How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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3answers
136 views

Where does the term “cos site” come from?

The word cosmid is derived from cos sites of lambda phages. Why are cos sites called cos sites? What does this "cos" refer to?
2
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1answer
39 views

Evolution and Phenotypes.

This may be better suited for the English language SE, but When discussing evolutionary changes in species is it proper to refer to their phenotypes? In this context: "Imagine if a cow did not ...
6
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2answers
43 views

Is there a name for the evolutionary loss of vestigial structures?

Consider a biological structure which no longer benefits an organism, such as the eyes of an organism whose population now lives in total darkness. I can think of three reasons why such a structure ...
2
votes
1answer
20 views

Why Sister Chromatids and Daughter cells and not brother chromatids and son cells

In biology why do we have terminologies in terms of female relatinships such as daughter cells and sister chromatids and not in terms of male relationships. When did this custom started and is there a ...
3
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2answers
56 views

Why “broad” instead of “large” cross-immunoreactivity? [closed]

From the articles I read, expressions like "broad cross-immunoreactivity" pops up a lot. So, I was wondering, why "broad" is used here instead of large? Is there a specific reason?
3
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1answer
28 views

Terminology regarding cross-immunoreactivity

After reading an article, I saw expressions like "cross-immunoreactivity among epitopes", "cross-immunoreactivity among variants of virus", "immunological reactions among pairs of peptides" and so on. ...
8
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2answers
850 views

Are blood vessels organs?

Are blood vessels classified as organs? Organs compose of 2 or more tissues and perform a certain function. Blood vessels have 3 different tissues and perform a function (transport blood), yet I do ...
7
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1answer
43 views

What does the term “relay competent” mean?

I was reading the article of Dallon & Othmer (2010) which deals with cell aggregation in Dictyostelium discoideum. In the introduction of the paper it is said that cells becomes "relay competent". ...
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0answers
12 views

Neuston vs pleuston

I was recently reading about the wonderful chondrophores, and came across the terms "neuston" and "pleuston". According to Wikipedia, "neuston" are "the organisms that float on the top of water ... ...
3
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2answers
48 views

Terminology for inefficacy of selection on recessive alleles

I am wondering is there some proper terminology which is used to say that deleterious recessive alleles might be able to hide, reducing the the efficacy of selection, in diploid organisms/chromosomes. ...
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0answers
9 views

Are upstream activating factor (UAF) and upstream binding factor (UBF) the same thing?

During ribosome pre-40S and pre-60S synthesis, many sources state the importance of UAF or UBF in initiation complex of ribosome DNA transcription. None of the sources I've seen mentions the other ...
0
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1answer
22 views

Does the term “upper extremity” include hands?

I see on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_limb that the term "upper extremity" seem to include hands. However, in many hospitals, there is a "Hand & Upper Extremity Service", which would tend to ...
3
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2answers
21 views

What is correct MVM vs. MMV?

I'm writing up a report and I see conflicts everywhere on the internet. Should it be Murine Minute Virus (MMV) or Minute Virus of Mice (MVM). The followup question is does it really matter.
0
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1answer
41 views

What is 'refractile' cell morphology?

I can't find a definition for 'refractile' (not 'refractory', and not explicitly in an optical context). As in: A tumour cell phenotype features increased proliferation, anchorage- and growth ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Is the motor cortex identical to the sensorimotor cortex?

As far as I understand, the primary motor cortex (M1) and primary sensorimotor (SM1) are notations for the same cortical area in the brain. Am I right that there is no dedicated motor cortex, and that ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

What is the difference between sinew and tendon?

I wonder what the difference between sinew and tendon is. I searched for it but didn't get any clear answer: https://www.quora.com/Whats-the-difference-between-sinew-and-tendon: They are often ...
2
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1answer
47 views

Optical density machine name

What is the name of the machine used to measure optical density? We used it in a lab but I can't remember what they called it.
3
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2answers
414 views

What does confluency mean?

Since as long as I have been doing cell culture, the word confluency is used to describe the % growth of cells or area covered by them. However, no dictionary that I have found uses this word. I was ...
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0answers
12 views

More general usage of the term 'congener'

In taxonomy the term 'congener' refers to two species within the same genus. In more colloquial usage, it can refer to any two objects within the same category. Is there a way to refer to related ...
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vote
2answers
95 views

What does to “evolve” exactly mean? [closed]

In this article, the author says: Evolution isn’t “leading up” to anything, it just drunkenly limps along using the same set of tricks in slightly different orders. On other occasions, however, ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

What term describes insects that must eat protein to reproduce?

I know there is a specific term for insects that need to consume protein to produce viable eggs, as well as a term for those insects that don't need to consume protein to produce viable eggs.
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1answer
57 views

What's the meaning of 'plasma' in 'plasma membrane'?

I wonder why is it called plasma membrane - what's the biological meaning of the word 'plasma'?
3
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0answers
26 views

Color perception vs shade perception demo

I can't seem to find one of the best demos I've seen of color vs brightness perception. It consisted of a rotating animation of earth made of red of bright red points on a dark green background. As ...
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2answers
216 views

Why should a tumor look like a crab?

Origin of the word cancer The disease was first called cancer by Greek physician Hippocrates (460-370 BC). He is considered the “Father of Medicine.” Hippocrates used the terms carcinos and ...
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1answer
41 views

Clonidine's adrenonergic nature?

I am little confused here. I used the term adrenoagonist and sympatholytic to describe the compound. However, my teacher says that the correct term here is adrenomimetic -term. My understanding of ...
0
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1answer
175 views

What is frank dehydration?

On Wikipedia article about Urine specific gravity we can read: A specific gravity greater than 1.035 is consistent with frank dehydration. What is frank dehydration? How it is different than ...
2
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2answers
40 views

What is refractory proteinuria?

I've stumbled upon the article "Telmisartan Treatment of Refractory Proteinuria in a Dog."* What is refractory proteinuria? *Bugbee AC1, Coleman AE, Wang A, Woolcock AD, Brown SA. J Vet Intern Med. ...
4
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1answer
69 views

Definition of “structural underdominance”?

In Stathos and Fishman (2014), the authors refer to the concept of structural underdominance. The first time they mention it is in the first paragraph of the second page (left column) and the term is ...
2
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1answer
205 views

What is the difference between clinical and non-clinical depression, and is there a term for different severity of the bipolar disorder?

I was looking for a term which describes a bipolar disorder of lesser severity. I know from experience from someone I know well, what a very severe case of the bipolar disorder looks like, when an ...
4
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4answers
132 views

Collective name for the X- and Z-chromosomes

Chromosomes are grouped as sex chromosomes or autosomes, with the X, Y, Z and W all falling in to the former category. The Z and X are present both in the homogametic and heterogametic sexes, and the ...
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vote
1answer
23 views

What is a “scutella of reindeer”?

In the film "The Perfect Human Diet" at 32:36, a scientist points to animal remains and states "we've got a scutella of reindeer there." What is scutella in this context?
3
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1answer
46 views

How much divergence would be needed for classifications as astrobiology?

It is possible that life has invaded mars or the moon by way of probes rovers and other man made tech. How many years or generations of sequential and phenotypical diverge would be necessary to ...
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vote
2answers
53 views

What is the formal terminology for two species that are “close” to each other in a phylogenetic tree?

Take for example the human and the chimpanzee, they are "closely related" species since they are "close" to each other in a phylogenetic tree. However, this terminology seems pretty informal, what ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

Currency metabolites vs. current metabolites: What's the right term?

I have seen the two terms currency metabolite and current metabolite used interchangeably. Is there a consensus on which is the ...
1
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1answer
36 views

What does the term 'modified residue position' in phosphorylation mean?

Does it mean the position of the amino acid in the protein sequence, or something else? For example, I came across the phrase "S 368 phosphoryation" where S is the modified residue and 368 is the ...
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1answer
68 views

Anatomy suffixes?

Here are some suffixes I want to know their meaning: -ium: trapezium (carpal bone) -ius: trapezius (column muscle) -ous: Talous and calcanous (tarsal bone) -alis: Acromialis, Ulnaris (shoulder ...
3
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1answer
258 views

What is “bacto” peptone?

Standard recipes for yeast medium often include "bacto-peptone". Is this the same as bacteriological peptone? Is there an authoritative source that spells it out?
3
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1answer
50 views

Is there a superterm combining “animal line” and “cell line” in disease models?

Biologists researching diseases will frequently use animal models. The way I understand it, there are species of animals, such as "mouse", and lines of mice, such as ...
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1answer
49 views

What does “developmentally programmed” mean?

What does the term "developmentally programmed" mean? I can't seem to find a definition anywhere. What would the alternative (i.e. not developmentally programmed) imply?
2
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1answer
121 views

“selective pressure” or “selection pressure”?

Editing a manuscript of mine, a co-author changes "selection pressure" to "selective pressure". Are those two terms interchangeable? Or are there subtle differences that I'm not aware of? The ...
2
votes
2answers
96 views

Is there a name for this principle in biological contexts?

This is mostly a question about usage. There is a probability-related idea that has been used in at least two biological contexts. The idea is that if something happened, it was probably likely to ...
2
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1answer
41 views

Cosmid genomic library, or genomic cosmid library?

Which usage is better for referring to a "cosmid library of genomic DNA fragments"?
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1answer
77 views

What does min mean?

I read that "trp operon is located at 27 min on E.coli chromosome." What does "min" mean ?
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1answer
1k views

Difference between inbreeding and interbreeding

Is inbreeding the same as interbreeding? On this site interbreeding is defined as (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/interbreeding): To breed with another kind or species; hybridize. To breed ...
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1answer
77 views

parallels or replicates?

I am writing an article where I describe real-time PCR experiments. My collaborator, after reviewing the article, consistently replaced the word "parallels" with "replicates". Are they not synonymous? ...
1
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1answer
50 views

Is there a scientific name for the field of study focusing on the hemispheres of the brain and their control of opposite sides of the body?

I'm assuming this field of study would focus on motor controls, movement, and exercise, but it could also focus on activities which strengthen the corpus callosum or stimulate a specific half of the ...
5
votes
1answer
84 views

How are Raunkiær's plant life forms viewed today?

At the beginning of the 20th century, Raunkiær proposed a typology of plant life-forms based on where they bear their buds, roughly as: cryptophytes: belowground hemicryptophytes: at the surface ...
3
votes
2answers
81 views

Mass Spectrometry Terminology

I began reading this paper (http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2105/14/56) and had a few questions about mass spectrometry terminology that I couldn't find answers to elsewhere. Consider the following ...
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1answer
175 views

Definition of “Regime of selection”

How would you define Regime of selection (or Selection regime)? In addition to a accurate definition, a developped example ...
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2answers
74 views

Do swarms show intelligence?

Can you think of collective and swarm behaviors as "intelligence"? Would such a concept apply to a) ant colonies and b) fish swarms?