The branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.

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How does MSMA kill crabgrass with only minimal damage to lawn grasses?

I use MSMA (Monosodium methyl arsenate) to kill crabgrass in lawns. I am not certain of the mode of action. How does this chemical work? How does it target the annual grassy weeds, without damaging ...
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Why doesn't Clopyralid damage cool season lawn grasses?

I use Clopyralid (3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxilic acid) to kill broad leaved weeds in lawns. From my understanding, it works by mimicking an auxin which affects plant growth. Naturally this pulls ...
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19 views

How does Halosulfuron-methyl kill nutsedge, while leaving lawn grass and most weeds undamaged?

I use Halosulfuron-methyl to control yellow and purple nutsedge in lawns. This chemical acts by interfering with the acetolactate synthase enzyme, which quickly slows cell division, and growth at all ...
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22 views

Isoprene and Acrolein emissions of wood burning, insect burning and smoldering tobacco cigarette

I'd like to identify what makes a fume more or less toxic, above all those from commonly smoked organic stuff: tobacco, cannabis, comparatively to less common ones. For that, we can focus on 2 gas ...
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66 views

Can Squirrels Eat Every Mushroom?

Squirrels have the ability to eat toxic mushrooms as described below. Are there any mushrooms that they can't eat without dying? According to Dr. John Rippon, an IMA member and world expert on ...
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Why doesn't the herbicide 2,4-D damage lawn grass?

I sometimes use 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid to control broadleaved weeds in lawns. It is selective, and quickly kills the dicot weeds, while other plants are unharmed. 2,4-D is a synthetic auxin, ...
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42 views

Blood consumption

Is consumption of blood more "dangerous" compared to meat? There was a news-article about unnatural chemicals found in the blood of mothers. This reminded me about a question I have pondered upon ...
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70 views

MTT assay normalization

Since the precise amount of cells in each well of an MTT assay varies, how can I normalize the results by cell number/concentration? How can I take into account the number of cells that have already ...
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35 views

What do genotoxic scoring (Sa) values mean?

The genotoxic scoring is an estimator of genotoxic potency whose values range from 100 to -100. What is the interpretation of those different positive and negative values? (for instance ethanol Sa= ...
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4 views

Why doesn't Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl damage cool season lawns?

For controlling bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon, a serious perennial grassy lawn weed in my area, I use the herbicide Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. It kills the bermudagrass rather well, without damaging the ...
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14 views

Can people with loss-of-function mutations to CYP2E1 be resistant to benzene poisoning?

CYP2E1 is what converts benzene into oxo-benzene. It's oxo-benzene which damages DNA. So I'm curious - what about people who don't have this enzyme?