The branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.

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Why does fumonisin toxicosis cause leukoencephalomalacia in horses, but not other species?

Fumonisin B1, a toxin produced by various Fusarium mould species, is well established as the aetiology of equine leukoencephalomalacia. As a result the disease is also commonly known as "mouldy corn ...
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81 views

Why is the manchineel tree so poisonous?

The machineel tree is incredibly toxic to humans. What advantage could Hippomane mancinella have for being so poisonous? It's name even apparently translates to “little apple that makes horses mad”. ...
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2answers
365 views

How did zootoxins evolve?

I've always wondered how toxins in certain organisms have evolved. Particularly, organisms that produce toxins as a deterrent to predators as opposed to organisms that use it to paralyze their prey. ...
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1answer
77 views

Is there a biological explanation for perceived deeper cognition whilst on cannabis?

Cannabis has been associated with literature, arts, and culture for centuries. There are a few features of the drugs affect on the human mind that account for this, however it remains illegal in most ...
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131 views

how to quantify toxicity

When going through this link, Table 1, what are the numbers mentioned there? How is one quantifying toxicity?
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2answers
746 views

Are all quadrupeds edible? [closed]

I wonder if all quadrupeds (or, mammals, at least), are edible? From what I have collected, even down to fish, everything is edible apart from being sick or infected, and, apart from some glands ...
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1answer
2k views

Why doesn't the herbicide 2,4-D damage lawn grass?

I sometimes use 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid to control broadleaved weeds in lawns. It is selective, and quickly kills the dicot weeds, while other plants are unharmed. 2,4-D is a synthetic auxin,...
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6 views

Bilirubin metabolism in cynomolgus monkey

In human UGT1A1 seems to be the only relevant enzyme to glucuronidate unconjugated bilirubin into excreted forms. Is the pathway the same for the Cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in vivo? In ...
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56 views

Does copper exacerbate wounds?

There is a three edged stiletto (weapon, not shoe) with a triangular cross-section that is often touted as being "extra dangerous" because of the triangular puncture it makes, and its copper ...
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What will happen when humans are injected with plant growth hormones

Will plant growth hormones (PGHs), (let us consider auxins for example) poison our body or not? I do realise that when you eat a shoot, auxins get digested and are less likely to be poisonous but when ...
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2answers
74 views

Is there a metabolic pathway that generates methanol?

I've been looking for help topics about methanol in metabolism. Specifically, I wish to know what is a common dietary component that generates methanol following metabolism and comment on its toxicity?...
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41 views

How does cytochrome c oxidase inhibition cause cell death?

I realise the inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase prevents the release of H+ ions into the intermembrane space, and that the ion gradient is required for ATP synthase action. However, I'm not sure how ...
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69 views

Why does heating kidney beans at a low temperature potentiate the toxicity of phytohaemagglutinin?

I recently found out that red kidney beans contain a relatively high amount of the toxic lectin, phytohaemagglutinin. An article on phytohaemagglutinin on the FDA website states: Several ...
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1answer
73 views

Can soap kill cockroaches and/or ants? If so, how? [duplicate]

Is it possible to use dishwashing soap as an alternative insecticide? How would that and what are the components of the dishwashing soap that would kill the insect?
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1answer
84 views

Relationship between toxicity of drugs and negative effects on brain

Are psychoactive drugs with lower lethal doses more neurotoxic (more damaging to the brain)? For example, tetrahydrocannabinol (one of the active components of cannabis) has a much higher lethal dose ...
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1answer
49 views

Why do provitamins-A do not cause Vitamin-A toxicity?

Why do beta-carotene and other provitamins like alpha-carotene not cause vitamin-A toxicity but rather carotenosis (Orange skin) whereas retinal, retinol, and retinoic acid cause vitamin A toxicity ...
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1answer
80 views

Can the liver prioritize it's metabolizing potential?

Let's assume we have two toxins - one of which is routinely metabolized by the liver, and the other is new to the organism (consider for example alcohol in a heavy drinker and any other drug that is ...
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0answers
39 views

Nail polish toxicity studies?

Are there any well-founded studies that authoritatively demonstrate negative effects from the use of nail polish, particularly in children? I've been brought into the fray of a couple of folks who ...
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1answer
118 views

Why are lipid-soluble substances harder to excrete?

I understand why water-soluble substances can be excreted. However, why are they easier to excrete than lipid-soluble substances? Why can’t lipid-soluble substance be excreted just as easily in the ...
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1answer
93 views

Needle-like crystals observed in wild-grape wine under microscope. Potentially harmful?

I recently crushed and strained about thirty pounds of wild grapes to ferment into wine. About a month in, I did a visual inspection of the wine under microscope to try and identify some yeast and ...
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1k views

Why is funnel web spider venom so lethal to humans and not so much for other mammals?

According to the information from this article, People and other primates are exquisitely sensitive to funnel web venom but, intriguingly, other mammals such as mice, rabbits, guineapigs, dogs ...
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1answer
320 views

Why black and yellow indicates danger?

It is a pretty well-known fact that combination of black and yellow indicates danger or poisonousness. In western society it seems obvious this comes from bees and wasps, but the look to the ...
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2answers
39 views

Is Roundup toxic?

Roundup, as we all know, is a herbicide that kills weeds. It does this by preventing the production of amino acids in plants. One of these amino acids is tyrosine. Tyrosine is a nonessential amino ...
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3answers
4k views

Is nicotine toxic to humans?

More specifically, is nicotine in the concentrations that smokers receive when smoking cigarettes toxic? I know that in great enough concentrations it can be toxic (but then, so can just about ...
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1answer
990 views

Grapefruits and CYP3A4

Grapefruit juice contains furanocoumarins, which irreversibly inhibit CYP3A4. For this reason, when one is taking certain medications it is necessary to not eat grapefruits because the inhibition of ...
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1answer
288 views

IC50 calculation [closed]

I am a computer science student and I'm in an internship at a genomics and biotechnologies research institute. My current task is to calculate the IC50 and the EC50 given a set of data as a table. ...
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664 views

Do potassium channel blockers affect the resting membrane potential?

I am reading about scorpion venoms and toxins for my bio class and they appear to have a variety of potassium channel blockers. My professor asked "What effect would this have on a neuron?" and ...
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2answers
188 views

Can a fungus become resistant to a chemical such as Potassium Permanganate?

A friend used potassium permanganate solution to treat tinea on the hands/feet but after some initial success, the tinea seems to be making a comeback. Could the fungus develop resistance to potassium ...
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1answer
163 views

Is Araucaria fruit toxic? [closed]

I've had an Araucaria tree in my garden for more than 30 years. Today a fruit fell off the tree. It looks just like this one: I want to know if it is toxic? Can I eat it? If so, how?
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1answer
526 views

Why is Electrical Cardioversion contraindicated in AF and Digitalis Poisoning?

I am thinking why electrical cardioversion is contraindicated in atrial fibrillation with digitalis toxicity/poisoning. Cardiac digitalis is also called digoxin and cardiac glycoside. It is ...
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1answer
107 views

What makes heavy metals toxic?

I'm not sure all heavy metals are toxic, but most are. Some may be present as insoluble compounds, or otherwhise hard to get into an organism, but that's a side aspect. For example, I would count ...
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2answers
132 views

Why are bacteria immune to snake poisons?

In a test I was asked why bacteria are insensitive to snake toxins. Is it their membrane that provides a barrier to the toxins? Or do snake poisons have specific targets and thus cannot bind to ...
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1answer
78 views

What are the mechanistics of stinging nettles?

There is a lot of research on why nettle extracts causes skin irritation and a stinging sensation. However, I cannot find information on how the extract is injected in human skin. Similarly, I haven't ...
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3answers
11k views

Why is hydrofluoric acid so dangerous if it is a weak acid?

I've read that hydrofluoric acid (HF) is extremely dangerous to touch, but what exactly makes it so toxic? It's weak acid ($K_a = 7.2 \times 10^{–4}$) and dissociates approximately 1/1000 as much as ...
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If I fall into a pond with an algal bloom, could I die from the cyanotoxins? [closed]

Suppose I fell into a pond with an algal bloom, and swam in it for a bit, but did not ingest any of the pond water (this is a hypothetical btw). Some algal blooms are harmful, containing natural ...
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1answer
95 views

What happens when someone is stung by a jellyfish?

What happens in the human body when someone is stung by a jellyfish; namely a box jelly. Judging by what I have heard about the stings I'm guessing that they involve a neurotoxin. But what is ...
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83 views

Medical Uses of toxic venom

One interesting thing I recently learned is that venom has medical uses that can actually save lives! But from what I see so far this either applies to venoms from creatures that are not fatal to ...
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1answer
748 views

How does toluene inhalation damage the brain?

We just had a discussion about toluene abuse. It is known, that people inhaling toluene for a long time have significant brain damage, including decreased intelligence. I found that toluene is a ...
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7answers
6k views

Is there anything that is completely non-toxic to humans at any dose?

Lately I have seen a number of unrelated "scientific" debates over whether certain substances should be outlawed because they are toxic to humans. My initial, informal reaction is usually to respond ...
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1answer
76 views

How does Trifluralin kill newly germinating seeds, with almost no effects on established ones?

Trifluralin (2,6-Dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline) is a pre-emergent herbicide used in landscape beds before the application of mulch (my use for it, anyway). It kills the weeds as they ...
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1answer
35 views

How does Isoxaben kill newly germinating seeds, with almost no effects on established ones?

Isoxaben (N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)-1,2-oxazol-5-yl]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide) is a pre-emergent herbicide used in landscape beds before the application of mulch (my use for it, anyway). It kills ...
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1answer
100 views

Why doesn't Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl damage cool season lawns?

For controlling bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon, a serious perennial grassy lawn weed in my area, I use the herbicide Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. It kills the bermudagrass rather well, without damaging the ...
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1answer
71 views

Why doesn't Clopyralid damage cool season lawn grasses?

I use Clopyralid (3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxilic acid) to kill broad leaved weeds in lawns. From my understanding, it works by mimicking an auxin which affects plant growth. Naturally this pulls ...
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1answer
197 views

How does Halosulfuron-methyl kill nutsedge, while leaving lawn grass and most weeds undamaged?

I use Halosulfuron-methyl to control yellow and purple nutsedge in lawns. This chemical acts by interfering with the acetolactate synthase enzyme, which quickly slows cell division, and growth at all ...
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1answer
64 views

How can a plant become resistant to glufosinate?

From Wikipedia, the mode of action of the non selective herbicide Glufosinate is: Phosphinothricin is an glutamine synthetase inhibitor that binds to the glutamate site. Glufosinate-treated plants ...
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1answer
90 views

How does Haloxyfop control young grassy weeds in fields of broadleaved crops?

Haloxyfop (haloxyfop-P-methyl) is a selective herbicide used to control grassy weeds in young stages. The mode of action (iirc) is basically inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase). Why does ...
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165 views

How does MSMA kill crabgrass with only minimal damage to lawn grasses?

I use MSMA (Monosodium methyl arsenate) to kill crabgrass in lawns. I am not certain of the mode of action. How does this chemical work? How does it target the annual grassy weeds, without ...
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1answer
117 views

How can a plant resist glyphosate (Roundup) herbicide?

In my area, the most common weeds that strongly resists (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) (glyphosate) are the horseweed, or mare's tail, Conyza canadensis, and Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense There are ...
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1answer
59 views

What is the most effective way to eliminate silverfish (g. Thysanura) from walls and floorboards?

I've had our home fumigated, but the silverfish seem to return unaffected. Are their eggs unaffected? What's the best way to eliminate them from your home?
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180 views

Safety of cobalt-chromium and nickel-chromium dental implants

How safe are cobalt-chromium and nickel-chromium alloys used in dental implants (porcelain fused metal)? IARC groups nickel and cobalt metals in group 2B and chromium in group 3 (hexavalent chromium ...