The branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.

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Why is venom more common in fish and snakes than other vertebrates?

Reading this question, I wondered why is it that we associate vertebrate venoms so often with snakes and fish, and more rarely with lizards, amphibians, mammals, and birds (apparently never, in ...
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Can you detect if a mutation is spontaneous or induced?

Is it possible to determine if a certain specific mutation had a spontaneous origin (for example from a mistake of the DNA polymerase) as opposed to an induced origin (for example, from some genotoxic ...