The branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.

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Can a fungus become resistant to a chemical such as Potassium Permanganate?

A friend used potassium permanganate solution to treat tinea on the hands/feet but after some initial success, the tinea seems to be making a comeback. Could the fungus develop resistance to potassium ...
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30 views

MTT assay normalization

Since the precise amount of cells in each well of an MTT assay varies, how can I normalize the results by cell number/concentration? How can I take into account the number of cells that have already ...
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57 views

What happens if someone with mutations to alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) drinks alcohol?

ethanol then doesn't get converted to acetaldehyde. in fact, could someone KO'ed for ADH be resistant to methanol poisoning?
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Can people with loss-of-function mutations to CYP2E1 be resistant to benzene poisoning?

CYP2E1 is what converts benzene into oxo-benzene. It's oxo-benzene which damages DNA. So I'm curious - what about people who don't have this enzyme?
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40 views

Colchicine addition to cells

When is colchicine added to dividing cells for karyotype studies? I know that colchicine inhibits polymerization of microtubules. 2 So, why should it stop the cell cycle at metaphase when ...
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104 views

Why is cyanide poisonous?

I know cyanide inhibits complex IV in the electron transport chain, but I don't understand why this makes it so toxic. If cyanide is bound to the complex, can't the electrons just bypass it and ...
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14 views

Gliotoxin ingestion and actions needed [closed]

what are the "next day" actions that one has to take, when accidentally ingests contaminated drink/food from Aspergillus or Penicillium or Candida fungus? Is it feasible to take N-acetyl-L-cysteine ...
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32 views

What do genotoxic scoring (Sa) values mean?

The genotoxic scoring is an estimator of genotoxic potency whose values range from 100 to -100. What is the interpretation of those different positive and negative values? (for instance ethanol Sa= ...
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96 views

Can you detect if a mutation is spontaneous or induced?

Is it possible to determine if a certain specific mutation had a spontaneous origin (for example from a mistake of the DNA polymerase) as opposed to an induced origin (for example, from some genotoxic ...
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37 views

How do rodenticides with delayed effect work?

Most modern rodenticides are claimed to cause death no earlier than several days after ingestion. That's quite strange - once a chemical was ingested it will be absorbed in the digestive system and ...
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80 views

copper vs aluminum, what's the safest for health?

I'm working on a mini project for a milk dispenser machine, using a peltier device to cool the milk down, I have to choose between a copper or aluminum cooling block (see pictures bellow). But I'm ...
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51 views

Non toxic low melting point alloy

I am looking for an alloy with low melting temperature (< 350°C) which is not toxic when in direct constant contact with skin, food and overall in domestic environment. My application is a solder ...
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61 views

Botulinum Toxin

I asked on the cooking site, but was directed here. This is my original question http://cooking.stackexchange.com/questions/35726/botulinum-toxin-in-home-canned-green-beans The reading is quite ...
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119 views

Raphide toxicity in Pothos plant

Recently I found out that the common houseplant Pothos (Epipremnum aureum) is toxic to cats and dogs due to the presence of "insoluble raphides." I have a lot of these plants around my house and my ...
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107 views

Why is venom more common in fish and snakes than other vertebrates?

Reading this question, I wondered why is it that we associate vertebrate venoms so often with snakes and fish, and more rarely with lizards, amphibians, mammals, and birds (apparently never, in ...
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178 views

Are there dangers to Teflon and aluminium cookware?

I've been reading some articles on the internet about dangers of Teflon and aluminium to the body. My family say I'm just exaggerating the situation, and maybe I am, though I'm not sure because not ...
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46 views

Can Squirrels Eat Every Mushroom?

Squirrels have the ability to eat toxic mushrooms as described below. Are there any mushrooms that they can't eat without dying? According to Dr. John Rippon, an IMA member and world expert on ...
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66 views

How potent is the venom from the Australian platypus?

The Australian platypus, is a marsupial with a unique feature - in that the males of the species have venom sacs around their hind-claws. My understanding is that this venom is not lethal to humans, ...
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233 views

Why is funnel web spider venom so lethal to humans and not so much for other mammals?

According to the information from this article, People and other primates are exquisitely sensitive to funnel web venom but, intriguingly, other mammals such as mice, rabbits, guineapigs, dogs ...
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203 views

How does toluene inhalation damage the brain?

We just had a discussion about toluene abuse. It is known, that people inhaling toluene for a long time have significant brain damage, including decreased intelligence. I found that toluene is a ...
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2k views

Is nicotine toxic to humans?

More specifically, is nicotine in the concentrations that smokers receive when smoking cigarettes toxic? I know that in great enough concentrations it can be toxic (but then, so can just about ...
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410 views

Why is Botulinum toxin the most potent poison known?

Botulinum toxin (trade name Botox) inhibits acetylcholine release in neurons and causes botulism, an acute paralytic disease which leads to nerve degeneration and takes a long time to recover. I've ...
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102 views

What are the biochemical interactions between human body and Polyethylene?

Our waterways and oceans are showing increased levels of plastic contamination. These plastics are breaking down into smaller pieces. When one goes to the beach and plays in the surf they often ...
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582 views

Does cooking or ripening reduce the concentration of solanine in nightshade?

I recall a story from one of my Botany professors where he encountered a woman picking Solanum dulcamara (nightshade) berries. When he asked her what she was doing with them, she responded that her ...
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Are there any substance that are more dangerous at low dose than at higher dose?

It is commonly admitted that The dose makes the poison which means as a person, the more I take a substance, the more risk I take for my health. There is even an indicator called LD50 (see ...
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78 views

In which way would the yeast cell cope with the excess amount of methionine in the growth media?

I guess that when there is surplus of methionine in the cell it is incorporated in the TCA cycle as a succinyl CoA, with cysteine as a by-product. But now the cell has the surplus of cysteine. What ...
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225 views

Influence of alcohol on brain cells

As I am not related to biology, I would appreciate if you can keep your answers as simple as possible. My question is about the influence of alcohol on the brain. As far as I know, drinking alcohol ...
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131 views

What Defines a Food as Edible?

With many foods today containing chemicals, agents and preservatives etc... What biological criteria must a new food and its constituent components satisfy biologically, to be defined as edible? ...
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502 views

Is it possible for a substance to be absorbed by the hair or the scalp?

I've heard that the aplication of Monovin A in the hair would allow it to grow faster. Monovin A seems to be only A vitamin, according to the first website. Could the application of A vitamin in the ...
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60 views

Is pure (100% H20, (near to no) solutes) water toxic to living organisms? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Death because of distilled water consumption I know about the effects and myths about drinking distilled and/or deionized water. I'm not asking about such substances. I ...
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2k views

Why is Hydrofluoric Acid so dangerous if its a weak acid?

I've read that Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is extremely dangerous to touch, but what exactly makes it so toxic? It's weak acid ($K_a = 7.2 \times 10^{–4}$) and dissociates approximately 1/1000 as much as ...
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How does the human body metabolize gasoline?

A Chinese man has been drinking gasoline to relieve his pain for 25 years. How does the human body metabolize gasoline? Also, what are the side-affects to gasoline?