How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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Spatial dimensions for an animal

I'm reading a review paper. They say: The position of an object in head-centered coordinates (that is, relative to an animal's head) can be defined along three axes: the medio-lateral (radial) ...
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1answer
1k views

Does mitosis include cytokinesis?

I found that some books include cytokinesis within mitosis, but some other books I have referred to include only the dividing of the nucleus as mitosis and do not include cytokinesis. Can anyone help ...
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1answer
33 views

Is there a difference between macroevolution and group selection?

I encountered two different attitudes towards macroevolution: The first one included long-term microevolution such as the evolution of Cetacea. The second one included only macroevolution in terms ...
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1answer
40 views

What's the difference between evolution fitness and reproductive success?

What's the difference biological fitness and reproductive success in the biological terminology?
5
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1answer
202 views

Was Darwin aware of the difficulties behind the concept of species?

Introduction The concept of species is a very old concept that suffers from not being a natural category. There exists no single definition that would categorize living beings into groups and that ...
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2answers
718 views

What is the difference between clinical and non-clinical depression, and is there a term for different severity of the bipolar disorder?

I was looking for a term which describes a bipolar disorder of lesser severity. I know from experience from someone I know well, what a very severe case of the bipolar disorder looks like, when an ...
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1answer
26 views

Is curling the fingers considered digit flexion?

Is curling the fingers considered finger flexion and straightening the fingers considered finger extension? I feel like this is correct in everyday language, but I am not sure if it is correct in ...
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1answer
31 views

Question about radiation and how it affects biological systems

I'm doing research on the effects of radiation, and specifically UV, X-Ray and Gamma radiation, on biological systems at the cellular level and beyond. I understand that radiation types can be ...
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2answers
6k views

What does confluency mean?

Since as long as I have been doing cell culture, the word confluency is used to describe the % growth of cells or area covered by them. However, no dictionary that I have found uses this word. I was ...
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1answer
23 views

Confluency or confluence, which term is correct to describe the % area covered by cells?

I noticed that both of them are used in many scientific papers. Are these two terms, or can they be used interchangeably?
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1answer
39 views

Can we say it's hybridisation if it's the same species?

If we mixed two population of the same species into the same environment and then they reproduce together, can we say it's hybridisation? The wikipedia definition is the following: Hybridisation ...
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1answer
25 views

Conservation Ex Situ

This came up in my biology diversity course and I wanted to raise a question about it. On the topic of ex situ, one of the presentations that a speaker mentioned that one of its disadvantages is ...
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2answers
47 views

What is synaptic clearance?

Please explain what the term synaptic clearance means. For example, what would dopamine synaptic clearance be? It is important to me in context of dopamine signaling variation due to difference in ...
2
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1answer
78 views

What happens when our muscle tense? [closed]

Is the tensing of muscles equivalent to stretching them? I am trying to understand what tensing of the muscles means.
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1answer
43 views

Explanation of the ‘cherry red spot' in Tay Sachs disease

In Tay Sachs disease, a hallmark symptom is a cherry red spot in the macula of the eye surrounded by a halo of white. I understand that the ganglion cells, which are higher in numbers around the ...
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1answer
73 views

What does the 'V' stand for in ECG electrode names?

In electrocardiography, electrodes have the typical names of: RA (Right Arm) LA (Left Arm) RL (Right Leg) LL (Left Leg) V1, V2, V3, V4, V5 and V6 What does the V stand for? Is it perhaps from ...
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0answers
26 views

What is spindle axis?

I encountered this term, spindle axis while reading about metaphase in mitosis from iGenetics by Peter.J.Russell [1]. It said, The kinetochore microtubules oriented the chromosomes so that the ...
5
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1answer
37 views

Is “aggregate percentage” still a valid term in ecology?

Martin et al. 1946 define "aggregate percentage" as a metric that describes the mean percentage contribution of a group to the total mass/abundance of all samples. The metric is useful in datasets ...
4
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1answer
221 views

Is there an acceptable term for 'male fox' other than 'dog'?

I'm writing a lab on sexual dimorphism in Arctic foxes. As such, I use the words 'dog' and 'vixen' fairly often. In the discussion section, I compare the results from the lab with the results from ...
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2answers
45 views

Small non-coding RNA (sRNA) vs. micro RNA (miRNA)?

What are the differences between micro RNAs (miRNA) and small non-coding RNAs (sRNA)? Are these two terms used interchangeably?
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2answers
3k views

Difference between inbreeding and interbreeding

Is inbreeding the same as interbreeding? On this site interbreeding is defined as (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/interbreeding): To breed with another kind or species; hybridize. To breed ...
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2answers
167 views

What does 'direction' mean in the statement “mutations are non-directional”?

I was reading the Mutation theory of De Vries; there I encountered this following statement: Mutations are discontinuous, random & non-directional.This is in contrast to Darwinism where ...
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0answers
42 views

What is meningitis? [closed]

I know that meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges surrounding the brain and the spinal cord. But I still don't understand this definition. If you can broaden the definition, please do.
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2answers
138 views

How does Australia fit into 'New World' / 'Old World' dichotomy?

How are places such as Australia and New Zealand classified when differentiating geographic areas based on 'New World' and 'Old World?' My understanding is: New World = North America + South ...
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0answers
26 views

What is the term for toes that pull together with an upstep?

I fairly recently learned the term digitigrade, to describe the anatomy of a creature that stands on its toes rather than on the flat of its foot, like cats and ...
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2answers
135 views

Growth factors vs. mitogens

According to Campbell Biology, A growth factor is a protein released by certain cells that stimulates other cells to divide. and according to Wikipedia, A mitogen is a chemical substance ...
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1answer
42 views

Difference between LH and ICSH

Are Luteinizing hormone and Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone(ICSH) the same?
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1answer
49 views

Why is stimulation of nerve tissue with a negative pulse called “cathodic” stimulation?

By definition, the cathode is defined as the terminal through which current exits a polarized device. But in the context of neuromodulation, such as spinal cord stimulation, deep brain stimulation, ...
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1answer
40 views

Is there is difference between “homozygosity” and “homozygosis”? [closed]

Are these just two terms for the same phenomenon, i.e., the state of being homozygous? Merriam-Webster says so, but I know dictionaries sometimes miss the nuance of scientific terms. If they are ...
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1answer
58 views

Why are plant buds called 'eyes'? [closed]

I was reading the etymology of the Latinate English verb 'inoculate' which contains the following part that generated the question entitled above: [...] inoculare "graft in, implant a bud or eye ...
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2answers
190 views

Do mutant alleles result from mutation of the wild type?

The allele that encodes for the most common form of a phenotype in natural population is called a wild type allele and all the rest of the alleles encoding forms other than the wild type are called ...
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1answer
372 views

What is the distinction between the terms detrivores, decomposers, saprotrophs and saprozoic organisms?

All of them feed on dead and decaying matter (detritus). Detrivores and decomposers are distinct, as it says on Wikipedia, in the fact detrivores consume macroscopic clumps of detritus while ...
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1answer
56 views

Difference between various evolutionary terms [closed]

Could someone kindly explain me the difference between Phylogeny, Phylogenetic Tree, Evolutionary Trees, Phylotype, Clusters, OTU (Open Taxonomic Units). Or if possible please do suggest me a ...
0
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1answer
27 views

Biological term for close species rivalry

Is there any phenomenon/force in biology when two very close species fiercely fight each other (as a sign of a strong tendency to deepen the difference between species)? If there is, what's the name ...
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2answers
735 views

Why should a tumor look like a crab?

Origin of the word "cancer" The disease was first called cancer by Greek physician Hippocrates (460-370 BC). He is considered the “Father of Medicine”. Hippocrates used the terms carcinos and ...
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1answer
22 views

What does `knee atlas` means in an IEEE's paper?

I am referring an IEEE's paper for my project which has a term called knee atlas, I am not getting the exact meaning of this term, does they mean it a processed image or something else? I am working ...
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0answers
44 views

What is the term for being younger than the body age?

I remember that I once attended a seminar in which the speaker talked about the heart rate of different kinds of butterflies. Normally, the heart rate of the adult butterfly will be more complex than ...
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0answers
42 views

How are CheY, CheA, CheW, CheZ pronounced in speech?

This is a quick followup question to this question about proteins that play important roles in chemotaxis: How does one pronounce the protein names "CheY", "CheW", etc., in English? My guess would ...
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3answers
124 views

Abbreviations for molecules: What are CheW, CheA, CheY?

I've encountered the abbreviations such as "CheW" and "CheA" for certain organic molecules. For example: Proteins associating with the Tar complex include the autophosphorylating protein kinase ...
3
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1answer
255 views

“selective pressure” or “selection pressure”?

Editing a manuscript of mine, a co-author changes "selection pressure" to "selective pressure". Are those two terms interchangeable? Or are there subtle differences that I'm not aware of? The ...
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1answer
240 views

Are mitochondria alive? [duplicate]

I'm working on an assignment for my IB biology class and some assistance would be highly appreciated. I've read several articles and I still haven't quite gotten the answer I'm looking for. I have to ...
3
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2answers
314 views

How does ecology differ from biology?

What precisely is ecology? How does it differ from biology? Because I never studied biology after high school, please explain as if I were 10 years old. I only know that ecology is a subset of biology ...
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3answers
34k views

What is it called when one human eye is seeing brighter color than the other?

What is the name of a phenomenon where one of the human eyes is seeing brighter/more saturated color than the other? I can observe the same object from the same position while alternating which eye is ...
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0answers
22 views

Meaning of “pure” in “pure plant DNA” (horizontally transferred to bacteria in soil conditions)

The abstract of Transformation of Acinetobacter baylyi in non-sterile soil using recombinant plant nuclear DNA, by Simpson et al., 2007: To provide estimates of horizontal gene transfer from ...
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1answer
325 views

What is a selective constraint?

I encountered the term selective constraint in Huber et al. 2015, page 4 (last paragraph) in: If invariable sites are included in the analysis, then both the methods of Kim and Stephan ...
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1answer
1k views

Difference between Category, Rank and Taxon

Is there any differences between the terms Category, Rank and Taxon or they all are same? I remember an explanation which goes on like this: Category and Rank are the same and are the categories of ...
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1answer
38 views

Clarification about taxon (plural taxa)

If i am right, then any category placed at any rank in the taxonomical hierarchy is a taxon. For example Panthera, Mammalia, Solanaceae etc. But are general group of organism (casual groups which are ...
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5answers
6k views

Can the third sex be categorized as Male or Female?

Hijra are people who have a penis (not sure if sexually active) but look much like a female (perhaps for some feminine biological property). Wikipedia says they are "physiological males who have ...
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0answers
63 views

Is there an organism which is “The Opposite of Hydra”?

My understanding is that if hydra is cut into pieces, each piece can evolve into a new hydra. What I'm looking for is whether there exists an organism with a this property reversed, that is, if two or ...
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1answer
34 views

What is the difference between Ostracodermi and Placodermi

I looked the word origin and found Placodermi is PLATE SKINNED while Ostracodermi is Shell Skinned. Can you please explain the difference between being Plate skinned and Shell skinned?