The branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.

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Metabolism priority in poisonings

Let's assume we have two toxins - one of which is routinely metabolized by the liver, and the other is new to the organism (consider for example alcohol in a heavy drinker and any other drug that is ...
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1answer
82 views

IC50 calculation [closed]

I am a computer science student and I'm in an internship at a genomics and biotechnologies research institute. My current task is to calculate the IC50 and the EC50 given a set of data as a table. ...
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2answers
35 views

Do potassium channel blockers affect the resting membrane potential?

I am reading about scorpion venoms and toxins for my bio class and they appear to have a variety of potassium channel blockers. My professor asked "What effect would this have on a neuron?" and ...
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1answer
128 views

Is Araucaria fruit toxic? [closed]

I've had an Araucaria tree in my garden for more than 30 years. Today a fruit fell off the tree. It looks just like this one: I want to know if it is toxic? Can I eat it? If so, how?
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1answer
56 views

Why is Electrical Cardioversion contraindicated in AF and Digitalis Poisoning?

I am thinking why electrical cardioversion is contraindicated in atrial fibrillation with digitalis toxicity/poisoning. Cardiac digitalis is also called digoxin and cardiac glycoside. It is ...
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1answer
57 views

What makes heavy metals toxic?

I'm not sure all heavy metals are toxic, but most are. Some may be present as insoluble compounds, or otherwhise hard to get into an organism, but that's a side aspect. For example, I would count ...
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1answer
57 views

Relationship between toxicity of drugs and negative effects on brain

Are psychoactive drugs with lower lethal doses more neurotoxic (more damaging to the brain)? For example, tetrahydrocannabinol (one of the active components of cannabis) has a much higher lethal dose ...
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2answers
116 views

Why are bacteria immune to snake poisons?

In a test I was asked why bacteria are insensitive to snake toxins. Is it their membrane that provides a barrier to the toxins? Or do snake poisons have specific targets and thus cannot bind to ...
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1answer
48 views

What are the mechanistics of stinging nettles?

There is a lot of research on why nettle extracts causes skin irritation and a stinging sensation. However, I cannot find information on how the extract is injected in human skin. Similarly, I haven't ...
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0answers
43 views

If I fall into a pond with an algal bloom, could I die from the cyanotoxins? [closed]

Suppose I fell into a pond with an algal bloom, and swam in it for a bit, but did not ingest any of the pond water (this is a hypothetical btw). Some algal blooms are harmful, containing natural ...
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0answers
69 views

Medical Uses of toxic venom

One interesting thing I recently learned is that venom has medical uses that can actually save lives! But from what I see so far this either applies to venoms from creatures that are not fatal to ...
3
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1answer
41 views

How does Trifluralin kill newly germinating seeds, with almost no effects on established ones?

Trifluralin (2,6-Dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline) is a pre-emergent herbicide used in landscape beds before the application of mulch (my use for it, anyway). It kills the weeds as they ...
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31 views

How does Isoxaben kill newly germinating seeds, with almost no effects on established ones?

Isoxaben (N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)-1,2-oxazol-5-yl]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide) is a pre-emergent herbicide used in landscape beds before the application of mulch (my use for it, anyway). It kills ...
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7answers
5k views

Is there anything that is completely non-toxic to humans at any dose?

Lately I have seen a number of unrelated "scientific" debates over whether certain substances should be outlawed because they are toxic to humans. My initial, informal reaction is usually to respond ...
2
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1answer
39 views

How can a plant become resistant to glufosinate?

From Wikipedia, the mode of action of the non selective herbicide Glufosinate is: Phosphinothricin is an glutamine synthetase inhibitor that binds to the glutamate site. Glufosinate-treated plants ...
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1answer
68 views

How does Haloxyfop control young grassy weeds in fields of broadleaved crops?

Haloxyfop (haloxyfop-P-methyl) is a selective herbicide used to control grassy weeds in young stages. The mode of action (iirc) is basically inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase). Why does ...
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1answer
500 views

Grapefruits and CYP3A4

Grapefruit juice contains furanocoumarins, which irreversibly inhibit CYP3A4. For this reason, when one is taking certain medications it is necessary to not eat grapefruits because the inhibition of ...
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1answer
37 views

What is the most effective way to eliminate silverfish (g. Thysanura) from walls and floorboards?

I've had our home fumigated, but the silverfish seem to return unaffected. Are their eggs unaffected? What's the best way to eliminate them from your home?
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1answer
69 views

What happens when someone is stung by a jellyfish?

What happens in the human body when someone is stung by a jellyfish; namely a box jelly. Judging by what I have heard about the stings I'm guessing that they involve a neurotoxin. But what is ...
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1answer
70 views

Is funnel web spider venom poisonous?

Does the venom of the Sydney funnel web spider have to be injected into the bloodstream to have an effect? If the venom was swallowed (e.g. if a spider was eaten), would it still have an effect? Or ...
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0answers
44 views

Persistency of botulinum toxin in environment

There is information about decontamination times here on pages 6 and 7. My specific question is how persistent botulinum toxin is in a natural environment, or alternatively, what is the half life of ...
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1answer
606 views

Does THC excretion increase if urine volume increases?

In regards to the body metabolizing and excreting THC: if urination is increased as a result of drinking lots of fluids, does that mean that more THC is leaving the body? To rephrase the question, is ...
4
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1answer
88 views

Poisonous plants, animals, mushrooms: is this always a kind of defense?

I wonder whether developing deadly toxins in the organism's body is always or usually a defensive strategy rather than a by-product.
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1answer
86 views

Safety of cobalt-chromium and nickel-chromium dental implants

How safe are cobalt-chromium and nickel-chromium alloys used in dental implants (porcelain fused metal)? IARC groups nickel and cobalt metals in group 2B and chromium in group 3 (hexavalent chromium ...
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2answers
80 views

Why is gastric lavage considered to be helpful only if a patient comes to a hospital within 1 hour of a toxic ingestion?

Why is gastric lavage considered to be helpful only if a patient comes to a hospital within 1 hour of a toxic ingestion? How severe would the effects be if a patient came to the hospital after the ...
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1answer
64 views

What is this vinca like vine?

What is this vinca like vine? Is it poisonous? 62521 USA Illinois
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2answers
548 views

Does scratched Teflon coated frying pans contain carcinogens which can cause cancer? [closed]

Is it true that using scratched Teflon-coated pans contain carcinogens, and if so, can they be consumed through the food cooked in them? E.g. The deadly toxins from non-stick frying pans
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1answer
845 views

Why doesn't the herbicide 2,4-D damage lawn grass?

I sometimes use 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid to control broadleaved weeds in lawns. It is selective, and quickly kills the dicot weeds, while other plants are unharmed. 2,4-D is a synthetic ...
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1answer
77 views

How can a plant resist glyphosate (Roundup) herbicide?

In my area, the most common weeds that strongly resists (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) (glyphosate) are the horseweed, or mare's tail, Conyza canadensis, and Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense There are ...
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1answer
63 views

Why doesn't Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl damage cool season lawns?

For controlling bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon, a serious perennial grassy lawn weed in my area, I use the herbicide Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. It kills the bermudagrass rather well, without damaging the ...
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2answers
1k views

Is pork poisonous?

Besides religious prohibition, there are several non-religious arguments against eating pork. A few of which are: Pigs and swine are so poisonous that you can hardly kill them with strychnine or ...
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1answer
322 views

What is LD50 for 25i (25I-NBOMe)?

Firstly I would like to apologise if this is not correct place to ask this question, as it can be seen more as chemistry and not biology question. I was looking around for data on psychedelic ...
3
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1answer
48 views

Why are particulate matter toxic to humans?

There are many studies on fine particles (PM2.5) and their fully negative effect on human health. There doesn't seem to have any positive aspect of inhaling particles, except very particular ones, but ...
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1answer
116 views

How does Halosulfuron-methyl kill nutsedge, while leaving lawn grass and most weeds undamaged?

I use Halosulfuron-methyl to control yellow and purple nutsedge in lawns. This chemical acts by interfering with the acetolactate synthase enzyme, which quickly slows cell division, and growth at all ...
6
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1answer
132 views

How does MSMA kill crabgrass with only minimal damage to lawn grasses?

I use MSMA (Monosodium methyl arsenate) to kill crabgrass in lawns. I am not certain of the mode of action. How does this chemical work? How does it target the annual grassy weeds, without ...
9
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1answer
63 views

Why doesn't Clopyralid damage cool season lawn grasses?

I use Clopyralid (3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxilic acid) to kill broad leaved weeds in lawns. From my understanding, it works by mimicking an auxin which affects plant growth. Naturally this pulls ...
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0answers
43 views

Isoprene and Acrolein emissions of wood burning, insect burning and smoldering tobacco cigarette [closed]

I'd like to identify what makes a fume more or less toxic, above all those from commonly smoked organic stuff: tobacco, cannabis, comparatively to less common ones. For that, we can focus on 2 gas ...
3
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1answer
249 views

Are there any air-plants with parts that are edible for humans?

Are any air plants (Tillansia sp.) safe for humans to eat? I haven't been able to find whether or not there are. Pineapple is in the same family (Bromeliaceae), but isn't an air plant.
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2answers
155 views

Can botulinum toxin be grown or kept from denaturing in an UNWRAPPED 50 pound hay bale?

Botulinum toxin is the neurotoxin protein created when botulism spores grow. The requirements for growth and/or for keeping the toxin from denaturing would seem to be very difficult to create in bale ...
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3answers
12k views

What's the worst that can happen from eating too many spicy peppers? Can you die?

Some peppers, such as the habanero or Carolina reaper are extremely spicy, and when eaten in larger amounts than one is accustomed to, can cause some discomfort. I've also heard anecdotes claiming ...
4
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1answer
80 views

Blood consumption

Is consumption of blood more "dangerous" compared to meat? There was a news-article about unnatural chemicals found in the blood of mothers. This reminded me about a question I have pondered upon ...
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1answer
185 views

Is fluoride toxic, and how worried should I be about it?

A recent flurry of "fluoride is bad!" posts are appearing on my social network news feeds. Usually I can simply ignore them after a brief look, but this one, stemming from a recent article in The ...
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2answers
125 views

Can a fungus become resistant to a chemical such as Potassium Permanganate?

A friend used potassium permanganate solution to treat tinea on the hands/feet but after some initial success, the tinea seems to be making a comeback. Could the fungus develop resistance to potassium ...
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0answers
181 views

MTT assay normalization

Since the precise amount of cells in each well of an MTT assay varies, how can I normalize the results by cell number/concentration? How can I take into account the number of cells that have already ...
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1answer
158 views

What happens if someone with mutations to alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) drinks alcohol?

ethanol then doesn't get converted to acetaldehyde. in fact, could someone KO'ed for ADH be resistant to methanol poisoning?
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1answer
87 views

Colchicine addition to cells

When is colchicine added to dividing cells for karyotype studies? I know that colchicine inhibits polymerization of microtubules. 2 So, why should it stop the cell cycle at metaphase when ...
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1answer
213 views

Why is cyanide poisonous?

I know cyanide inhibits complex IV in the electron transport chain, but I don't understand why this makes it so toxic. If cyanide is bound to the complex, can't the electrons just bypass it and ...
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0answers
18 views

Gliotoxin ingestion and actions needed [closed]

what are the "next day" actions that one has to take, when accidentally ingests contaminated drink/food from Aspergillus or Penicillium or Candida fungus? Is it feasible to take N-acetyl-L-cysteine ...
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2answers
165 views

Can you detect if a mutation is spontaneous or induced?

Is it possible to determine if a certain specific mutation had a spontaneous origin (for example from a mistake of the DNA polymerase) as opposed to an induced origin (for example, from some genotoxic ...
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1answer
66 views

How do rodenticides with delayed effect work?

Most modern rodenticides are claimed to cause death no earlier than several days after ingestion. That's quite strange - once a chemical was ingested it will be absorbed in the digestive system and ...