The branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.

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53 views

Poisonous plants, animals, mushrooms: is this always a kind of defense?

I wonder whether developing deadly toxins in the organism's body is always or usually a defensive strategy rather than a by-product.
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0answers
29 views

Safety of cobalt-chromium and nickel-chromium dental implants

How safe are cobalt-chromium and nickel-chromium alloys used in dental implants (porcelain fused metal)? IARC groups nickel and cobalt metals in group 2B and chromium in group 3 (hexavalent chromium ...
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21 views

What are scientifically recommended safe substances for cockroach extermination?

What are some easily/readily available substances that have been scientifically proven to exterminate cockroaches? Moreover, what are the scientifically sanctioned, effective procedures? (There are ...
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2answers
47 views

Why is gastric lavage considered to be helpful only if a patient comes to a hospital within 1 hour of a toxic ingestion?

Why is gastric lavage considered to be helpful only if a patient comes to a hospital within 1 hour of a toxic ingestion? How severe would the effects be if a patient came to the hospital after the ...
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1answer
45 views

What is this vinca like vine?

What is this vinca like vine? Is it poisonous? 62521 USA Illinois
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2answers
136 views

Does scratched Teflon coated frying pans contain carcinogens which can cause cancer? [closed]

Is it true that using scratched Teflon-coated pans contain carcinogens, and if so, can they be consumed through the food cooked in them? E.g. The deadly toxins from non-stick frying pans
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1answer
91 views

Why doesn't the herbicide 2,4-D damage lawn grass?

I sometimes use 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid to control broadleaved weeds in lawns. It is selective, and quickly kills the dicot weeds, while other plants are unharmed. 2,4-D is a synthetic auxin, ...
3
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1answer
38 views

How can a plant resist glyphosate (Roundup) herbicide?

In my area, the most common weeds that strongly resists (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) (glyphosate) are the horseweed, or mare's tail, Conyza canadensis, and Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense There are ...
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0answers
18 views

Why doesn't Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl damage cool season lawns?

For controlling bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon, a serious perennial grassy lawn weed in my area, I use the herbicide Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. It kills the bermudagrass rather well, without damaging the ...
3
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2answers
324 views

Is pork poisonous?

Besides religious prohibition, there are several non-religious arguments against eating pork. A few of which are: Pigs and swine are so poisonous that you can hardly kill them with strychnine or ...
2
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1answer
123 views

What is LD50 for 25i (25I-NBOMe)?

Firstly I would like to apologise if this is not correct place to ask this question, as it can be seen more as chemistry and not biology question. I was looking around for data on psychedelic ...
3
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1answer
27 views

Why are particulate matter toxic to humans?

There are many studies on fine particles (PM2.5) and their fully negative effect on human health. There doesn't seem to have any positive aspect of inhaling particles, except very particular ones, but ...
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0answers
33 views

How does Halosulfuron-methyl kill nutsedge, while leaving lawn grass and most weeds undamaged?

I use Halosulfuron-methyl to control yellow and purple nutsedge in lawns. This chemical acts by interfering with the acetolactate synthase enzyme, which quickly slows cell division, and growth at all ...
4
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1answer
33 views

How does MSMA kill crabgrass with only minimal damage to lawn grasses?

I use MSMA (Monosodium methyl arsenate) to kill crabgrass in lawns. I am not certain of the mode of action. How does this chemical work? How does it target the annual grassy weeds, without damaging ...
4
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0answers
26 views

Why doesn't Clopyralid damage cool season lawn grasses?

I use Clopyralid (3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxilic acid) to kill broad leaved weeds in lawns. From my understanding, it works by mimicking an auxin which affects plant growth. Naturally this pulls ...
2
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0answers
32 views

Isoprene and Acrolein emissions of wood burning, insect burning and smoldering tobacco cigarette

I'd like to identify what makes a fume more or less toxic, above all those from commonly smoked organic stuff: tobacco, cannabis, comparatively to less common ones. For that, we can focus on 2 gas ...
3
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1answer
122 views

Are there any air-plants with parts that are edible for humans?

Are any air plants (Tillansia sp.) safe for humans to eat? I haven't been able to find whether or not there are. Pineapple is in the same family (Bromeliaceae), but isn't an air plant.
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2answers
136 views

Can botulinum toxin be grown or kept from denaturing in an UNWRAPPED 50 pound hay bale?

Botulinum toxin is the neurotoxin protein created when botulism spores grow. The requirements for growth and/or for keeping the toxin from denaturing would seem to be very difficult to create in bale ...
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3answers
3k views

What's the worst that can happen from eating too many spicy peppers? Can you die?

Some peppers, such as the habanero or Carolina reaper are extremely spicy, and when eaten in larger amounts than one is accustomed to, can cause some discomfort. I've also heard anecdotes claiming ...
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1answer
75 views

Blood consumption

Is consumption of blood more "dangerous" compared to meat? There was a news-article about unnatural chemicals found in the blood of mothers. This reminded me about a question I have pondered upon ...
6
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1answer
142 views

Is fluoride toxic, and how worried should I be about it?

A recent flurry of "fluoride is bad!" posts are appearing on my social network news feeds. Usually I can simply ignore them after a brief look, but this one, stemming from a recent article in The ...
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2answers
76 views

Can a fungus become resistant to a chemical such as Potassium Permanganate?

A friend used potassium permanganate solution to treat tinea on the hands/feet but after some initial success, the tinea seems to be making a comeback. Could the fungus develop resistance to potassium ...
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0answers
107 views

MTT assay normalization

Since the precise amount of cells in each well of an MTT assay varies, how can I normalize the results by cell number/concentration? How can I take into account the number of cells that have already ...
2
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1answer
108 views

What happens if someone with mutations to alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) drinks alcohol?

ethanol then doesn't get converted to acetaldehyde. in fact, could someone KO'ed for ADH be resistant to methanol poisoning?
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0answers
17 views

Can people with loss-of-function mutations to CYP2E1 be resistant to benzene poisoning?

CYP2E1 is what converts benzene into oxo-benzene. It's oxo-benzene which damages DNA. So I'm curious - what about people who don't have this enzyme?
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1answer
63 views

Colchicine addition to cells

When is colchicine added to dividing cells for karyotype studies? I know that colchicine inhibits polymerization of microtubules. 2 So, why should it stop the cell cycle at metaphase when ...
2
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1answer
139 views

Why is cyanide poisonous?

I know cyanide inhibits complex IV in the electron transport chain, but I don't understand why this makes it so toxic. If cyanide is bound to the complex, can't the electrons just bypass it and ...
2
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0answers
17 views

Gliotoxin ingestion and actions needed [closed]

what are the "next day" actions that one has to take, when accidentally ingests contaminated drink/food from Aspergillus or Penicillium or Candida fungus? Is it feasible to take N-acetyl-L-cysteine ...
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0answers
35 views

What do genotoxic scoring (Sa) values mean?

The genotoxic scoring is an estimator of genotoxic potency whose values range from 100 to -100. What is the interpretation of those different positive and negative values? (for instance ethanol Sa= ...
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2answers
132 views

Can you detect if a mutation is spontaneous or induced?

Is it possible to determine if a certain specific mutation had a spontaneous origin (for example from a mistake of the DNA polymerase) as opposed to an induced origin (for example, from some genotoxic ...
5
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1answer
58 views

How do rodenticides with delayed effect work?

Most modern rodenticides are claimed to cause death no earlier than several days after ingestion. That's quite strange - once a chemical was ingested it will be absorbed in the digestive system and ...
3
votes
1answer
100 views

copper vs aluminum, what's the safest for health?

I'm working on a mini project for a milk dispenser machine, using a peltier device to cool the milk down, I have to choose between a copper or aluminum cooling block (see pictures bellow). But I'm ...
0
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1answer
64 views

Non toxic low melting point alloy

I am looking for an alloy with low melting temperature (< 350°C) which is not toxic when in direct constant contact with skin, food and overall in domestic environment. My application is a solder ...
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1answer
70 views

Botulinum Toxin

I asked on the cooking site, but was directed here. This is my original question http://cooking.stackexchange.com/questions/35726/botulinum-toxin-in-home-canned-green-beans The reading is quite ...
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1answer
169 views

Raphide toxicity in Pothos plant

Recently I found out that the common houseplant Pothos (Epipremnum aureum) is toxic to cats and dogs due to the presence of "insoluble raphides." I have a lot of these plants around my house and my ...
9
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2answers
152 views

Why is venom more common in fish and snakes than other vertebrates?

Reading this question, I wondered why is it that we associate vertebrate venoms so often with snakes and fish, and more rarely with lizards, amphibians, mammals, and birds (apparently never, in ...
4
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2answers
274 views

Are there dangers to Teflon and aluminium cookware?

I've been reading some articles on the internet about dangers of Teflon and aluminium to the body. My family say I'm just exaggerating the situation, and maybe I am, though I'm not sure because not ...
2
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0answers
84 views

Can Squirrels Eat Every Mushroom?

Squirrels have the ability to eat toxic mushrooms as described below. Are there any mushrooms that they can't eat without dying? According to Dr. John Rippon, an IMA member and world expert on ...
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1answer
91 views

How potent is the venom from the Australian platypus?

The Australian platypus, is a marsupial with a unique feature - in that the males of the species have venom sacs around their hind-claws. My understanding is that this venom is not lethal to humans, ...
3
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1answer
500 views

Why is funnel web spider venom so lethal to humans and not so much for other mammals?

According to the information from this article, People and other primates are exquisitely sensitive to funnel web venom but, intriguingly, other mammals such as mice, rabbits, guineapigs, dogs ...
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1answer
314 views

How does toluene inhalation damage the brain?

We just had a discussion about toluene abuse. It is known, that people inhaling toluene for a long time have significant brain damage, including decreased intelligence. I found that toluene is a ...
7
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2answers
3k views

Is nicotine toxic to humans?

More specifically, is nicotine in the concentrations that smokers receive when smoking cigarettes toxic? I know that in great enough concentrations it can be toxic (but then, so can just about ...
4
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2answers
672 views

Why is Botulinum toxin the most potent poison known?

Botulinum toxin (trade name Botox) inhibits acetylcholine release in neurons and causes botulism, an acute paralytic disease which leads to nerve degeneration and takes a long time to recover. I've ...
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1answer
126 views

What are the biochemical interactions between human body and Polyethylene?

Our waterways and oceans are showing increased levels of plastic contamination. These plastics are breaking down into smaller pieces. When one goes to the beach and plays in the surf they often ...
5
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2answers
961 views

Does cooking or ripening reduce the concentration of solanine in nightshade?

I recall a story from one of my Botany professors where he encountered a woman picking Solanum dulcamara (nightshade) berries. When he asked her what she was doing with them, she responded that her ...
21
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5answers
384 views

Are there any substance that are more dangerous at low dose than at higher dose?

It is commonly admitted that The dose makes the poison which means as a person, the more I take a substance, the more risk I take for my health. There is even an indicator called LD50 (see ...
5
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1answer
85 views

In which way would the yeast cell cope with the excess amount of methionine in the growth media?

I guess that when there is surplus of methionine in the cell it is incorporated in the TCA cycle as a succinyl CoA, with cysteine as a by-product. But now the cell has the surplus of cysteine. What ...
6
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1answer
284 views

Influence of alcohol on brain cells

As I am not related to biology, I would appreciate if you can keep your answers as simple as possible. My question is about the influence of alcohol on the brain. As far as I know, drinking alcohol ...
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3answers
174 views

What Defines a Food as Edible?

With many foods today containing chemicals, agents and preservatives etc... What biological criteria must a new food and its constituent components satisfy biologically, to be defined as edible? ...
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1answer
703 views

Is it possible for a substance to be absorbed by the hair or the scalp?

I've heard that the aplication of Monovin A in the hair would allow it to grow faster. Monovin A seems to be only A vitamin, according to the first website. Could the application of A vitamin in the ...