 views

Conservation Ex Situ

This came up in my biology diversity course and I wanted to raise a question about it. On the topic of ex situ, one of the presentations that a speaker mentioned that one of its disadvantages is ...
0
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2answers
61 views

What is synaptic clearance?

Please explain what the term synaptic clearance means. For example, what would dopamine synaptic clearance be? It is important to me in context of dopamine signaling variation due to difference in ...
1
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1answer
82 views

Explanation of the ‘cherry red spot' in Tay Sachs disease

In Tay Sachs disease, a hallmark symptom is a cherry red spot in the macula of the eye surrounded by a halo of white. I understand that the ganglion cells, which are higher in numbers around the ...
2
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1answer
124 views

What happens when our muscle tense? [closed]

Is the tensing of muscles equivalent to stretching them? I am trying to understand what tensing of the muscles means.
5
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1answer
232 views

What does the 'V' stand for in ECG electrode names?

In electrocardiography, electrodes have the typical names of: RA (Right Arm) LA (Left Arm) RL (Right Leg) LL (Left Leg) V1, V2, V3, V4, V5 and V6 What does the V stand for? Is it perhaps from ...
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0answers
29 views

What is spindle axis?

I encountered this term, spindle axis while reading about metaphase in mitosis from iGenetics by Peter.J.Russell [1]. It said, The kinetochore microtubules oriented the chromosomes so that the ...
5
votes
1answer
39 views

Is “aggregate percentage” still a valid term in ecology?

Martin et al. 1946 define "aggregate percentage" as a metric that describes the mean percentage contribution of a group to the total mass/abundance of all samples. The metric is useful in datasets ...
2
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2answers
101 views

Small non-coding RNA (sRNA) vs. micro RNA (miRNA)?

What are the differences between micro RNAs (miRNA) and small non-coding RNAs (sRNA)? Are these two terms used interchangeably?
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0answers
52 views

What is meningitis? [closed]

I know that meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges surrounding the brain and the spinal cord. But I still don't understand this definition. If you can broaden the definition, please do.
4
votes
1answer
799 views

Is there an acceptable term for 'male fox' other than 'dog'?

I'm writing a lab on sexual dimorphism in Arctic foxes. As such, I use the words 'dog' and 'vixen' fairly often. In the discussion section, I compare the results from the lab with the results from ...
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0answers
30 views

What is the term for toes that pull together with an upstep?

I fairly recently learned the term digitigrade, to describe the anatomy of a creature that stands on its toes rather than on the flat of its foot, like cats and ...
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2answers
352 views

Growth factors vs. mitogens

According to Campbell Biology, A growth factor is a protein released by certain cells that stimulates other cells to divide. and according to Wikipedia, A mitogen is a chemical substance ...
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1answer
81 views

Difference between LH and ICSH

Are Luteinizing hormone and Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone(ICSH) the same?
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2answers
234 views

How does Australia fit into 'New World' / 'Old World' dichotomy?

How are places such as Australia and New Zealand classified when differentiating geographic areas based on 'New World' and 'Old World?' My understanding is: New World = North America + South ...
2
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1answer
62 views

Why is stimulation of nerve tissue with a negative pulse called “cathodic” stimulation?

By definition, the cathode is defined as the terminal through which current exits a polarized device. But in the context of neuromodulation, such as spinal cord stimulation, deep brain stimulation, ...
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1answer
114 views

Why are plant buds called 'eyes'? [closed]

I was reading the etymology of the Latinate English verb 'inoculate' which contains the following part that generated the question entitled above: [...] inoculare "graft in, implant a bud or eye ...
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1answer
48 views

Is there is difference between “homozygosity” and “homozygosis”? [closed]

Are these just two terms for the same phenomenon, i.e., the state of being homozygous? Merriam-Webster says so, but I know dictionaries sometimes miss the nuance of scientific terms. If they are ...
4
votes
2answers
209 views

Do mutant alleles result from mutation of the wild type?

The allele that encodes for the most common form of a phenotype in natural population is called a wild type allele and all the rest of the alleles encoding forms other than the wild type are called ...
0
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1answer
28 views

Biological term for close species rivalry

Is there any phenomenon/force in biology when two very close species fiercely fight each other (as a sign of a strong tendency to deepen the difference between species)? If there is, what's the name ...
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1answer
59 views

Difference between various evolutionary terms [closed]

Could someone kindly explain me the difference between Phylogeny, Phylogenetic Tree, Evolutionary Trees, Phylotype, Clusters, OTU (Open Taxonomic Units). Or if possible please do suggest me a beginner'...
1
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1answer
23 views

What does `knee atlas` means in an IEEE's paper?

I am referring an IEEE's paper for my project which has a term called knee atlas, I am not getting the exact meaning of this term, does they mean it a processed image or something else? I am working ...
3
votes
2answers
243 views

What does 'direction' mean in the statement “mutations are non-directional”?

I was reading the Mutation theory of De Vries; there I encountered this following statement: Mutations are discontinuous, random & non-directional.This is in contrast to Darwinism where ...
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0answers
46 views

What is the term for being younger than the body age?

I remember that I once attended a seminar in which the speaker talked about the heart rate of different kinds of butterflies. Normally, the heart rate of the adult butterfly will be more complex than ...
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0answers
47 views

How are CheY, CheA, CheW, CheZ pronounced in speech?

This is a quick followup question to this question about proteins that play important roles in chemotaxis: How does one pronounce the protein names "CheY", "CheW", etc., in English? My guess would ...
3
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3answers
134 views

Abbreviations for molecules: What are CheW, CheA, CheY?

I've encountered the abbreviations such as "CheW" and "CheA" for certain organic molecules. For example: Proteins associating with the Tar complex include the autophosphorylating protein kinase ...
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1answer
355 views

Are mitochondria alive? [duplicate]

I'm working on an assignment for my IB biology class and some assistance would be highly appreciated. I've read several articles and I still haven't quite gotten the answer I'm looking for. I have to ...
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0answers
26 views

Meaning of “pure” in “pure plant DNA” (horizontally transferred to bacteria in soil conditions)

The abstract of Transformation of Acinetobacter baylyi in non-sterile soil using recombinant plant nuclear DNA, by Simpson et al., 2007: To provide estimates of horizontal gene transfer from ...
1
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1answer
420 views

What is a selective constraint?

I encountered the term selective constraint in Huber et al. 2015, page 4 (last paragraph) in: If invariable sites are included in the analysis, then both the methods of Kim and Stephan (...
2
votes
1answer
39 views

Clarification about taxon (plural taxa)

If i am right, then any category placed at any rank in the taxonomical hierarchy is a taxon. For example Panthera, Mammalia, Solanaceae etc. But are general group of organism (casual groups which are ...
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0answers
82 views

Is there an organism which is “The Opposite of Hydra”?

My understanding is that if hydra is cut into pieces, each piece can evolve into a new hydra. What I'm looking for is whether there exists an organism with a this property reversed, that is, if two or ...
0
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1answer
38 views

What is the difference between Ostracodermi and Placodermi

I looked the word origin and found Placodermi is PLATE SKINNED while Ostracodermi is Shell Skinned. Can you please explain the difference between being Plate skinned and Shell skinned?
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Difference between Category, Rank and Taxon

Is there any differences between the terms Category, Rank and Taxon or they all are same? I remember an explanation which goes on like this: Category and Rank are the same and are the categories of ...